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The Relatives now pressed in a solid body about the two fallen men1; at first they rained their javelins on Alexander, and then closing went all out to slay the king. [2] But exposed as he was to many and fierce attacks he nevertheless was not overborne by the numbers of the foe. Though he took two blows on the breastplate, one on the helmet, and three on the shield2 which he had brought from the temple of Athena, he still did not give in, but borne up by an exaltation of spirit surmounted every danger. [3] After this, several of the other noble Persians fighting against him fell, of whom the most illustrious were Atizyes and Pharnaces, brother of Dareius's queen, and also Mithrobuzanes who commanded the Cappadocians.3 [4]

Now that many of their commanders had been slain and all the Persian squadrons were worsted by the Macedonians, those facing Alexander were put to flight first, and then the others also. Thus the king by common consent won the palm for bravery and was regarded as the chief author of the victory, and next to him the Thessalian cavalry won a great reputation for valour because of the skilful handling of their squadrons and their unmatched fighting quality. [5] After the rout of the cavalry, the foot soldiers engaged one another in a contest that was soon ended. For the Persians, dismayed by the rout of the cavalry and shaken in spirit, were quick to flee.4 [6] The total of the Persian infantry killed was more than ten thousand; of the cavalry not less than two thousand; and there were taken alive upwards of twenty thousand.5 After the battle the king gave magnificent obsequies to the dead,6 for he thought it important by this sort of honour to create in his men greater enthusiasm to face the hazards of battle. [7]

Recovering his forces, Alexander led them down through Lydia and took over the city of the Sardians with its citadels and, what is more, the treasures stored therein, for Mithrines the satrap surrendered them without resistance.7

1 That is, Spithridates and Rhosaces. This incident is variously reported. In Plut. Alexander 16.4-5, Rhosaces and Spithridates attacked Alexander simultaneously; the king killed the former, while the latter cracked his helmet and was run through by Cleitus's spear. In Plut. De Fortuna aut Virtute Alexandri 1.1.326f, the antagonists are Spithridates and Mithridates. In Arrian. 1.15.7-8, Mithridates is Dareius's son-in-law. Alexander dismounted him with his lance. Rhosaces cracked Alexander's helmet but was overborne by the king, while it was Spithridates whose arm was severed by Cleitus. The text of Diodorus here might allow one to suppose that Alexander also was thrown to the ground, and a figure appearing in two of the reliefs of the Alexander Sarcophagus in Constantinople, with cracked helmet and broken spear, has been thought to be Alexander at the Battle of the Granicus, but this is all very uncertain.

2 Cp. chap. 18.1 above.

3 Arrian. 1.16.3, gives a longer list of Persian casualties, but omits the name of Atizyes. Diodorus gives this name also among the Persians who fell at Issus (chap. 34.5).

4 By allowing their entire cavalry force to be first contained and then routed by the Macedonians, the Persian commanders left their infantry without protection from the flanks and rear, and with little chance of withdrawal. Arrian. 1.16.2 speaks only of the annihilation of the Greek mercenary phalanx. According to Diodorus, the Persian infantry would have got away with a loss of some thirty per cent of its effectives.

5 Plut. Alexander 16.7, gives the Persian casualties as 2500 horse and 20,000 foot; Arrian as 1000 horse and the most of the Greek phalanx, except for 2000 who were captured.

6 The Macedonian casualties were 9 foot and 120 horse (Justin 11.6.12), 9 foot and 25 horse (Plut. Alexander 16.7), or 30 foot and 60 horse (including 25 "Companions," Arrian. 1.16.4). These were honoured with statues (Justin, Plutarch, Arrian, loc. cit.; Velleius Paterculus 1.11.3-4.

7 Plut. Alexander 17.1. The account of Arrian 1.17-18.2 is fuller.

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