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2 A brief account of the early history of Messene and Sparta is to be found in Holm, The History of Greece, 1.193-201. See also Wade-Gery, Cambridge Ancient History, 3.537-539, 548, 557-560.
3 Chieftains of Pylos on the coast. Cp. Book 4.68.6; and Pausanias, 4.3.1.
4 The so-called children of Heracles who formed the second wave of Dorian invasion in the Peloponnese (cp. Book 4.57 f).
8 Messenian hero of the Second Messenian War, 685-668 B.C.
9 Fragments of his marching songs and his poem on good government (Εὐνομία) are collected in Edmunds, Elegy and Iambus, 1.58 ff., L.C.L. See Book 8.27.2. Schmid-Stählin, Gr. Litt.-Gesch. 1.1.358 ff., doubt if a poet came out of Athens or Sparta at this period but think it quite possible that Tyrtaeus came from Miletus (cp. Suidas, Lexicon, s.v. Λάκων ἢ Μιλήσιος) along with other poets that came to Sparta from the more forward regions of Asia Minor and the islands. For other notices of his life see Edmunds, ibid. 50-58.
10 464-455 B.C. See Book 11.63.
11 Situated on a promontory on the north shore of the Gulf of Corinth; an important ally of Athens in the Peloponnesian War.
12 Formerly Zancle, settled by Siculians probably, later colonized by Chalcidians.
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