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Having now completed our exposition of the properties which belong to the aquatic productions, it would appear by no means foreign to my purpose to give a list of the various animated beings which inhabit the seas; so many as these are in number, of such vast extent, and not only making their way into the interior of the land to a distance of so many miles, but also surrounding the exterior of it to an extent almost equal to that of the world itself. These animals, it is generally considered, embrace one hundred and seventy-six different1 species, and it will be my object to set them forth, each by its distinct name, a thing that cannot possibly be done in reference to the terrestrial animals and the birds.

For, in fact, we are by no means acquainted with all the wild beasts or all the birds that are to be found in India, Æthiopia, Scythia, or the desert regions of the earth; and even of man himself there are numerous varieties, which as yet we have been unable2 to make ourselves acquainted with. In addition, too, to the various countries above mentioned, we have Taprobane3 and other isles of the Ocean, about which so many fabulous stories are related. Surely then, every one must allow that it is quite impossible to comprise every species of animal in one general view for the information of mankind. And yet, by Hercules! in the sea and in the Ocean, vast as it is, there exists nothing that is unknown to us,4 and, a truly marvellous fact, it is with those things which Nature has concealed in the deep that we are the best acquainted!

To begin then with the monsters5 that are found in this ele- ment. We here find sea-trees,6 physeters,7 balænæ,8 pistrices,9 tritons,10 nereids,11 elephants,12 the creatures known as seamen,13 sea-wheels,14 oreæ,15 sea-rams,16 musculi,17 other fish too with the form of rams,18 dolphins,19 sea-calves,20 so celebrated by Homer,21 tortoises22 to minister to our luxury, and beavers, so extensively employed in medicine,23 to which class belongs the otter,24 an animal which we nowhere find frequenting the sea, it being only of the marine animals that we are speaking. There are dog-fish,25 also, drinones,26 cornutæ,27 swordfish,28 saw-fish,29 hippopotami30 and crocodiles,31 common to the sea, the land, and the rivers; tunnies32 also, thynnides, siluri,33 coracini,34 and perch,35 common to the sea only and to rivers.

To the sea only, belong also the acipenser,36 the dorade,37 the asellus,38 the acharne,39 the aphye,40 the alopex,41 the eel,42 the araneus,43 the boca,44 the batia,45 the bacchus,46 the batrachus,47 the belonæ,48 known to us as "aculeati,"49 the balanus,50 the corvus,51 the citharus, the least esteemed of all the turbots, the chalcis,52 the cobio,53 the callarias,54 which would belong to the genus of the aselli55 were it not smaller; the colias,56 otherwise known as the fish of Parium57 or of Sexita,58 this last from a place of that name in Bætica its native region, the smallest, too, of the lacerti;59 the colias of the Mæotis, the next smallest of the lacerti; the cybium,60 (the name given, when cut into pieces, to the pelamis61 which returns at the end of forty days from the Euxine to the Palus Mæotis); the cordyla62—which is also a small pelamis, so called at the time when it enters the Euxine from the Palus Mæotis—the cantharus,63 the callionymus64 or uranoscopus, the cinædus, the only65 fish that is of a yellow colour; the cnide, known to us as the sea-nettle;66 the different kinds of crabs,67 the striated chemæ,68 the smooth chemæ, the chemæ belonging to the genus of pelorides,69 all differing in the variety of their colours and in the roundness of the shells; the chemæ glycymarides,70 still larger than the pelorides; the coluthia or coryphia;71 the various kinds of shellfish, among which we find the pearl oysters,72 the cochleæ,73 (belonging to which class are the pentadactyli,74) the helices,75 by some known as actinophori, the spokes76 on whose shells are used for musical purposes;77 and, in addition to these, the round cochleæ, the shells of which are used in measuring oil, as also the seacucumber,78 the cynopos,79 the cammarus,80 and the cynosdexia.81

Next to these we have the sea-dragon,82 a fish which, according to some, is altogether distinct from the dracunculus,83 and resembles the gerricula in appearance, it having on the gills a stickle which points towards the tail and inflicts a wound like that of the scorpion84 when the fish is handled—the erythinus,85 the echeneïs,86 the sea-urchin,87 the sea-elephant, a black kind of crayfish, with four forked legs, in addition to two arms with double joints, and furnished, each of them, with a pair of claws, indented at the edge; the faber,88 also, or zæus, the glauciscus,89 the glanis,90 the gonger,91 the gerres,92 the galeos,93 the garos,94 the hippos,95 the hippuros,96 the hirundo,97 the halipleumon,98 the hippocampus,99 the hepar,100 the ictinus101 and the iulis.102 There are various kinds also of lacerti,103 the springing loligo,104 the crayfish,105 the lantern-fish,106 the lepas,107 the larinus, the sea-hare,108 and the sea-lion,109 with arms like those of the crab, and in the other parts of the body like the cray-fish.

We have the surmullet110 also, the sea black-bird,111 highly esteemed among the rock-fish; the mullet,112 the melanurus,113 the mæna,114 the mæotis,115 the muræna,116 the mys,117 the mitulus,118 the myiscus,119 the murex,120 the oculata,121 the ophidion,122 the oyster,123 the otia,124 the orcynus—the largest of all the pelamides125 and one that never returns to the Palus Mæotis, like the tritomus126 in appearance, and best when old—the orbis,127 the orthagoriscus,128 the phager,129 the phycis130 a rock-fish, the pelamis,131 (the largest kind of which is called "apolectum,"132 and is tougher than the tritomus) the sea-pig,133 the phthir,134 the sea-sparrow,135 the pastinaca,136 the several varieties of the polyp,137 the scallop,138 which is larger and more swarthy in summer than at other times, and the most esteemed of which are those of Mitylene,139 Tyndaris,140 Salonæ,141 Altinum,142 the island of Chios, and Alexandria in Egypt; the small scallop,143 the purple,144 the pegris,145 the pinna,146 the pinnotheres,147 the rhine148 or squalus of the Latins, the turbot,149 the scarus150 a fish which holds the first rank at the present day; the sole,151 the sargus,152 the squilla,153 the sarda154—such being the name of an elongated pelamis155 which comes from the Ocean; the scomber,156 the salpa,157 the sorus,158 the scorpæna,159 the sea-scorpion,160 the solas,161 the sciæna,162 the sciadeus,163 the scolopendra,164 the smyrus,165 the sæpia,166 the strombus,167 the solen,168 otherwise known as the aulos, donax, onyx or dactylus; the spondylus,169 the smaris,170 the starfish,171 and the sponges.172 There is the sea-thrush173 also, famous among the rock-fish, the thynnis,174 the thranis, by some writers known as the xiphias;175 the thrissa,176 the torpedo,177 the tethea,178 the tritomus, a large kind of pelamis,179 which admits of being cut into three cybia;180 the shells of Venus,181 the grapefish,182 and the xiphias.183

1 Some MSS. have here "164," the Bamberg MS. and others" 144." Owing to the corrupt state of the text in many parts of this Chapter, it is impossible to say which reading is correct.

2 "Invenire non potuimus" seems a preferable reading to "invenire potuimus."

3 Modern Ceylon. See B. vi. cc. 23, 24, B. vii. c. 2, and B. ix. c. 54.

4 "Quæ nascuntur certa sunt." A bold assertion. The various fishes now known amount to many thousands; and there are still vast numbers, no doubt, with which science has not hitherto become acquainted.

5 "Belluæ."

6 He may possibly allude to the plants mentioned in B. xiii. cc. 48, 49, 50, 51, and 52; though Hardouin seems to think it impossible to discover what he means, seeing that he is speaking of sea-monsters, beings with animal life. See also B. ix. c. 3.

7 See B. ix. c. 3.

8 See B. ix. cc. 2, 5.

9 See B. ix. c. 3; probably the same as the "pristis" of B. ix. c. 2.

10 See B. ix. c. 4.

11 See B. ix. c. 4.

12 See B. ix. c. 4.

13 "Homines marini." See B. ix. c. 4.

14 See B. ix. c. 3.

15 See B. ix. c. 5.

16 See B. ix. c. 4.

17 See B. ix. c. 88, and B. xi. c. 62

18 See B. ix. c. 67.

19 See B. ix. c. 7.

20 See B. ix. c. 15.

21 Odyssey, B. iv. 1. 436.

22 Turtles. See B. ix. c. 13.

23 See Chapter 13 of this Book.

24 See B. viii. c. 47; also Chapters 26 and 32 of this Book.

25 See B. ix. c. 70.

26 The name of a fish unknown. Sillig conjectures that Pliny may have had in view the fish called "dromades" by Aristotle. "Dromones" is another reading, a sort of small crab.

27 Littré translates this "horned ray."

28 "Gladii." See B. ix. cc. 1, 21; the same, probably, as the "xiphias" mentioned at the end of this Chapter.

29 See B. ix. c. 1.

30 See B. viii. c. 39.

31 See B. viii. c. 37.

32 See B. ix. cc. 18, 20. Holland says, "Some take 'thynni' for the milters, and 'thynnides' for the spawners." In his translation, however, he identifies the "thynnides" with the "pelamides," or young tunnies, mentioned in this Chapter, and in B. ix. c. 18.

33 See B. ix. cc. 17, 25.

34 See B. ix. cc. 24, 32.

35 "Peræ." See B. ix. c. 24.

36 See B. ix. c. 27.

37 "Aurata." See B. ix. c. 25.

38 See B. ix. cc. 25, 28.

39 Considered by some to be the whiting. Littré identifies it with the Perca labrax of Linnæus.

40 See B. ix. c. 74; where it is called "apua."

41 The "sea-fox." See B. ix. c. 67.

42 "Anguilla." See B. ix. cc. 2, 37, 38.

43 Or sea-spider. See B. ix. c. 72.

44 The same as the bogue of the coasts of Narbonne, according to Rondelet, B. v. c. 11.

45 See Chapter 25 of the present Book.

46 See B. ix. c. 28.

47 Or See B. ix. c. 40.

48 "Sea-needles." Identified by some with the horn-fish, horn-back, or needle-fish.

49 "Needle-fish."

50 "Acorn-fish." A shell-fish, according to Rondelet, B. i. c. 30, which frequents the clefts of rocks.

51 "Sea-raven." According to some authorities, identical with the Trigla hirundo of Linnæus. Hardouin says that it is the fish called capone by the people of Rome.

52 See B. ix. c. 71

53 The same, probably, as the "gobio," mentioned in B. ix. c. 83.

54 See B. ix. c. 28.

55 See B. ix. cc. 25, 28.

56 Thought by some to be a kind of mackerel, by others to be a tunny. Rondelet says, B. viii. c. 8, that it is a fish still called coguiol by the people of Marseilles.

57 In the Hellespont.

58 Or Sexis, according to Pintianus.

59 Or "sea-lizards."

60 See B. ix. c. 18. He surely does not intend to include this among his "one hundred and seventy-six different kinds of aquatic animals"!

61 Or young tunny. See B. ix. c. 18.

62 See B. ix. c. 18.

63 Rondelat says, B. v. c. 4, that it is a fish still known (in his time) as cantheno, by the people of Narbonne. Ovid, in his Halieuticon, 1. 103, speaks of the unpleasant flavour of its juices.

64 See Chapter 24 of the present Book.

65 Of course, as Hardouin says, he does not include the shell-fishes in this assertion. The fish with this uncomplimentary name has not been identified.

66 "Urtica." See B. ix. c. 68.

67 See B. ix. c. 51.

68 Or "chamæ;" different varieties of gaping cockles.

69 Or "monster"-cockles.

70 Or "sweet" cockles.

71 See Chapter 27 of this Book.

72 See B. ix. c. 54.

73 Or "cochli." As to the various kinds of cochleæ, see B. ix. c. 51.

74 "Five-fingered." So called from some peculiarity in their shape.

75 Considered by some to be the striated mussel, the Pecten of Linnæus.

76 "Radii."

77 This is not improbably the meaning of the very elliptical sentence, "Quibus radii cantant."

78 See B. ix. c. 1.

79 The "dog's-face," literally. This fish has not been identified: indeed the reading is doubtful.

80 A kind of crab or crayfish. See B. xxvii. c. 2.

81 Literally, the "dog's right hand." This fish has not been identified: Hardouin suggests that it may have been a zoöphyte.

82 See B. ix. c. 43, and Chapters 17 and 26 of this Book.

83 Or "little dragon."

84 The sea-scorpion, probably.

85 See B. ix. c. 23; also Chapters 31 and 50 of this Book.

86 Or Remora. See B. ix. c. 41; also Chapter 1 of this Book.

87 See B. ix. cc. 14, 74.

88 See B. ix. c. 32.

89 See Chapter 46 of the present Book.

90 See B. ix. c. 67.

91 Possibly the same as the "Conger" of B. ix. c. 24.

92 A fish similar, most probably, to the "gerricula" previously mentioned. Holland calls it a "pilchard" or "herring."

93 A kind of squalus. See B. ix. c. 70.

94 See B. xxxi. c. 43.

95 Or "horse." The crab, probably, mentioned in B. ix. c. 51.

96 See B. ix. c. 24.

97 Or sea-swallow. See B. ix. c. 43.

98 "Lungs of the sea." The same as the Pulmones, or sea-lungs, mentioned in B. ix. c. 71, and in Chapter 36 of this Book.

99 See B. ix. c. 1.

100 Or "sea-liver." A sort of rock-fish, according to Athenæus.

101 The same as the "milvus" or "sea-kite," mentioned in B. ix. c. 43.

102 See Chapter 31 of this Book. Instead of this fish and the preceding one, most of the editions mention the "elacatenes," a cetaceous fish, according to Athenæus, much used for salting.

103 "Sea-lizards."

104 See B. ix. c. 45.

105 "Locusta." See B. ix. c. 50.

106 "Lucerna." See B. ix. c. 43.

107 Neither this fish nor the "larinus" has been identified.

108 See B. ix. c. 72, and Chapter 3 of this Book.

109 See B. ix. c. 51.

110 See B. ix. c. 30.

111 See B. ix. c. 20.

112 See B. ix. c. 26.

113 See Chapter 8 of this Book. Holland translates this—"The blacke taile perch, (which some take for a ruffe, others for a sea-breame)."

114 See B. ix. c. 42.

115 A fish of the Nile, according to Ælian. "Meryx" is another reading, a kind of Scarus, it is thought.

116 See B. ix. c. 23.

117 A shell-fish. See B. ix. c. 56.

118 See Chapter 31 of this Book.

119 See Chapter 31 of this Book.

120 See B. ix. c. 61.

121 The "eye-fish." A kind of lamprey has been suggested.

122 See Chapter 35 of this Book.

123 See B. ix. c. 21.

124 "Sea-ears." A kind of oyster, Holland says.

125 See B. ix. c. 20.

126 He speaks of it as a kind of Pelamis, a little further on.

127 The sun-fish. See Chapter 5 of this Book.

128 The same, probably, as the "orbis." See Chapters 5 and 9 of the present Book.

129 Or phagrus. See B. ix. c. 24.

130 See B. ix. c. 42.

131 A young tunny. See B. ix. c. 20.

132 A "choice bit." See B. ix. c. 20.

133 See B. ix. c. 17.

134 This fish has not been identified.

135 See B. ix. c. 36.

136 Or sting-ray. See B. ix. c. 40.

137 See B. ix. c. 48.

138 See B. ix. c. 51.

139 See B. v. c. 39.

140 Probably the place of that name in Sicily, mentioned in B. ii. c. 94, and B. iii. c. 14.

141 See B. iii. c. 26.

142 See B. iii. c. 22.

143 "Pectunculus." See Note 65 above.

144 See B. ix. c. 60.

145 An unknown fish. The reading is doubtful.

146 See B. ix. c. 66.

147 See B. ix. c. 66.

148 See B. ix. c. 40.

149 "Rhombus." See B. ix. c. 36.

150 See B. ix. c. 29.

151 See B. ix. c. 36.

152 See B. ix. c. 30.

153 The same, perhaps, as the "pinnotheres" of B. ix. c. 66, a kind of shrimp.

154 See Chapter 17 of this Book.

155 See B. ix. c. 18.

156 See B. ix. c. 19.

157 See B. ix. c. 32.

158 Considered by Sillig to be the same as the "Saurus" of Chapter 28 of this Book; the "sea-lizard," apparently.

159 It does not seem to have been identified; though Rondelet says that it is the same as the Rascasse of the Mediterranean.

160 See B. xx. c. 53, and Chapters 23, 30, 32, 34, and 35 of this Book.

161 This fish has not been identified; indeed the reading is very doubtful.

162 See B. ix. c. 24.

163 A fish similar to the preceding one, probably; some kind of ombre, Littré thinks.

164 See B. ix. c. 67.

165 Probably the same as the "Myrus" of B. ix. c. 39.

166 See B. ix. c. 45.

167 See Chapter 30 of this Book.

168 See Chapter 32 of this Book.

169 A sort of mollusk, Littré thinks. There is a shell-fish known as the Spondylus gæderopus of Linnæus.

170 See Chapters 34, 45, and 46, of this Book

171 See B. ix. c. 86.

172 See B. ix. c. 69.

173 See B. ix. c. 20.

174 A sort of tunny, probably.

175 See Chapter 6 of this Book. Probably the same as the "gladius" of this Chapter, and of B. ix. cc. 1, 21.

176 Considered by Littré to be the Shad.

177 See B. ix. c. 67.

178 See Chapter 30 of this Book.

179 See B. ix. c. 18.

180 See B. ix. c. 18.

181 See B. ix. c. 52, and Chapter 1 of this Book.

182 See B. ix. c. 1, and c. 49 of this Book.

183 See Note 3 above.

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