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After autonomy had been conceded to the various peoples,1 the cities fell into great disturbances and internal strife, particularly in the Peloponnese. For having been used to oligarchic institutions and now taking foolish advantage of the liberties which democracy allows itself, they exiled many of their good2 citizens, and, trumping up charges against them, condemned them. Thus falling into internal strife they had recourse to exilings and confiscations of property, particularly against those who during the Spartan hegemony had been leaders of their native cities. [2] Indeed in those times the oligarchs had exercised authoritative control over their fellow citizens, and later as the democratic mob recovered its freedom it harboured a grudge. First, however, the exiles of Phialeia,3 rallying their forces, recovered Heraea,4 as it is called, a stronghold. And setting out from there, they swooped down upon Phialeia,5 and at a time when, as it happened, the festival of Dionysus was being celebrated, they fell unexpectedly upon the spectators in the theatre, killed many, persuaded not a few to participate in their folly, and retreated to Sparta. [3] And the exiles from Corinth, who, many in number, were living among the Argives, attempted to return, but though admitted into the city by some of their relatives and friends, they were denounced and surrounded, and, as they were about to be apprehended, fearful of the maltreatment their capture would entail, they slew one another. The Corinthians, having charged many of their citizens with assisting the exiles in the attack, put some to death and exiled others. [4] Again, in the city of the Megarians, when some persons endeavoured to overturn the government and were overpowered by the democracy, many were slain and not a few driven into exile. Likewise among the Sicyonians as well a number who tried to effect a revolution but failed were killed. [5] Among the Phliasians, when many who were in exile had seized a stronghold in the country and gathered a considerable number of mercenaries, a battle was fought against the city party, and, when the exiles won the victory, over three hundred of the Phliasians were slain. Later, as the sentinels betrayed the exiles, the Phliasians got the upper hand and executed more than six hundred exiles, while they drove the rest out of the country and compelled them to take refuge in Argos. Such were the disasters that afflicted the Peloponnesian cities.

1 See chap. 38.2.

2 "Good" is used in the political sense: "conservative," though doubtless Diodorus thought they were really good.

3 Phialeia, in the south-western corner of Arcadia. The more ancient name was Phigaleia, which later came back into use.

4 Heraea, an Arcadian town, near the frontier of Elis, on the road from Arcadia to Olympia.

5 Beloch (Griechische Geschichte (2), 3.1.174, notes 2, 4) would assign these instances of party strife to the period after Leuctra. Glotz (3.151, note 22) likewise. See Isoc. 6.64-69.

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