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PROPOSITION 14.

If four straight lines be proportional, and the square on the first be greater than the square on the second by the square on a straight line commensurable with the first, the square on the third will also be greater than the square on the fourth by
the square on a straight line commensurable with the third.

And, if the square on the first be greater than the square on the second by the square on a straight line incommensurable with the first, the square on the third will also be greater than the square on the fourth by the square on a straight line in-
commensurable with the third.

Let A, B, C, D be four straight lines in proportion, so that, as A is to B, so is C to D; and let the square on A be greater than the square on B by the square on E, and
let the square on C be greater than the square on D by the square on F; I say that, if A is commensurable with E, C is also commensurable with F, and, if A is incommensurable with E, C is
also incommensurable with F.

For since, as A is to B, so is C to D, therefore also, as the square on A is to the square on B, so is the square on C to the square on D. [VI. 22]

But the squares on E, B are equal to the square on A,
and the squares on D, F are equal to the square on C.

Therefore, as the squares on E, B are to the square on B, so are the squares on D, F to the square on D; therefore, separando, as the square on E is to the square on B, so is the square on F to the square on D; [V. 17]
therefore also, as E is to B, so is F to D; [VI. 22] therefore, inversely, as B is to E, so is D to F.

But, as A is to B, so also is C to D; therefore, ex aequali, as A is to E, so is C to F. [V. 22]

Therefore, if A is commensurable with E, C is also commensurable
with F, and, if A is incommensurable with E, C is also incommensurable with F. [X. 11]

Therefore etc.1

1 3, 5, 8, 10. Euclid speaks of the square on the first (third) being greater than the square on the second (fourth) by the square on a straight line commensurable (incommensurable) “with itself (ἑαυτῇ),” and similarly in all like phrases throughout the Book. For clearness' sake I substitute “the first,” “the third,” or whatever it may be, for “itself” in these cases.

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