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[439d] but the impulses which draw and drag come through affections1 and diseases?” “Apparently.” “Not unreasonably,” said I, “shall we claim that they are two and different from one another, naming that in the soul whereby it reckons and reasons the rational2 and that with which it loves, hungers, thirsts, and feels the flutter3 and titillation of other desires, the irrational and appetitive—companion4 of various repletions and pleasures.” “It would not be unreasonable but quite natural,”

1 The “pulls” are distinguished verbally from the passions that are their instruments.νοσημάτων suggests the Stoic doctrine that passions are diseases. Cf. Cicero Tusc. iii. 4perturbationes, and passim, and Philebus 45 C.

2 λογιστικόν is one of Plato's many synonyms for the intellectual principle. Cf. 441 C, 571 C, 587 D, 605 B. It emphasizes the moral calculation of consequences, as opposed to blind passion. Cf. Crito 46 B (one of the passages which the Christian apologists used to prove that Socrates knew the λόγος), Theaetetus 186 Cἀναλογίσματα πρός τε οὐσίαν καὶ ὠφέλειαν, and Laws 644 D. Aristotle Eth. 1139 a 12 somewhat differently.

3 ἐπτόηται: almost technical, as in Sappho's ode, for the flutter of desire.ἀλόγιστον, though applied here to the ἐπιθυμητικόν only, suggests the bipartite division of Aristotle, Eth. Nic. 1102 a 28.

4 So the bad steed which symbolizes the ἐπιθυμητικόν in Phaedrus 253 E is ἀλαζονείας ἑταῖρος.

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