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1 Herodotus (Hdt. 1.145) has twelve Ionian cities and makes the connection between Achaia and Ionia. Helice and Bura are specially mentioned there as two places of refuge of the Ionians from the Achaeans. Cp. Strabo 14.1.20 for the festival celebrated near Mycale.
2 See chap. 48.3 for earthquake and tidal wave. On the connection of Helice and Bura with the Ionians see Strabo 8.7.2 and 4: "after Bura, Helice, whither the Ionians fled for refuge after they were conquered in battle by the Achaeans, and whence at last they were expelled."
4 When the generation to which Zeus belonged overthrew the older gods the universe was apportioned to Zeus, sky and dry land, to Poseidon, the water, to Dis, the underworld. With his trident Poseidon controlled the waters and by smiting the earth with it produced earthquakes ("Poseidon the earth-shaker").
5 The first is the river Ladon, a tributary of the Alpheus, flowing past Pheneus, and the second is the Stymphalus. In Frazer's Pausanias (8.20, 22) on pp. 262 and 268 (vol. 4) are found descriptions of these rivers. See also Strabo 8.8.4. Both towns were in Arcadia, the first being represented by Virgil (Vergil Aeneid 8.165) as the home of Evander.
6 One might ask about the guilt of the crews of the ten Spartan ships which chanced to be anchored off Helice and were destroyed by the tidal wave (cp. Aelian De Nat. Animal. 11.19 and Wesseling's note on this passage of Diodorus). For the fate of similar arguments see Voltaire, Candide 5.
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