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Alexander observed that his soldiers were exhausted with their constant campaigns.1 They had spent almost eight years among toils and dangers, and it was necessary to raise their spirits by an effective appeal if they were to undertake the expedition against the Gandaridae. [2] There had been many losses among the soldiers, and no relief from fighting was in sight. The hooves of the horses had been worn thin by steady marching. The arms and armour were wearing out, and Greek clothing was quite gone. They had to clothe themselves in foreign materials, recutting the garments of the Indians.2 [3] This was the season also, as luck would have it, of the heavy rains. These had been going on for seventy days, to the accompaniment of continuous thunder and lightning.

All this he accounted adverse to his project, and he saw only one hope of gaining his wish, if he might gain the soldiers' great goodwill through gratitude. [4] Accordingly he allowed them to ravage the enemy's country, which was full of every good thing.3 During these days when the army was busy foraging, he called together the wives of the soldiers and their children; to the wives he undertook to give a monthly ration, to the children he distributed a service bonus in proportion to the military records of their fathers.4 [5] When the soldiers returned laden with wealth from their expedition, he brought them together to a meeting. He delivered a carefully prepared speech about the expedition against the Gandaridae but the Macedonians did not accept it, and he gave up the undertaking.5

1 Curtius 9.2.8-11. This reflection on the sad state of his soldiers is lacking in Arrian.

2 Curtius 9.3.10; Arrian Indica 6.5.

3 It is not clear what this country can have been. The kingdom of Phegeus was friendly. The reading of one manuscript (παραποταμίαν for πολεμίανwould avoid this logical difficulty, but it is hard to think that Alexander allowed his soldiers to plunder Phegeus's cities. Similar instances of plunder for the sake of loot occur below, chaps. 102.6 and 104.5-7. It was certainly only too often what generals did to please their soldiers.

4 This is only one possible translation. The meaning of ἐπιφορὰς ταγματικάς and συλλογισμούς in this connection is quite unknown. Justin 12.4.2-11 alone, of the other Alexander historians, mentions this proposal to provide for the dependants of soldiers. Plut. Alexander 71.5, tells the same story in a later connection, after the mutiny at Opis. Cp. also Arrian. 7.12.1-2.

5 This is all that Diodorus has to say about the famous mutiny (except for the mention in chap. 108.3). Cp. Curtius 9.2.12-3.19; Justin 12.8.10-17; Plut. Alexander 62; Arrian 5.25-28.

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