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1 That is, Spithridates and Rhosaces. This incident is variously reported. In Plut. Alexander 16.4-5, Rhosaces and Spithridates attacked Alexander simultaneously; the king killed the former, while the latter cracked his helmet and was run through by Cleitus's spear. In Plut. De Fortuna aut Virtute Alexandri 1.1.326f, the antagonists are Spithridates and Mithridates. In Arrian. 1.15.7-8, Mithridates is Dareius's son-in-law. Alexander dismounted him with his lance. Rhosaces cracked Alexander's helmet but was overborne by the king, while it was Spithridates whose arm was severed by Cleitus. The text of Diodorus here might allow one to suppose that Alexander also was thrown to the ground, and a figure appearing in two of the reliefs of the Alexander Sarcophagus in Constantinople, with cracked helmet and broken spear, has been thought to be Alexander at the Battle of the Granicus, but this is all very uncertain.
2 Cp. chap. 18.1 above.
4 By allowing their entire cavalry force to be first contained and then routed by the Macedonians, the Persian commanders left their infantry without protection from the flanks and rear, and with little chance of withdrawal. Arrian. 1.16.2 speaks only of the annihilation of the Greek mercenary phalanx. According to Diodorus, the Persian infantry would have got away with a loss of some thirty per cent of its effectives.
6 The Macedonian casualties were 9 foot and 120 horse (Justin 11.6.12), 9 foot and 25 horse (Plut. Alexander 16.7), or 30 foot and 60 horse (including 25 "Companions," Arrian. 1.16.4). These were honoured with statues (Justin, Plutarch, Arrian, loc. cit.; Velleius Paterculus 1.11.3-4.
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