If the other hand it be more correct to speak of the appetitive part of the soul also as
rational, in that case it is the rational part which, as well as the whole soul, is
divided into two, the one division having rational principle in the proper sense and in
itself, the other obedient to it as a child to its father.
Now virtue also is differentiated in correspondence with this division of the soul. Some
forms of virtue are called intellectual virtues, others moral virtues: Wisdom or
intelligence and Prudence1
are intellectual, Liberality and
Temperance are moral virtues. When describing a man's moral character we do not say that
he is wise or intelligent, but gentle or temperate; but a wise man also is praised for his
, and praiseworthy dispositions we term virtues.
Virtue being, as we have seen, of two kinds, intellectual and moral, intellectual virtue
is for the most part both produced and increased by instruction, and therefore requires
experience and time; whereas moral or ethical virtue is the product of habit
（ethos）, and has indeed derived its
name, with a slight variation of form, from that word.3
And therefore it is
clear that none of the moral virtues formed is engendered in us by nature, for no natural property can be altered by habit. For
instance, it is the nature of a stone to move downwards, and it cannot be trained to move
upwards, even though you should try to train it to do so by throwing it up into the air
ten thousand times; nor can fire be trained to move downwards, nor can anything else that
naturally behaves in one way be trained into a habit of behaving in another way.
therefore are engendered in us neither by nature nor
yet in violation of nature; nature gives us the capacity to receive them, and this
capacity is brought to maturity by habit.1.
Moreover, the faculties given us by nature are bestowed on us first in a potential form;
we exhibit their actual exercise afterwards. This is clearly so with our senses: we did
not acquire the faculty of sight or hearing by repeatedly seeing or repeatedly listening,
but the other way about—because we had the senses we began to use them, we did
not get them by using them. The virtues on the other hand we acquire by first having
actually practised them, just as we do the arts. We learn an art or craft by doing the
things that we shall have to do when we have learnt it5
for instance, men become builders by building houses, harpers by playing on the harp.