close of the year Exaenetus was archon in Athens, and in Rome six military tribunes took over
the consular magistracy, Publius Cornelius, Caeso Fabius, Spurius Nautius, Gaius Valerius, and
At this time Cyrus, who was commander of the satrapies on the
had been planning
for a long while to lead an army against his brother Artaxerxes; for the young man was full of
ambition and had a keenness for the encounters of war that was not unrewarded.
When an adequate force of mercenaries had been collected for him and all
preparations for the campaign had been completed, he did not reveal the truth to the troops,
but kept asserting that he was leading the army to Cilicia against the despots who were in
rebellion against the King.
He also dispatched ambassadors to
the Lacedaemonians to recall to their minds the services he had rendered in their war against
the Athenians and to urge them to join him as allies. The Lacedaemonians, thinking that the war
would be to their advantage, decided to give aid to Cyrus and forthwith sent ambassadors to
their admiral, named Samus,3
with instructions that he should carry
out whatever Cyrus ordered.
Samus had twenty-five triremes,
and with these he sailed to Ephesus to Cyrus' admiral and was ready to co-operate with him in
every respect. They also sent eight hundred infantry, giving the command to Cheirisophus. The
commander of the barbarian fleet was Tamos, who had fifty triremes which had been fitted out at
great expense; and after the Lacedaemonians had arrived, the fleets put out to sea, following a
course for Cilicia.
after gathering to Sardis both the levies of Asia and thirteen thousand mercenaries, appointed
Persians of his kindred to be governors of Lydia and Phrygia, but of Ionia, Aeolis, and the
neighouring territories, his trusted friend Tamos, who was a native of Memphis; then he with
his army advanced in the direction of Cilicia and Pisidia, spreading the report that certain
peoples of those regions were in revolt.
From Asia he had in
all seventy thousand troops, of whom three thousand were cavalry, and from the Peloponnesus and
the rest of Greece thirteen thousand mercenaries.
from the Peloponnesus, with the exception of the Achaeans, were commanded by Clearchus the
Lacedaemonian, those from Boeotia by Proxenus the Theban, the Achaeans by Socrates the Achaean,
and those from Thessaly by Menon of Larissa.
The officers of
the barbarians, in minor commands, were Persians, and of the whole army Cyrus himself was
commander-in-chief. He had disclosed to the commanders that he was marching against his
brother, but he kept this hid from the troops for fear that they would leave his enterprise
stranded because of the scale of his expedition. Consequently along the march, by way of
providing for the coming occasion, he curried favour with the troops by affability and by
providing abundant supplies of provisions.