In the third generation after Pelasgus the land increased in the number both of its cities and of its population. For Nyctimus, who was the eldest son of Lycaon, possessed all the power, while the other sons founded cities on the sites they considered best. Thus Pallantium was founded by Pallas, Oresthasium by Orestheus and Phigalia
Pallantium is mentioned by Stesichorus of Himera in his Geryoneid
and Oresthasium in course of time changed their names, Oresthasium to Oresteium after Orestes, the son of Agamemnon, Phigalia
after Phialus, the son of Bucolion. Cities were founded by Trapezeus also, and by Daseatas, Macareus, Helisson, Acacus and Thocnus. The last founded Thocnia, and Acacus Acacesium. It was after this Acacus, according to the Arcadian account, that Homer1
made a surname for Hermes.
Helisson has given a name to both the town and the river so called, and similarly Macaria, Dasea, and Trapezus
were named after the sons of Lycaon. Orchomenus
became founder of both the town called Methydrium
and of Orchomenus
, styled by Homer2
“rich in sheep.” Hypsus and ... 3
founded Melaeneae and Hypsus, and also Thyraeum and Haemoniae. The Arcadians are of opinion that both the Thyrea in Argolis
and also the Thyrean gulf were named after this Thyraeus.
Maenalus founded Maenalus, which was in ancient times the most famous of the cities of Arcadia
, Tegeates founded Tegea
and Mantineus Mantineia. Cromi
was named after Cromus, Charisia after Charisius, its founder, Tricoloni
after Tricolonus, Peraethenses after Peraethus, Asea
after Aseatas, Lycoa after ... 4
and Sumatia after Sumateus. Alipherus also and Heraeus both gave their names to cities.
But Oenotrus, the youngest of the sons of Lycaon, asked his brother Nyctimus for money and men and crossed by sea to Italy
; the land of Oenotria received its name from Oenotrus who was its king. This was the first expedition despatched from Greece
to found a colony, and if a man makes the most careful calculation possible he will discover that no foreigners either emigrated to another land before Oenotrus.
In addition to all this male issue, Lycaon had a daughter Callisto. This Callisto （I repeat the current Greek legend） was loved by Zeus and mated with him. When Hera detected the intrigue she turned Callisto into a bear, and Artemis to please Hera shot the bear. Zeus sent Hermes with orders to save the child that Callisto bore in her womb,
and Callisto herself he turned into the constellation known as the Great Bear, which is mentioned by Homer in the return voyage of Odysseus from Calypso:—“Gazing at the Pleiades and late-setting Bootes,
And the Bear, which they also call the Wain.
”Hom. Od. 5.272
But it may be that the constellation is merely named in honor of Callisto, since her grave is pointed out by the Arcadians.