Alexander gave orders to the army to march beside the river and escort the ships, while he
resumed his river voyage in the direction of the ocean and sailed down to the country of the
people called Sambastae.1
These, in numbers of men and in good qualities, were inferior
to none of the Indian peoples. They lived in cities governed in a democratic manner, and
learning of the coming of the Macedonians assembled sixty thousand infantry, six thousand
cavalry, and five hundred armoured chariots.
When the fleet put in to them, they were amazed at the strange and
unanticipated manner of its arrival and trembled at the great reputation of the Macedonians.
Besides, their own older men advised them not to risk a fight, so they sent out fifty of their
leading citizens as envoys, begging Alexander to treat them kindly.
The king praised them and agreed to a peace, and was showered with large gifts and
heroic honours by them.
Next Alexander received the submission of
those who dwelt on either side of the river; they were called Sodrae and Massani.2
he built a city Alexandria by the river, and selected for it ten thousand inhabitants.3
Next he came to the country of King Musicanus; getting him
into his hands he killed him and made the country subject.4
Then he invaded the kingdom of
cities by storm, allowed the soldiers to plunder the houses, and then set them on fire.
Porticanus himself escaped to a stronghold, but Alexander captured it and slew him, still
fighting. Then he proceeded to take all of the other cities of his kingdom and destroyed them,
and spread the terror of his name throughout the whole region.
Next he ravaged the kingdom of Sambus.6
He enslaved the population of most
of the cities and, after destroying the cities, killed more than eighty thousand of the
He inflicted a similar disaster upon the tribe of the
Brahmins, as they are called; the survivors came supplicating him with branches in their hands,
and punishing the most guilty he forgave the rest. King Sambus fled with thirty elephants into
the country beyond the Indus and escaped.