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[3] The following are examples of similes. Androtion1 said of Idrieus that he was like curs just unchained; for as they attack and bite, so he when loosed from his bonds was dangerous. Again, Theodamas likened Archidamus to a Euxenus ignorant of geometry, by proportion;2 for Euxenus “will be Archidamus acquainted with geometry.” Again, Plato in the Republic3 compares those who strip the dead to curs, which bite stones, but do not touch those who throw them; he also says that the people is like a ship's captain who is vigorous, but rather deaf;4 that poets' verses resemble those who are in the bloom of youth but lack beauty;5 for neither the one after they have lost their bloom, nor the others after they have been broken up,6
appear the same as before. Pericles said that the Samians were like children who cry while they accept the scraps.7 He also compared the Boeotians to holm-oaks; for just as these are beaten down by knocking against each other,8 so are the Boeotians by their civil strife. Demosthenes compared the people to passengers who are seasick.9 Democrates said that orators resembled nurses who gulp down the morsel and rub the babies' lips with the spittle.10 Antisthenes likened the skinny Cephisodotus to incense, for he also gives pleasure by wasting away. All such expressions may be used as similes or metaphors, so that all that are approved as metaphors will obviously also serve as similes which are metaphors without the details.

1 Pupil of Isocrates and historical writer. Idrieus was a prince of Caria, who had been imprisoned.

2 Meaning that there was no difference between Euxenus without a knowledge of geometry and Archidamus with a knowledge of geometry. The proportion of geometrical knowledge will remain the same, so that Archidamus can be called an ungeometrical Euxenus, and Euxenus a geometrical Archidamus (see 4.4, note for “by proportion”).

3 Plat. Rep. 469d.

4 Plat. Rep. 488a.

5 Plat. Rep. 601b.

6 If metrical restrictions have been removed and they are read as prose.

7 Meaning that they did not appreciate the benefits received from the Athenians, who conquered the islands (440 B.C.).

8 Or, “are cut down by axes, the handles of which are made of their own wood.”

9 It is disputed whether Demosthenes is the orator or the Athenian general in the Peloponnesian War. The point of the comparison is that in a democracy the general instability of political conditions makes the people sick of the existing state of things and eager for a change.

10 Aristoph. Kn. 715-718.

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