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1 For the reorganization of the Macedonian army see Pickard-Cambridge, Cambridge Ancient History, 6.205. The addition of foot-soldiers to form the famous "Phalanx" and the provision of a long pike, sarissa, were the most important military reforms. See also Wilcken, Alexander the Great (trans.), 31-32.
2 See Hom. Il.
Spear crowded spear,
Shield, helmet, man press'd helmet, man and shield;
The hairy crests of their resplendent casques
Kiss'd close at every nod, so wedged they stood.
”(Cowper's translation.) These lines are quoted of the phalanx by Polybius 18.28.6 and Curtius Rufus 3.2.13.
3 Amphipolis was coveted by the Athenians (who had lost it to Brasidas in the Peloponnesian War) because of its commanding position by the Strymon River, giving access to the plains of Macedonia, and its nearness to forests needed in shipbuilding and to the gold and silver mines of Mt. Pangaeus. Between this occasion when Amphipolis was declared autonomous to thwart Argaeus, who had promised to hand it over to Athens if they made him king, and Philip's capture of the town (see chap. 8.2 ff.), a secret treaty was made by which Philip promised to procure Amphipolis for Athens if he were assured of a free hand in Pydna, formerly Macedonian but then in the Athenian League. See Beloch, Griechische Geschichte （2）, 3.1.225-226; Pickard-Cambridge, Cambridge Ancient History, 6.203-204. Compare Polyaenus 4.2.17; Justin 7.6; Dem. 23.121; Dem. 2.6 f.; and Theopompus fr. 165 (Oxford).
4 The Thracian king mentioned chap. 2.6.
5 See chap. 2.6. Methone is above Pydna near the Macedonian border.
6 Old capital of Macedonia, considerably inland.
8 North-east of Mt. Pangaeus in Thrace. "Philippi is a city that was formerly called Datus, and before that Crenides, because there are many springs bubbling around a hill there. Philip fortified it because he considered it an excellent stronghold against the Thracians, and named it from himself, Philippi." Appian Civil Wars 4.105, translated by White (L.C.L.). Datus was the older name found in Hdt. 9.75. Κρηνίδες is found in IG, 2（2）. 127 of the year 356/5. This seems to be the first instance of the practice, later so common, of naming cities for a king.
9 Of this work, the longest history published till then, two hundred seventeen fragments remain. Theopompus' admiration for Philip is reflected by Diodorus, who must have relied heavily on his account. For the contents of the Philippica see Beloch, Griechische Geschichte （2）, 3.2.18-24.
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