The Celtiberian Wars
The Celtiberians, after making a truce with the consul
M. Claudius Marcellus winters at Cordova, B. C. 152-151.
M. Claudius Marcellus, had sent ambassadors to Rome who remained there quietly
waiting for the answer of the Senate. Meanwhile M. Claudius went on an expedition
against the Lusitani, took Nercobrica by assault, and then
went into winter quarters at Corduba.
Of the ambassadors
who came to Rome the Senate admitted those
from the Belli and Titthi, who were on the side
of Rome, to enter the city; but ordered those
from the Arevacae to lodge on the other side of the Tiber, as
being at war with Rome, until such time as the Senate should
have decided the whole question. When the time for the
interview was come,1
introduced the envoys from
their allies first.
Speech of the Belli and Titthi.
Barbarians as they were, they
made a set speech, and endeavoured to explain
clearly the causes of all the dissension prevailing in their country: pointing out that "Unless those who had
broken out into war were reduced to tranquillity and punished
as they deserved, the very moment the Roman legions left
Iberia, they would inflict punishment upon the Belli and
Titthi as traitors; and that if they escaped unpunished for their
first act of hostility, they would make all the tribes in Iberia
ripe for an outbreak from the belief that they were capable of
coping with Rome. They begged, therefore, that the legions
should remain in Iberia, and that each year a consul should
to protect the allies of Rome and punish the
depredations of the Arevacae; or, if they wished to withdraw
the legions, they should first take signal vengeance for the outbreak of this tribe, that no one might venture to do the like
again." Such, or to this effect, was the speech of the envoys
of the Belli and Titthi who were in alliance with Rome. The
envoys of the hostile tribe were then introduced.
forward the Arevacae assumed a feigned tone
of submission and humility in the language of
their answer, without being, as was evident, at all yielding in their
hearts or acknowledging themselves beaten. On the contrary,
they continually hinted at the uncertainty of fortune; and
speaking of the battles that had taken place as undecided, they
conveyed the impression that they had had the best of the
contest in them all.
demand the settlement of Tiberius Gracchus, B. C. 177.
The upshot of their speech was this:
"If they must submit to some definite mulct for
their error, they were ready to do so: but, when
that was completed, they demanded that things
should revert to the position fixed by their
treaty made with the Senate in the time of