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1 A little less than four miles (Curtius 3.8.23). Of all the historians, Diodorus alone fails to state that Dareius occupied Issus in Alexander's rear, and his narrative is very conventional. Actually, Dareius established a fortified line along the north bank of the river Pinarus, and Alexander was compelled to turn the position by a movement through the hills to the east. Cp. Polybius 12.17-23; Curtius 3.8-11.15; Justin 11.9.1-9; Plut. Alexander 20.1-5; Arrian 2.8-11. The battle was fought in the Attic month Maimacterion, perhaps in November, 333 B.C. (Arrian. 2.11.10), or somewhat earlier (M. J. Fontana, Kokalos, 2 (1956), 47).
2 This is the total Persian strength as given above, chap. 31.2.
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