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1 Not reckoning under that appellation the country of Egypt, which was more generally looked upon as forming part of Asia. Josephus informs us that Africa received its name from Ophir, great-grandson of Abraham and his second wife, Keturah.
2 Castella,' fortified places, erected for the purpose of defence; not towns formed for the reception of social communities.
3 The Emperor Caligula, who, in the year 41 A.D., reduced the two Mauritanias to Roman provinces, and had King Ptolemy, the son of Juba, put to death.
4 Now Cape Spartel. By Scylax it is called Hermæum, and by Ptolemy and Strabo Cote, or Coteis. Pliny means "extreme," with reference to the sea-line of the Mediterranean, in a direction due west.
5 Mentioned again by Pliny in B. xxxii. c. 6. Lissa was so called, according to Bochart, from the Hebrew or Phœnician word liss, 'a lion.' At the present day there is in this vicinity a headland called the 'Cape of the Lion.' Bochart thinks that the name 'Cotta,' or 'Cotte,' was derived from the Hebrew quothef, a 'vine-dresser.'
6 The modern Tangier occupies its site. It was said to have derived its name from Tinge, the wife of Antæus, the giant, who was slain by Hercules. His tomb, which formed a hill, in the shape of a man stretched out at full length, was shown near the town of Tingis to a late period. It was also believed, that whenever a portion of the earth covering the body was taken away, it rained until the hole was filled up again. Sertorius is said to have dug away a portion of the hill; but, on discovering a skeleton sixty cubits in length, he was struck with horror, and had it immediately covered again. Procopius says, that the fortress of this place was built by the Canaanites, who were driven by the Jews out of Palestine.
7 It has been supposed by Salmasius and others of the learned, that Pliny by mistake here attributes to Claudius the formation of a colony which was really established by either Julius Cæsar or Augustus. It is more probable, however, that Claudius, at a later period, ordered it to be called "Traducta Julia," or "the removed Colony of Julia," in remembrance of a colony having proceeded thence to Spain in the time of Julius Cæsar. Claudius himself, as stated in the text, established a colony here.
8 Its ruins are to be seen at Belonia, or Bolonia, three Spanish miles west of the modern Tarifa.
9 At this point Pliny begins his description of the western side of Africa.
10 Now Arzilla, in the territory of Fez. Ptolemy places it at the mouth of the river Zileia. It is also mentioned by Strabo and Antoninus.
11 Now El Araiche, or Larache, on the river Lucos.
12 Mentioned again in B. ix. c. 4 and c. 5 of the present Book, where Pliny speaks of them as situate elsewhere. The story of Antæus is further enlarged upon by Solinus, B. xxiv.; Lucan, B. iv. 1. 589, et seq.; and Martianus Capella, B. vi.
13 Now the Lucos.
14 Hardouin is of opinion, that he here has a hit at Gabinius, a Roman author, who, in his Annals of Mauritania, as we learn from Strabo (B. xvii.), inserted numerous marvellous and incredible stories.
15 When we find Pliny accusing other writers of credulity, we are strongly reminded of the proverb, 'Clodius accusat mœchos.'
16 Or the "Julian Colony on the Plains." Marcus suggests that the word Babba may possibly have been derived from the Hebrew or Phœnician word beab or beaba, "situate in a thick forest." Poinsinet takes Babba to be the Beni-Tuedi of modern times. D'Anville thinks that it is Naranja.
17 There is considerable difficulty about the site of Banasa. Moletius thinks that it is the modern Fanfara, or Pefenfia as Marmol calls it. D'Anville suggests that it may be Old Mahmora, on the coast; but, on the other hand, Ptolemy places it among the inland cities, assigning to it a longitude at some distance from the sea. Pliny also appears to make it inland, and makes its distance from Lixos seventy-five miles, while he makes the mouth of the Subur to be fifty miles from the same place.
18 From both the Atlantic and the Mediterranean. According to Poinsinet, Volubilis was the synonym of the African name Fez, signifying a 'band,' or 'swathe.' Mannert conjectures that it is the same as the modern Walili, or Qualili. D'Anville calls it Guulili, and says that there are some remains of antiquity there.
19 The modern Subu, or Sebou. D'Anville is of opinion that this river has changed a part of its course since the time of Pliny.
20 Most probably the modern Sallee stands on its site.
21 Not in reference to the fact of its existence, but the wonderful stories which were told respecting it.
22 Like others of the ancient writers, Pliny falls into the error of considering Atlas, not as an extensive chain of mountains, but as an isolated mountain, surrounded by sands. With reference to its height, the whole range declines considerably from west to east; the highest summits in Morocco reaching near 13,000 feet, in Tunis not 5000.
23 Or "Goat-Pans;" probably another name for the Fauni, or Fauns. More usually, there is but one Ægipan mentioned,—the son, according to Hyginus, of Zeus or Jupiter, and a goat,—or of Zeus and Æga, the wife of Pan. As a foundation for one part of the stories here men- tioned, Brotier suggests the fact, that as the Kabyles, or mountain tribes, are in the habit of retiring to their dwellings and reposing during the heat of the day, it would not, consequently, be improbable that they would devote the night to their amusements, lighting up fires, and dancing to the music of drums and cymbals.
24 Under his name we still possess a "Periplus," or account of a voyage round a part of Libya. The work was originally written in Punic, but what has come down to us is a Greek translation. We fail, however, to discover any means by which to identify him with any one of the many Carthaginians of the same name. Some writers call him king, and others dux, or imperator of the Carthaginians; from which we may infer, that he held the office of suffetes. This expedition has by some been placed as far back as the time of the Trojan war, or of Hesiod, while others again place it as late as the reign of Agathocles. Falconer, Bougainville, and Gail, place the time of Hanno at about B.C. 570, while other critics identify him with Hanno, the father or son of Hamilcar, who was killed at Himera, B.C. 480. Pliny often makes mention of him; more particularly see B. viii. c. 21.
25 M. Gosselin thinks that the spot here indicated was at the south-western extremity of the Atlas range, and upon the northern frontier of the Desert of Zahara.
26 Supposed by some geographers to be the same as that now called the Ommirabih, or the Om-Rabya. This is also thought by some to have been the same river as is called by Pliny, in p. 381, by the name of Asana; but the distances do not agree.
27 Supposed by Gosselin to be the present bay of Al-cazar, on the African coast, in the Straits of Cadiz; though Hardouin takes it to be the κόλπος ἐμπορικὸς, or "Gulf of Commerce," of Strabo and Ptolemy. By first quoting from one, and then at a tangent from another, Pliny involves this subject in almost inextricable confusion.
28 Probably the place called Thymiaterion in the Periplus of Hanno.
29 The present Subu, and the river probably of Sallee, previously mentioned.
30 The modern Mazagan, according to Gosselin.
31 Cape Cantin, according to Gosselin; Cape Blanco, according to Marcus.
32 Probably the Safi, Asafi, or Saffee of the present day.
33 The river Tensift, which runs close to the city of Morocco, in the interior.
34 The river Mogador of the present day.
35 The modern river Sus, or Sous.
36 The learned Gosselin has aptly remarked, that this cannot be other than an error, and that "ninety-six" is the correct reading, the Gulf of Sainte-Croix being evidently the one here referred to.
37 Mount Barce seems to be here a name for the Atlas, or Daran chain.
38 Supposed by Gosselin to be the present Cape Ger.
39 The river Assa, according to Gosselin. There is also a river Suse placed here in the maps.
40 These two tribes probably dwelt between the modern Capes Ger and Non.
41 Marcus believes these to have been the ancestors of the present race of the Touaricks, while the Melanogætuli were the progenitors of the Tibbos, of a darker complexion, and more nearly resembling the negroes in bodily conformation.
42 Supposed by Gosselin to be the present river Nun, or Non. According to Bochart, this river received its name from the Hebrew or Phoenician word behemoth or bamoth, the name by which Job (xl. 15) calls the crocodile [or rather the hippopotamus]. Bochart, however, with Mannert, Bougainville, De Rennet, and De Heeren, is of opinion, that by this name the modern river Senegal is meant. Marcus is of opinion that it is either the Non or the modern Sobi.
43 Marcus here observes, that from Cape Alfach, below Cape Non, there are no mountains, but continual wastes of sand, bordering on the sea-shore. Indeed there is no headland, of any considerable height, between Cape Sobi and Cape Bajador.
44 The Chariot of the Gods." Marcus is of opinion that it is the modern Cape Verde; while, on the other hand, Gosselin takes it to be Cape Non. Brotier calls it Cape Ledo.
45 In B. vi. c. 36, Pliny speaks of this promontory as the "Hesperian Horn," and says that it is but four days' sail from the Theon Ochema. Brotier identifies this promontory with the modern Cape Roxo. Marcus is of opinion that it was the same as Cape Non ; but there is considerable difficulty in determining its identity.
46 Alluding to Polybius; though, according to the reading which Sillig has adopted a few lines previously, Agrippa is the last author mentioned. Pliny has here mistaken the meaning of Polybius, who has placed Atlas midway between Carthage, from which he had set out, and the Promontory of Theon Ochema, which he reached.
47 Ptolemy the son of Juba II. and Cleopatra, was summoned to Rome in the year A.D. 40, by Caligula, and shortly after put to death by him, his riches having excited the emperor's cupidity. Previously to this, he had been on terms of strict alliance with the Roman people, who had decreed him a toga picta and a sceptre, as a mark of their friendship.
48 Ivory and citron-wood, or cedar, were used for the making and inlaying of the tables used by the Roman nobility. See B. xiii. c. 23.
49 Supposed by some geographers to be the modern Wadi-Tensift. It has been also confounded with the Anatis (see note 1, p. 369); while others again identify it with the Anidus. It is more commonly spelt 'Asama.'
50 Or Phuth. It does not appear to have been identified.
51 The range is still called by the name of Daran.
52 The same general who afterwards conquered the Britons under Boadicea or Bonduca. While Proprætor in Mauritania under the Emperor Claudius, in the year A.D. 42, he defeated the Mauri who had risen in revolt, and advanced, as Pliny here states, as far as Mount Atlas. It is not known from what point Paulinus made his advance towards the Atlas range. Mannert and Marcus are of opinion that he set out from Sala, the modern Sallee, while Latreille, Malte Brun, and Walkenaer think that his point of departure was the mouth of the river Lixos. Sala was the most southerly town on the western coast of Africa that in the time of Pliny had submitted to the Roman arms.
53 Some of the editions read 'Niger' here. Marcus suggests that that river may have been called 'Niger' by the Phœnician or Punic colonists of the western Mauritania, and 'Ger' or' Gar' in another quarter. The same writer also suggests that the Sigilmessa was the river to which Paulinus penetrated on his march beyond Atlas.
54 The Sigilmessa, according to Marmol, flows between several mountains which appear to be of a blackish hue.
55 Bocchus however, the kinsman of Massinissa, had previously for some time reigned over both the Mauritanias, consisting of Mauritania Tingitana and Mauritania Cæsariana.
56 See B. xxv. c. 7. 12, and B. xxvi. c. 8.
57 Extending from the sea to the river Moluga, now called the Molucha and Molochath, or Malva and Malvana.
58 From whom the Moors of the present day take their name. Marcus observes here, that though Pliny distinguishes the Mauri from the Gætuli, they essentially belonged to the same race and spoke the same language, the so-called Berber, and its dialects, the Schellou and the Schoviah.
59 Maursii' was the Greek name, 'Mauri' the Latin, for this people. Marcus suggests that Mauri was a synonym only for the Greek word nomades, 'wanderers.'
60 As Marcus observes, Pliny is here greatly in error. On the inroads of Paulinus, the Mauri had retreated into the interior and taken refuge in the deserts of Zahara, whence they had again emerged in the time of the geographer Ptolemy.
61 From the time of the second Punic War this people had remained in undisputed possession of the country situate between the rivers Molochath or Moluga and Ampsaga, which formed the Cæsarian Mauritania. Ptolemy speaks of finding some remains of them at Siga, a town situate on a river of the same name, and at which King Syphax had formerly resided.
62 While Pomponius Mela does not make any difference between the Mauri and the Gætuli, Pliny here speaks of them as being essentially different.
63 Derived, according to Marcus, from the Arabic compound bani-our, 'child of nakedness,' as equivalent to the Greek word gymnetes, by which name Pliny and other ancient writers designate the wandering naked races of Western Africa.
64 The Autololes or, as Ptolemy calls them, the Autolole, dwelt, it is supposed, on the western coast of Africa, between Cape Cantin and Cape Ger. Their city of Autolala or Autolalæ is one of Ptolemy's points of astronomical observation, having the longest day thirteen hours and a half, being distant three hours and a half west of Alexandria, and having the sun vertical once a year, at the time of the winter solstice. Reichard takes it for the modern Agulon or Aquilon.
65 The Æthiopian Daratitæ, Marcus says.
66 The present Ceuta.
67 They were so called from the circumstance, Marcus says, of their peaks being so numerous, and so strongly resembling each other. They are now called, according to D'Anville, 'Gebel Mousa,' which means "the Mountain of Apes," an animal by which they are now much frequented, instead of by elephants as in Pliny's time.
68 Or Mediterranean.
69 The modern Bedia, according to Olivarius, the Tasanel, according to Dupinet, and the Alamos or Kerkal, according to Ansart. Marcus says that it is called the Setuan, and is the largest stream on the northern shores of Western Africa.
70 The modern Gomera according to Hardouin, the Nocor according to Mannert.
71 The modern Melilla most probably.
72 The modern Maluia. Antoninus calls it Malva, and Ptolemy Maloua.
73 Its site is occupied by the modern Aresgol, according to Mariana, Guardia or Sereni according to Dupinet, Ned-Roma according to Mannert and D'Anville, and Tachumbrit according to Shaw. Marcus is inclined to be of the same opinion as the last-mentioned geographer.
74 Now the city of Malaga.
75 Mauritania Cæsariensis, or Cæsarian Mauritania, now forming the French province of Algiers.
76 "Bogudiana;" from Bogud or Bogoas. The last king Bogud was deprived of his kingdom by Bocchus, king of Mauritania Cæsariensis, a warm partisan of Cæsar.
77 Or the "Great Harbour," now Arzeu according to D'Anville, and Mars-el-Kebir according to Marcus.
78 The same river probably as the Malva or Malvana previously mentioned, the word mulucha or malacha coming from the Greek μολόχη, "a marsh mallow," which malva, as a Latin word, also signifies. See p. 383.
79 From the Greek word ξένος, "a stranger." Pomponius Mela and Antoninus call this place Guiza, and Ptolemy Quisa. D'Anville places it on the right side of the river Malvana or Mulucha, and Shaw says that it was situate in the vicinity of the modern town of Oran.
80 Now Marz-Agolet, or situate in its vicinity, according to Hardouin and Ansart, and the present Arzen, according to Marcus, where numerous remains of antiquity are found.
81 Now Tenez, according to D'Anville, and Mesgraïm, according to Mannert; with which last opinion Marcus agrees.
82 Ptolemy and Antoninus place this colony to the east of the Promontory of Apollo, and not the west as Pliny does.
83 The present Cape Mestagan.
84 According to Dupinet and Mannert, the modern Tenez occupies its site, Zershell according to Hardouin and Shaw, Vacur according to D'Anville and Ansart, and Algiers according to others. It is suggested by Marcus that the name Iol is derived from the Arabic verb galla, "to be noble" or "famous." There is no doubt that the magnificent ruins at Zershell are those of Iol, and that its name is an abbreviation of Cæsarea Iol.
85 Or New Town.
86 Scylax calls it Thapsus; Ammianus Marcellinus, Tiposa. According to Mannert it was situate in the vicinity of the modern Damas.
87 Or Icosium. It has been identified by inscriptions discovered by the French as standing on the same site as the modern Algiers. D'Anville, Mannert and others identify it with Scherchell or Zershell, thus placing it too far west. Mannert was evidently misled by an error in the Antonine Itinerary, whereby all the places along this coast are, for a considerable distance, thrown too far to the west; the researches however which followed the French conquest of the country have revealed inscriptions which completely set the question at rest.
88 According to Mannert, this was situate on the modern Cape Arbatel. Marcus thinks that the Hebrew ros, or Arab ras, "a rock," enters into the composition of the word.
89 Now Hur according to D'Anville, Colcah according to Mannert.
90 The modern Acor, according to Marcus.
91 The modern Pedeles or Delys, according to Ortellius and Mannert, Tedles according to D'Anville.
92 The modern Jigeli or Gigeri. It was probably in ancient times the emporium of the surrounding country.
93 Destroyed, according to Hardouin, and probably by the incursions of the sea. At the mouth of the Ampsaga (now called the Wad-El-Kebir or Sufjimar, and higher up the Wadi Roumel) there is situate a small sea-port called Marsa Zeitoun.
94 Near the present Mazuaa, according to Mannert.
95 The modern Burgh, according to D'Anville and Mannert, but more probably considerably to the east of that place.
96 The modern El-Herba, according to Mannert.
97 Marcus suggests that this is the Chinalaph of Ptolemy, and probably the modern Schellif.
98 The same that is called Savis by Ptolemy, who places Icosium on its banks.
99 By Mela called the Vabar. Marcus supposes it to be the same as the modern Giffer.
100 By Ptolemy called the Sisar; the Ajebbi of modern geographers, which falls into the Mediterranean, near the city of Budja.
101 Brotier says that this reading is incorrect, and that 222 is the proper one, that being the true distance between the river Ampsaga or Wadel-Kebir and the city of Cæsarea, the modern Zershell.
102 It was not only Numidia that bore this name, but all the northern coast of Africa from the frontiers of the kingdom of Carthage near Hippo Regius to the Columns of Hercules. It was thus called from the Greek metagonos, a "descendant" or "successor;" as the Carthaginians established a number of small towns and villages on the coast, which were thus posterior in their origin to the large cities already founded there.
103 Hardouin says that the Moors in the interior still follow the same usage, carrying their houses from pasture to pasture on waggons.
104 Now Chollum or Collo.
105 The modern Sgigada or Stora, according to Mannert, D'Anville, and Shaw.
106 The modern Constantina occupies its site. Numerous remains of the ancient town are still discovered. Sitius was an officer who served under Cæsar, and obtained a grant of this place after the defeat of Juba.
107 Called Urbs, or Kaff, according to D'Anville and Shaw; the latter of whom found an inscription there with the words Ordo Siccensium.
108 Or 'Royal Bulla'; which epithet shows that it was either a residence or a foundation of the kings of Numidia, and distinguishes it from a small place called Bulla Mensa, south of Carthage. Bulla Regia was four days' journey south-west of Carthage, on a tributary of the river Bagrada, the valley of which is still called Wad-el-Boul. This place was one of the points of Ptolemy's recorded astronomical observations, having its longest day fourteen hours and one-eighth, and being distant from Alexandria two hours to the west.
109 The modern Tamseh, according to Shaw and Mannert, and Tagodet, according to D'Anville.
110 Its ruins are south of the modern Bona. It received the name of Regius or 'Royal' from being the residence of the Numidian kings. It was also famed as being the see of St. Augustine. It was a colony of Tyre, and stood on the bay now forming the Gulf of Bona. It was one of the most flourishing cities of Africa till it was destroyed by the Vandals A.D. 430.
111 Now the Mafragg, according to Mannert.
112 Still called Tabarca, according to Hardouin.
113 Now the Zaina, according to Marcus.
114 For the character of the Numidian marble, see Pliny, B. xxxvi. c. 7.
115 Extending from the river Tusca, or Zaina, to the northern frontiers of Byzacium. It corresponds with the Turkish province or beylik of Tunis.
116 He says this not only to distinguish it from Africa, considered as one-third of the globe, but also in contradistinction to the proconsular province of the Roman empire of the same name, which contained not only the province of Zeugitana, but also those of Numidia, Byzacium, and Tripolis.
117 Candidum: now Ras-el-Abiad.
118 The references to this headland identify it with Cape Farina, or Ras Sidi Ali-al-Mekhi, and not, as some have thought, the more westerly Cape Zibeeb or Ras Sidi Bou-Shoushe. Shaw however applies the name of Zibeeb to the former.
119 Now Cape Bon, or Ras-Addar.
120 More properly called Hippo Diarrhytus or Zaritus, a Tyrian colony, situate on a large lake which communicated with the sea, and received the waters of another lake. Its situation exposed it to frequent inundations, whence, as the Greeks used to state, the epithet διάῤῥυτος. It seems more probable however that this is the remnant of some Phœnician title, as the ancients were not agreed on the true form of the name, and of this uncertainty we have a further proof in the Hippo Dirutus of our author.
121 This is placed by Ptolemy to the south-east of Hippo, and near the southern extremity of Lake Sisar.
122 This important city stood on the north part of the Carthaginian Gulf, west of the mouth of the Bagrada, and twenty-seven Roman miles N.W. of Carthage; but the site of its ruins at the modern Bou-Shater is now inland, in consequence of the changes made by the Bagrada in the coast-line. In the Third Punic war Utica took part with the Romans against Carthage, and was rewarded with the greater part of the Carthaginian territory.
123 Now called the Mejerdah, and though of very inconsiderable size, the chief river of the Carthaginian territory. The main stream is formed by the union of two branches, the southern of which, the ancient Bagrada, is now called the Mellig, and in its upper course the Meskianah. The other branch is called the Hamiz.
124 Or the "Cornelian Camp." The spot where Cornelius Scipio Africa- nus the Elder first encamped, on landing in Africa, B.C. 204. Cæsar describes this spot, in his description of Curio's operations against Utica, B. C. b. ii. c. 24, 25. This spot is now called Ghellah.
125 This colony was first established by Caius Gracchus, who sent 6000 settlers to found on the site of Carthage the new city of Junonia. The Roman senate afterwards annulled this with the other acts of Gracchus. Under Augustus however the new city of Carthage was founded, which, when Strabo wrote, was as prosperous as any city in Africa. It was made, in place of Utica, which had favoured the Pompeian party, the seat of the proconsul of Old Africa. It stood on the peninsula terminated by Ras-Sidi-Bou-Said, Cape Carthage or Carthagena. As Gibbon has remarked, "The place might be unknown if some broken arches of an aqueduct did not guide the footsteps of the inquisitive traveller."
126 The original city of Carthage was called 'Carthago Magna' to distinguish it from New Carthage and Old Carthage, colonies in Spain.
127 Now Rhades, according to Marcus.
128 Marcus identifies it with the modern Gurtos.
129 By the Greeks called 'Aspis.' It derived its Greek and Roman names from its site on a hill of a shield-like shape. It was built by Agathocles, the Sicilian, B.C. 310. In the first Punic war it was the landing-place of Manlius and Regulus, whose first action was to take it, B.C. 256. Its site is still known as Kalebiah, and its ruins are peculiarly interesting. The site of Misua is occupied by Sidi-Doud, according to Shaw and D'Anville.
130 Shaw informs us that an inscription found on the spot designates this place as a colony, not a free city or town. Its present name is Kurbah.
131 The present Nabal, according to D'Anville.
132 Zeugitana extended from the river Tusca to Horrea-Cælia, and Byzacium from this last place to Thenæ.
133 As sprung partly from the Phœnician immigrants, and partly from the native Libyans or Africans.
134 Pliny says, B. xvii. c. 3, "A hundred and fifty fold." From Shaw we learn that this fertility no longer exists, the fields producing not more than eight- or at most twelve-fold.
135 The modern Lempta occupies its site.
136 Originally a Phœnician colony, older than Carthage. It was the capital of Byzacium, and stood within the southern extremity of the Sinus Neapolitanus or Gulf of Hammamet. Trajan made it a colony, under the high-sounding name, as we gather from inscriptions, of Colonia Concordia Ulpia Trajana Augusta Frugifera Hadrumetana, or, as set forth on coins, Colonia Concordia Julia Hadrumetana Pia. The epithet Frugifera refers to the fact that it was one of the chief sea-ports for the corn-producing country of Byzacium. It was destroyed by the Vandals, but restored by the Emperor Justinian under the name of Justiniana or Justinianopolis. The modern Sousa stands on its site; and but slight traces of the ancient city are to be found.
137 Situate in the vicinity of the modern Monastir.
138 Shaw discovered its ruins at the modern town of Demas.
139 Now Taineh, according to D'Anville. This place formed the boundary between the proconsular province of Africa and the territory of the Numidian king Masinissa and his descendants.
140 The present Mahometa, according to Marcus, El Mahres according to D'Anville.
141 Now Cabès, according to D'Anville, giving name to the Gulf of Cabès. Marcus calls it Gaps.
142 Now Tripoli Vecchio; also called Sabart according to D'Anville.
143 Scipio Æmilianus, the son-in-law of Æmilius Paulus.
144 Micipsa, the son of Masinissa, and his two legitimate brethren. Scipio having been left by Masinissa executor of his will, the sovereign power was divided by him between Micipsa and his two brethren Gulussa and Mastanabal. On this occasion also he separated Numidia from Zeugitana and Byzacium, by a long dyke drawn from Thenæ, due south, to the borders of the Great Desert, and thence in a north-westerly direction to the river Tusca.
145 The Syrtes or 'Quicksands' are now called, the Lesser Syrtes the Gulf of Cabès, and the Greater the Gulf of Sydra. The country situate between the two Syrtes is called Tripoli, formerly Tripolis, a name which, according to Solinus, it owed to its three cities, Sabrata, Leptis, and Œa.
146 Marcus observes with reference to this passage, that both Hardouin and Poinsinet have mistaken its meaning. They evidently think that Pliny is speaking here of a route to the Syrtes leading from the interior of Africa, whereas it is pretty clear that he is speaking of the dangers which attend those who approach it by the line of the sea-coast, as Cato did, on his march to Utica, so beautifully described by Lucan in his Ninth Book. This is no doubt the same route which was taken by the caravans on their passage from Lebida, the ancient Leptis, to Berenice in Cyrenaica.
147 Those which we find at the middle of the coast bordering upon the Greater Syrtis, and which separate the mountains of Fezzan and Atlas from Cyrenaïca and Barca.
148 In its widest sense this name is applied to all the Libyan tribes inhabiting the Oases on the eastern part of the Great Desert, as the Gætulians inhabited its western part, the boundary between the two nations being drawn at the sources of the Bagrada and the mountain Usargala. In the stricter sense however, and in which the term must be here understood, the name 'Garamantes' denoted the people of Phazania, the modern Fezzan, which forms by far the largest oasis in the Grand Desert of Zahara.
149 Augylæ, now Aujelah, was an oasis in the desert of Barca, in the region of Cyrenaica, about 3 1/2° south of Cyrene. It has been remarked that Pliny, here and in the Eighth Chapter of the present Book, in abridging the account given by Herodotus of the tribes of Northern Africa, has transferred to the Augylæ what that author really says of the Nasamones. This oasis forms one of the chief stations on the caravan route from Cairo to Fezzan. It is placed by Rennell in 30°3′ North Lat. and 22°46′ East Long., 180 miles south-east of Barca, 180 west by north of Siwah, the ancient Ammonium, and 426 east by north of Mourzouk. Later authorities, however, place the village of Aujelah in 29°15′ North Lat. and 21°55′ East Long.
150 For an account of the Psylli see B. vii. c. 2. They probably dwelt in the vicinity of the modern Cape Mesurata.
151 Now Lake Lynxama, according to Marcus.
152 Marcus observes that in order properly to understand this passage we must remember that the ancients considered Africa as terminating north of the Equator, and imagined that from the Straits of Hercules the western coast of Africa ran, not towards the south-west, but slanted in a southeasterly direction to the Straits of Babelmandel.
153 The modern Tripoli.
154 A flourishing city with a mixed population of Libyans and Sicilians. It was at this place that Apuleius made his eloquent and ingenious defence against the charge of sorcery brought against him by his step-sons. According to some writers the modern Tripoli is built on its site, while other accounts make it to have been situate six leagues from that city.
155 Now called the Wady-el-Quaham.
156 Mannert is of opinion that this was only another name for the city of Leptis Magna or the "Greater Leptis" here mentioned by Pliny. There is little doubt that his supposition is correct.
157 The more common reading is Taphra or Taphara. D'Anville identifies it with the town of Sfakes.
158 Scylax identifies it with Neapolis or Leptis, and it is generally looked upon as being the same place as Sabrata or Old Tripoli.
159 Now called Lebida. It was the birth-place of the Emperor Septimius Severus. It was almost destroyed by an attack from a Libyan tribe A.D. 366, and its ruin was completed by the invasion of the Arabs. Its ruins are considerable.
160 Men of sea complexion," is the meaning of this Greek name. According to Marcus they dwelt between the Greater Leptis and the Lake Tritonis, at the present day called Schibkah-el-Loudeah. For a further account of the Lotophagi, see B. xiii. c. 32.
161 Two brothers, citizens of Carthage, who in a dispute as to their respective territories with the people of Cyrene, submitted to be buried alive in the sand, at the boundary-line between the two countries. Sallust (Jugurthine War) is the main authority for the story. It is also related by Pomponius Mela, B. i. c. 7, and Valerius Maximus, B. v. c. 6, but from the Greek name of the brothers, meaning "lovers of praise," it is doubtful whether the story is not of spurious origin.
162 The Lake Tritonis mentioned in note11, p. 393.
163 Now called El Hammah, according to Shaw.
164 According to some accounts the goddess Pallas or Minerva was born on the banks of Lake Tritonis.
165 The modern Cape of Tajuni.
166 Now called Udina, according to Marcus.
167 Now called Tabersole, according to Marcus.
168 In the north of Byzacium, near the Bagrada and the confines of Numidia. It was the station of a Roman garrison, and considerable remains of it are still visible near the modern Zanfour.
169 Called Cannopissæ by Ptolemy, who places it to the east of Tabraca.
170 There is great doubt as to the correct orthography of these places, most of which can be no longer identified.
171 According to Marcus the present Porto Tarina.
172 Also called Achilla and Achulla, the ruins of which are to be seen at the modern El Aliah. It stood on the sea-coast of Byzacium, a little above the northern extremity of the Lesser Syrtis. It was a colony from the island of Melita, now Malta.
173 Now called El-Jemma, according to Marcus.
174 From it modern Tunis takes its name.
175 The birth-place of St. Augustin. It was to the north-west of Hippo Regius.
176 In the vicinity of this place, if it is the same as the Tigisis mentioned by Procopius, there were two columns to be seen in his day, upon which was written in the Phœnician language, "We fled from before the robber, Joshua the son of Nun."
177 There were two towns of this name in the proconsular province of Africa. The first was situate in the country of Zeugitana, five days' journey west of Carthage, and it was here that Scipio defeated Hannibal. The other bore the surname of Regia or Royal, from being the frequent residence of the Numidian kings. It lay in the interior, and at the present day its site bears the name of 'Zowarin' or 'Zewarin.'
178 The ruins of Capsa still bear the name of Cafsa or Ghafsah. It was an important city in the extreme south of Numidia, situate in an oasis, in the midst of an arid desert abounding in serpents. In the Jugurthine war it was the treasury of Jugurtha, and was taken and destroyed by Marius; but was afterwards rebuilt and made a colony.
179 They dwelt between the river Ampsaga or Wady-El-Kebir and the Tusca or Wady-Zain, the western boundary of the Carthaginian territory.
180 Dwelling to the east of the mountain Zalycus, now known as the Wanashrise, according to Shaw.
181 The ancients called by the name of 'Gætulians' all the people of Africa who dwelt south of the Mauritanias and Numidia, as far as the line which, according to their ideas, separated Africa from Æthiopia.
182 The Quorra most probably of modern geographers.
183 So called, as mentioned below, from its five principal cities.
184 Where Jupiter Ammon or Hammon was worshiped under the form of a ram, the form he was said to have assumed when the deities were dispersed in the war with the Giants. Ancient Ammonium is the present oasis of Siwah in the Libyan Desert.
185 The same that has been already mentioned in B. ii. c. 106. It is mentioned by Herodotus and Pomponius Mela.
186 Previously called Hesperis or Hesperides. It was the most westerly city of Cyrenaica, and stood just beyond the eastern extremity of the Greater Syrtis, on a promontory called Pseudopenias, and near the river Lethon. Its historical importance only dates from the times of the Ptolemies, when it was named Berenice, after the wife of Ptolemy III. or Euergetes. Having been greatly reduced, it was fortified anew by the Emperor Justinian. Its ruins are to be seen at the modern Ben Ghazi.
187 So called from Arsinoë, the sister of Ptolemy Philadelphus. Its earlier name was Taucheira or Teucheira, which name, according to Marcus, it still retains.
188 Its ruins may still be seen at Tolmeita or Tolometa. It was situate on the N.W. coast of Cyrenaica, and originally bore the name of Barca. From which of the Ptolemies it took its name is not known. Its splendid ruins are not less than four miles in circumference.
189 Its ruins are still to be seen, bespeaking its former splendour, at the modern Marsa Sousah. It was originally only the port of Cyrene, but under the Ptolemies it flourished to such an extent as to eclipse that city. It is pretty certain that it was the Sozusa of the later Greek writers. Eratosthenes was a native of this place.
190 The chief city of Cyrenaica, and the most important Hellenic colony in Africa, the early settlers having extensively intermarried with wives of Libyan parentage. In its most prosperous times it maintained an extensive commerce with Greece and Egypt, especially in silphium or assafœtida, the plantations of which, as mentioned in the present chapter, extended for miles in its vicinity. Great quantities of this plant were also exported to Capua in Southern Italy, where it was extensively employed in the manufacture of perfumes. The scene of the 'Rudens,' the most picturesque (if we may use the term) of the plays of Plautus, is laid in the vicinity of Cyrene, and frequent reference is made in it to the extensive cultivation of silphium; a head of which plant also appears on the coins of the place. The philosophers Aristippus and Carneades were born here, as also the poet Callimachus. Its ruins, at the modern Ghrennah, are very extensive, and are indicative of its former splendour.
191 In C. 1 of the present Book. It was only the poetical fancy of the Greeks that found the fabled gardens of the Hesperides in the fertile regions of Cyrenaica. Scylax distinctly mentions the gardens and the lake of the Hesperides in this vicinity, where we also find a people called Hesperidæ, or, as Herodotus names them, Euesperidæ. It was probably in consequence of this similarity of name, in a great degree, that the gardens of the Hesperidcs were assigned to this locality.
192 Now called Ras-Sem or Ras-El-Kazat. It is situate a little to the west of Apollonia and N.W. of Cyrene.
193 According to Ansart, 264 miles is the real distance between Capes Ras-Sem and Tænarum or Matapan.
194 As already mentioned, Apollonia formed the harbour of Cyrene.
195 This was called the Chersonesus Magna, being so named in contradistinction to the Chersonesus Parva, on the coast of Egypt, about thirty-five miles west of Alexandria. It is now called Ras-El-Tin, or more commonly Raxatin.
196 So called from the peculiar features of the locality, the Greek word καταβαθμὸς, signifying "a descent." A deep valley, bounded east and west by ranges of high hills, runs from this spot to the frontiers of Egypt. It is again mentioned by Pliny at the end of the present Chapter. The spot is still known by a similar name, being called Marsa Sollern, or the "Port of the Ladder." In earlier times the Egyptian territory ended at the Gulf of Plinthinethes, now Lago Segio, and did not extend so far as Catabathmos.
197 This name was unknown to Herodotus. As Marcus observes, it was probably of Phœnician origin, signifying "leading a wandering life," like the term "nomad," derived from the Greek.
198 Now called El Bareton or Marsa-Labeit. This city was of considerable importance, and belonged properly to Marmaria, but was included politically in the Nomos Libya of Egypt. It stood near the promontory of Artos or Pythis, now Ras-El-Hazeit.
199 So called from the words Matû-Ammon, "the tribe of Ammon," according to Bochart. The Nasamones were a powerful but savage people of Libya, who dwelt originally on the shores of the Greater Syrtis, but were driven inland by the Greek settlers of Cyrenaica, and afterwards by the Romans.
201 See note6 in p. 396.
202 Herodotus places this nation to the west of the Nasamones and on the river Cinyps, now called the Wadi-Quaham.
204 This story he borrows from Herodotus, B. iv. c. 158.
205 From the Greek word τρωγλοδύται, "dwellers in caves." Pliny has used the term already (B. iv. c. 25) in reference to the nations on the banks of the Danube. It was a general name applied by the Greek geographers to various uncivilized races who had no abodes but caves, and more especially to the inhabitants of the western coasts of the Red Sea, along the shores of Upper Egypt and Æthiopia.
206 At the beginning of C. 4.
207 Which gives name to the modern Fezzan.
208 Now called Tanet-Mellulen, or the station of Mellulen, on the route from Gadamez to Oserona.
209 Zaouila or Zala, half way between Augyla and Mourzouk.
210 Now Gadamez, which, according to Marcus, is situate almost under the same meridian as Old Tripoli, the ancient Sabrata.
211 According to Marcus this range still bears the name of Gibel-Assoud, which in the Arabic language means the "Black Mountain."
212 In a southerly direction. He alludes probably to the Desert of Bildulgerid.
213 This spring is also mentioned by Pliny in B. ii. c. 106. Marcus suggests that the Debris of Pliny is the same as the Bedir of Ptolemy. He also remarks that the English traveller Oudney discovered caverns hewn out of the sides of the hills, evidently for the purposes of habitation, but of which the use is not known by the present people. These he considers to have been the abodes of the ancient Troglodytæ or "cave-dwellers." In the Tibesti range of mountains, however, we find a race called the Rock Tibboos, from the circumstance of their dwelling in caves.
214 Cornelius Balbus Gaditanus the Younger, who, upon his victories over the Garamantes, obtained a triumph in the year B.C. 19.
215 L. Cornelius Balbus the Elder, also at native of Gades. He obtained the consulship in B.C. 40, the first instance, as we find mentioned by Pliny, B. vii. c. 44, in which this honour had been conferred upon one who was not a Roman citizen.
216 On the occasion of a triumph by a Roman general, boards were carried aloft on "fercula," on which were painted in large letters the names of vanquished nations and countries. Here too models were exhibited in ivory or wood of the cities and forts captured, and pictures of the mountains, rivers, and other great natural features of the subjugated region, with appropriate inscriptions. Marcus is of opinion that the names of the places here mentioned do not succeed in any geographical order, but solely according to their presumed importance as forming part of the conquest of Balbus. He also thinks that Balbus did not penetrate beyond the fifteenth degree of north latitude, and that his conquests did not extend so far south as the banks of Lake Tchad.
217 The site of Garama still bears the name of 'Gherma,' and presents very considerable remains of antiquity. It is four days' journey north of Mourzouk, the capital of Fezzan.
218 Now Tibesti, according to Marcus.
219 Marcus suggests that this is probably the Febabo of modem geographers, to the N.E. of Belma and Tibesti.
220 Discera was the Im-Zerah of modern travellers, on the road from Sockna to Mourzouk, according to Marcus, who is of opinion that the places which follow were situate at the east and north-east of Thuben and the Black Mountain.
221 Om-El-Abid, to the N.W. of Garama or Gherma, according to Marcus, and Oudney the traveller.
222 The same, Marcus thinks, as the modem Tessava in Fezzan.
223 Marcus suggests that this may be the modern Sana.
224 The town of Winega mentioned by Oudney, was probably the ancient Pega, according to Marcus.
225 The modern Missolat, according to Marcus, on the route from Tripoli to Murmuck.
226 According to Marcus, this was the Mount Goriano of the English travellers Denham, Clapperton, and Oudney, where, confirming the statement here made by Pliny, they found quartz, jasper, onyx, agates, and cornelians.
227 Mentioned by Tacitus, B. iv. c. 50. The town of Œa has been alluded to by Pliny in C. 4.
228 Past the head of the rock." Marcus suggests that this is the Gibel-Gelat or Rock of Gelat spoken of by the English travellers Denham, Clapperton, and Oudney, forming a portion of the chain of Guriano or Gyr. He says, that at the foot of this mountain travellers have to pass from Old and New Tripoli on their road to Missolat, the Maxala of Pliny, and thence to Gerama or Gherma, the ancient capital of Fezzan.
229 As Marcus observes, this would not make it to extend so far south as the sixteenth degree of north latitude.
230 The Mareotis of the time of the Ptolemies extended from Alexandria to the Gulf of Plinthinethes; and Libya was properly that portion of territory which extended from that Gulf to Catabathmos. Pliny is in error here in confounding the two appellations, or rather, blending them into one. It includes the eastern portion of the modern Barca, and the western division of Lower Egypt. It most probably received its name from the Lake Mareotis, and not the lake from it.
231 This was a seaport town on the northern coast of Africa, probably about eleven or twelve miles west of Parætonium, sometimes spoken of as belonging to Egypt, sometimes to Marmorica. Scylax places it at the western boundary of Egypt, on the frontier of the Marmaridæ. Ptolemy, like Pliny, speaks of it as being in the Libyan Nomos. The distances given in the MSS. of Pliny of this place from Parætonium are seventy-two, sixty-two, and twelve miles; the latter is probably the correct reading, as Strabc, B. xvii., makes the distance 100 stadia. It is extremely doubtful whether the Apis mentioned by Herodotus, B. ii. c. 18, can be the same place: but there is little doubt, from the words of Pliny here, that it was dedicated to the worship of the Egyptian god Apis, who was represented under the form of a bull.
232 Now called Zerbi and Jerba, derived from the name of Girba, which even in the time of Aurelius Victor, had supplanted that of Meninx. It is situate in the Gulf of Cabes. According to Solinus, C. Marius lay in concealment here for some time. It was famous for its purple. See B. ix. c. 60.
233 Now called Kerkéni, Karkenah, or Ramlah.
234 Now Gherba. It was reckoned as a mere appendage to Cercina, to which it was joined by a mole, and which is found often mentioned in history.
235 Still called Lampedusa, off the coast of Tunis. This island, with Gaulos and Galata, has been already mentioned among the islands off Sicily; see B. iii. c. 14.
236 Now Pantellaria. See B. iii. c. 14.
237 A lofty island surrounded by dangerous cliffs, now called Zowamour or Zembra.
238 In the former editions the word "Aræ" is taken to refer to the Ægimuri, as meaning the same islands. Sillig is however of opinion that totally distinct groups are meant, and punctuates accordingly. The "Aræ" were probably mere rocks lying out at sea, which received their name from their fancied resemblance to altars. They are mentioned by Virgil in the Æneid, B. i. l. 113, upon which lines Servius says, that they were so called because there the Romans and the people of Africa on one occasion made a treaty.
239 The greater portion of this Chapter is extracted almost verbatim from the account given by Mela. Ptolemy seems to place the Liby-Egyptians to the south of the Greater and Lesser Oasis, on the route thence to Darfour.
240 Or "White Æthiopians," men though of dark complexion, not negroes. Marcus is of opinion that the words "intervenientibus desertis" refer to the tract of desert country lying between the Leucæthiopians and the Liby-Egyptians, and not to that between the Gætulians on the one hand and the Liby-Egyptians and the Leucæthiopians on the other.
241 Meaning to the south and the south-east of these three nations, according to Marcus. Rennel takes the Leucæthiopians to be the present Mandingos of higher Senegambia: Marcus however thinks that they are the Azanaghis, who dwell on the edge of the Great Desert, and are not of so black a complexion as the Mandingos.
242 Probably the people of the present Nigritia or Soudan.
243 Marcus is of opinion that Pliny does not here refer to the Joliba of Park and other travellers, as other commentators have supposed; but that he speaks of the river called Zis by the modern geographers, and which Jackson speaks of as flowing from the south-east towards north-west. The whole subject of the Niger is however enwrapped in almost impenetrable obscurity, and as the most recent inquirers have not come to any conclusion on the subject, it would be little more than a waste of time and space to enter upon an investigation of the notions which Pliny and Mela entertained on the subject.
245 Mentioned in C. 1 of the present Book.
246 7 He refers to the words in the Odyssey, B. i. l. 23, 24.—
αἰθίοπας τοὶ δίχθα δεδαιάται, ἔσχατοι ἄνδρων̓
οἱ μὲν δυσομένου ῾υπερίονος, οἱ δ̓ ἀνιόντος. "The Æhiopians, the most remote of mankind, are divided into two parts, the one at the setting of Hyperion, the other at his rising."
247 A tribe of Æthiopia, whose position varied considerably at different epochs of history. Their predatory and savage habits caused the most extraordinary reports to be spread of their appearance and ferocity. The more ancient geographers bring them as far westward as the region beyond the Libyan Desert, and into the vicinity of the Oases. In the time however of the Antonines, when Ptolemy was composing his description of Africa, they appear to the south and east of Egypt, in the wide and almost unknown tract which lay between the rivers Astapus and Astobores.
248 Mela speaks of this race as situate farthest to the west. The description of them here given is from Herodotus, B. iv. c. 183–185, who speaks of them under the name of "Atarantes."
249 The people who are visited by no dreams, are called Atlantes by Herodotus, the same name by which Pliny calls them. He says that their territory is ten days' journey from that of the Atarantes.
250 This also is borrowed from Herodotus. As some confirmation of this account, it is worthy of remark, that the Rock Tibboos of the present day, who, like the ancient Troglodytæ, dwell in caves, have so peculiar a kind of speech, that it is compared by the people of Aujelah to nothing but the whistling of birds. The Troglodytæ of Fezzan are here referred to, not those of the coasts of the Red Sea.
251 Mela says that they look upon the Manes or spirits of the departed as their only deities.
252 This is said, in almost the same words, of the Garamantes, by Herodotus. The mistake was probably made by Mela in copying from Herodotus, and continued by Pliny when borrowing from him.
253 So called from their supposed resemblance in form to the Satyrs of the ancient mythology, who were represented as little hairy men with horns, long ears, and tails. They were probably monkeys, which had been mistaken for men.
254 Half goat, half man. See the Note relative to Ægipan, in C. 1 of the present Book, p. 378.
255 Evidently intended to be derived from the Greek ἱμὰς "a thong," and πόδες "the feet." It is most probable that the name of a savage people in the interior bore a fancied resemblance to this word, upon which the marvellous story here stated was coined for the purpose of tallying with the name. From a statement in the Æthiopica of Heliodorus, B. x., Marcus suggests that the story as to the Blemmyee having no heads arose from the circumstance, that on the invasion of the Persians they were in the habit of falling on one knee and bowing the head to the breast, by which means, without injury to themselves, they afforded a passage to the horses of the enemy.
256 It must be remembered, as already mentioned, that the ancients looked upon Egypt as forming part of Asia, not of Africa. It seems impossible to say how this supposition arose, when the Red Sea and the Isthmus of Suez form so natural and so palpable a frontier between Asia and Africa.
257 It is not improbable that these numbers are incorrectly stated in the MSS. of our author.
258 Parisot remarks that Pliny is in error in this statement. A considerable part of Lower Egypt lay both on the right and left of the Delta or island formed by the branches of the Nile. It must be remembered, however, that our author has already included a portion of what was strictly Egypt, in his description of Libya Mareotis.
260 The Ombite nome worshipped the crocodile as the emblem of Sebak. Its capital was Ombos.
261 This nome destroyed the crocodile and worshipped the sun. Its capital was Apollinopolis Magna.
262 It worshipped Osiris and his son Orus. The chief town was Thermonthis.
263 Probably the original kingdom of Menes of This, the founder of the Egyptian monarchy. It worshipped Osiris. Its capital was This, afterwards called Abydos.
264 The nome of Thebes, which was its chief town.
265 Its capital was Coptos.
266 Its chief town was Tentyra. This nome worshipped Athor or Venus, Isis, and Typhon. It destroyed the crocodile.
267 Perhaps the same as the Panopolite or Chemmite nome, which had for its chief town Chemmis or Panopolis. It paid divine honours to a deified hero.
268 It probably worshipped Typhon. Its capital was Antæopolis.
269 Probably an offshoot from a nome in the Heptanomis of similar name.
270 Dedicated to the worship of the wolf. Its chief town was Lycopolis. It should be remarked that these names do not appear to be given by Pliny in their proper geographical order.
271 Some of these nomes were inconsiderable and of little importance. The Bubastite nome worshipped Bubastis, Artemis, or Diana, of whom it contained a fine temple.
272 Its chief town was Tanis. In this nome, according to tradition, Moses was born.
273 Its capital was Athribis, where the shrew-mouse and crocodile were worshipped.
274 The seat of the worship of the dog-headed deity Anubis. Its capital was Cynopolis; which is to be distinguished from the Deltic city and other places of that name, as this was a nome of the Heptanomis or Middle Egypt, to which also the Hammonian nome belonged.
275 The border nome of Upper and Middle Egypt.
276 Its capital was Pachnamunis. It worshipped a goddess corresponding to the Greek Leto, or the Latona of the Romans.
277 Its capital was Busiris. It worshipped Isis, and at one period was said to have sacrificed the nomad tribes of Syria and Arabia.
278 Its chief town was Onuphis.
279 Its chief city was Sais, and it worshipped Neith or Athene, and contained the tomb and a sanctuary of Osiris.
280 Its capital was Tava.
281 Its chief town was Naucratis on the coast, the birth-place of Athenæus, the Deipnosophist. By some authors it is made part of the Saitic nome. The names given by Pliny vary very considerably from those found in others of the ancient writers.
282 The capital of this nome was Heracleopolis, 'The city of Hercules,' as Pliny calls it, situate, as he says, on an island, at the entrance of the nome of Arsinoïtes, formed by the Nile and a canal. After Memphis and Heliopolis, it was probably the most important city couth of the Thebaid. Its ruins are inconsiderable; a portion of them are to be seen at the modern hamlet of Amasieh.
283 The capital of this nome was Heracleopolis, 'The city of Hercules,' as Pliny calls it, situate, as he says, on an island, at the entrance of the nome of Arsinoïtes, formed by the Nile and a canal. After Memphis and Heliopolis, it was probably the most important city couth of the Thebaid. Its ruins are inconsiderable; a portion of them are to be seen at the modern hamlet of Amasieh.
284 He probably means Arsinoë or Arsinoïtis, the chief town of the nome of that name, and the city so called at the northern extremity of the Heroöpolite Gulf in the Red Sea. The former is denoted by the modern district of El-Fayoom, the most fertile of ancient Egypt. At this place the crocodile was worshipped. The Labyrinth and Lake Mœris were in this nome. Extensive ruins at Medinet-el-Fayoom, or El-Fares, represent its site. The modern Ardscherud, a village near Suez, corresponds to Arsinoë on the Red Sea. There is some little doubt however whether this last Arsinoë is the one here meant by Pliny.
285 Memphis was the chief city of this nome, which was situate in Middle Egypt, and was the capital of the whole country, and the residence of the Pharaohs, who succeeded Psammetichus, B.C. 616. This nome rose in importance on the decline of the kingdom of Thebais, but was afterwards eclipsed by the progress of Alexandria under the successors of Alexander the Great.
286 At which Middle Egypt terminates.
287 They are more generally looked upon as forming one nome only, and included under the name of Hammonium.
288 Its chief town was Heroöpolis, a principal seat of the worship of Typhon, the evil or destroying genius.
289 The same as the nome of Arsinoïtes, the capital of which, Arsinoë, was originally called Crocodilopolis.
290 Now known as Birket-el-Keroum. This was a vast lake on the western side of the Nile in Middle Egypt, used for the reception and subsequent distribution of a part of the overflow of the Nile. The supposition that it was formed by artificial means is now pretty generally exploded, and it is regarded as of natural formation. It was situate in the nome of Arsinoïtes or Crocodilopolites. Its length seems to be overstated by our author, as at the present day it is only thirty miles in length and five in breadth at the widest part.
291 And it is generally supposed that they are so up to the present day. The ethnographer Jablonski is of opinion that this river derives its name from the Coptish word tneialei "to rise at stated times." Servius, the commentator on Virgil, says that it is derived from the two Greek words νέα ἰλὺς "fresh mud," in allusion to the fresh mud or slime which it leaves after each inundation. Singularly enough, Champollion prefers this silly etymology to that suggested by Jablonski.
292 An interesting disquisition on the probable sources of the Nile, as viewed by the ancients, is to be found in the Ninth Book of Lucan's Pharsalia. The Indian word "nilas," "black," has also been suggested as its possible origin.
293 What spot is meant under this name, if indeed it is anything more than the creation of fancy, it is impossible to ascertain with any degree of precision. It is possible however that the ancients may have had some knowledge of Lake Tchad, and the Mountains of the Moon, or Djebel-Kumri, though at the same time it is more than doubtful that the Nile has its source in either of those localities, the former especially.
294 Perhaps a kind of river lamprey. As to the Coracinus, see B. ix. c. 24, 32, and B. xxxii. c. 19, 24, 34, 44, and 53; and as to the Silurus, B. ix. c. 17, 25, and B. xxxii. c. 31, 36, 40, 43, 44, &c.
295 The modern Vacur in Northern Africa.
296 A district which in reality was at least 1200 or 1500 miles distant from any part of the Nile, and probably near 3000 from its real source.
297 Spargit." It is doubtful whether this word means here "waters," or "divides." Probably however the latter is its meaning.
298 This is the third or eastern branch of the river, now known as the Tacazze. It rises in the highlands of Abyssinia, in about 11°40′ north lat. and 39°40′ east long., and joins the main stream of the Nile, formed by the union of the Abiad and the Azrek, in 17°45′ north lat. and about 34°5′ east long.; the point of junction being the apex of the island of Meroë, here mentioned by Pliny.
299 Possibly by this name he designates the Bahr-el-Abied, or White River, the main stream of the Nile, the sources of which have not been hitherto satisfactorily ascertained. The Astapus is supposed to have been really the name of the Bahr-el-Azrek, or Blue River, the third branch of the Nile, the sources of which are in the highlands of Abyssinia, in about 11°40′ north lat. and 39°40′ east long.
300 Or "side of the water that issues from the shades." As Hardouin says, this does not appear to be a very satisfactory explanation.
301 Said by Tzetzes to have been derived from the Greek τρἱτος, "the third," because it had three times changed its name: having been called, first, the Ocean; secondly, Aëtus, or the Eagle; and thirdly, Ægyptus.
302 Or the "Cataracts," for which it is the Greek name. The most northerly of these cataracts, called the First Cataract, is, and always has been, the southern boundary of Egypt. According to the most recent accounts, these Cataracts are devoid of any stupendous features, such as characterize the Falls of Niagara.
303 The one now called the First Cataract.
304 Seven mouths in ancient times, which have now dwindled down to two of any importance, the Damietta mouth on the east, and the Rosetta on the west.
305 The Etesians are periodical winds, which blow steadily from one quarter for forty days each year, during the season of the Dog-days. The opinion here stated was that promulgated by Thales the philosopher. Seneca refutes it in B. iv. c. 2. of his Quæst. Nat.
306 This was the opinion of Democritus of Abdera, and of Agatharchidas of Cnidos. It is combated by Diodorus Siculus, B. i., but it is the opinion most generally received at the present day. See the disquisition on the subject introduced in the Ninth book of Lucan's Pharsalia.
307 And that the high tide or inundation would be consequently continuous as well.
308 The principal well for this purpose was called the "Nilometer," or "Gauge for the Nile."
309 On this subject see Pliny, B. xviii. c. 47, and B. xxxvi. c. 11.
310 Seneca says that the Nile did not rise as usual in the tenth and eleventh years of the reign of Cleopatra, and that the circumstance was said to bode ruin to her and Antony.—Nat. Quæst. B. iv. c. 2.
311 He means dense clouds, productive of rain, not thin mists. See what is said of the Borysthenes by our author, B. xxxi. c. 30.
312 Syene was a city of Upper Egypt, on the eastern bank of the Nile just below the First Cataract, and was looked upon as the southern frontier city of Egypt against Æthiopia. It was an important point in the geography and astronomy of the ancients; for, lying just under the tropic of Cancer, it was chosen as the place through which they drew their chief parallel of latitude. The sun was vertical to Syene at the time of the summer solstice, and a well was shown there where the face of the sun was seen at noon at that time. Its present name is Assouan or Ossouan.
313 If this word means the "Camp," it does not appear to be known what camp is meant. Most editions have "Cerastæ," in which case it would mean that at Syene the Cerastes or horned serpent is found.
314 One of these (if indeed Philæ did consist of more than a single island, which seems doubtful) is now known as Djeziret-el-Birbe, the "Island of the Temple."
315 This island was seated just below the Lesser Cataract, opposite Syene, and near the western bank of the Nile. At this point the river becomes navigable downward to its mouths, and the traveller from Meroë or Æthiopia enters Egypt Proper. The original name of this island was "Ebo," Eb being in the language of hieroglyphics the symbol of the elephant and ivory. It was remarkable for its fertility and verdure, and the Arabs of the present day designate the island as Djesiret-el-Sag, or "the Blooming."
316 This is a mistake of Pliny's, for it was opposite to Syene. Brotier thinks that Pliny intended to write' Philæ,' but by mistake inserted Syene.
317 Artemidorus, Juba, and Aristocreon.
318 They were probably made of papyrus, or else of hides, like the British coracles.
319 The last king of the line of Psammetichus, B.C. 569. He succeeded Apries, whom the Egyptians put to death. He died just before the invasion by Cambyses, having displayed great abilities as a ruler.
320 There was the Greater Apollinopolis, the modem Edfoo, in the Thebaid, on the western bank of the Nile, in lat. 25° north, about thirteen miles below the lesser Cataract: its inhabitants were enemies of the crocodile and its worshippers. The remains of two temples there are considered second only to the temple of Denderah as specimens of the sacred structures of Egypt. A Lesser Apollinopolis was in Upper Egypt, on the western bank of the Nile, in lat. 27° north. Another Lesser Apollinopolis was a town of the Thebaid in the Coptite Nome, in lat. 26° north, situate between Thebes and Coptos. It was situate at the present Kuss.
321 Its site is unknown. Hardouin suggests that it is the Eilethuia of Ptolemy, the modern El-Kab.
322 City of Jupiter," the Greek name for Thebes, the No or No Ammon of Scripture. It stood in the centre of the Thebaid, on both banks of the Nile, above Coptos, and in the Nomos Coptites. Its ruins, which are the most magnificent in the world, enclose within their site the four villages of Carnac, Luxor, Medinet Abou, and Gournou.
323 Its hieroglyphical name was Kobto, and its site is now occupied by the modern town of Kouft or Keft. It was situate in lat. 26° north, on the right bank of the Nile, about a mile from its banks. As a halting place or rather watering-place for the caravans, it was enriched by the commerce between Libya and Egypt on the one hand, and Arabia and India and Egypt on the other, the latter being carried on through the port of Berenice on the Red Sea, founded by Ptolemy Philadelphus, B.C. 266. In the seventh century of the Christian era, it bore for some time the name of Justinianopolis. There are a few remains of Roman buildings to be seen on its site.
324 Also called Aphrodite or Aphroditopolis. Of this name there were several towns or cities in ancient Egypt. In Lower Egypt there was Atarbechis, thus named, and a town mentioned by Strabo in the nome of Leontopolites. In the Heptanomis or Middle Egypt there was the place, the ruins of which are called Aftyeh, on the east side of the Nile, and the capital of the nome of Aphroditopolites. In Upper Egypt or the Thebais there was the present Tachta, on the west side of the Nile, between Ptolemais and Panopolis, capital of another nome of Aphroditopolites, and that one the ruins of which are now called Deir, on the west bank of the Nile, higher up than the former, and, like it, some distance from the river. It was situate in the nome Hermonthites.
325 Another Diospolis. Great Diospolis is mentioned in the preceding page.
326 Or Tentyra. The modern Dendera of the Arabs, called Dendôri or Hidendôri by the ancient Egyptians.
327 In ancient times called This, and in Coptic Ebôt, the ruins of which are now known as Arábat-el-Matfoon. It was the chief town of the Nomos Thinites, and was situate in lat. 26°10′ north and long. 32°3′ east. In the Thebaid it ranked next to Thebes itself. Here according to general belief was the burial-place of Osiris. In the time of Strabo it had sunk into a mere village. Its ruins, though nearly buried in the sand, are very extensive. There is, however, some uncertainty as to the exact identity of This with Abydus.
328 The ruins of these places are still to be seen at Abydus.
329 He calls the whole of the country on the western bank of the Nile by this name.
330 Called Absou or Absaï by the Arabs, and Psoë by the ancient Egyptians. It has been suggested that it was the same place as This, more generally identified with Abydus.
331 Its site is now called Ekhmin or Akhmin by the Arabs, Khmim being its ancient Egyptian name. It was the chief town of the nome of Panopolites, and the deity Phthah was worshipped there under the form of Priapus.
332 Another Aphroditopolis, the present Tachta, mentioned above, in Note6 in the last page. Pliny distinguishes it from that now called Deir, mentioned above.
333 Now known as Es-Siout.
334 Or Hermopolis—the modern Esh-moon or Ash-mounion, on the eastern bank of the Nile, in lat. 27°54′ north. It was the capital of the Hermopolite nome in the Heptanomis. It was a place of great opulence and densely populated. The deities Typhon and Thoth were principally worshipped at this place. The latter, the inventor of the pen and letters, nearly corresponded with the Hermes of the Greeks (the Mercury of the Romans), from which the Hellenized name of the place. Its ruins are very extensive.
335 This town was no doubt connected with the alabaster quarries of Mount Alabasternus, now Mount St. Anthony, and the hill of Alabastrites, now the Côteau Hessan.
336 Or Cynopolis, the chief place of the Cynopolite nome. The Dog-headed deity Anubis was worshipped here. The modern Samallus occupies its site. This place was in the Heptanomis, but there were several other towns of the same name, one of which was situate in the Delta or Lower Egypt.
337 In C. 9, when speaking of the nome of Heracleopolites; of which nome, this place, called Heracleopolis, was the capital. It was situate at the entrance of the valley of the Fayoum, on an island formed by the Nile and a canal. After Memphis and Heliopolis it was probably the most important city north of the Thebaid. It furnished two dynasties of kings to Egypt. The ichneumon was worshipped here, from which it may be inferred that the people were hostile to the crocodile. Its ruins are inconsiderable; the village of Anasieh covers part of them.
338 The capital of the nome of Arsinoites, seated on the western bank of the Nile, between the river and Lake Mœris, south-west of Memphis, in lat. 29° north. It was called under the Pharaohs, "the City of Crocodiles," from the reverence paid by the people to that animal. Its ruins are to be seen at Medinet-el-Fayoom or El-Fares.
339 Its magnificent ruins, known by the name of Menf and Metrabenny, are to be seen about ten miles above the pyramids of Gizeh.
340 This lay beyond Lake Mœris, or Birket-el-Keroun, at a short distance from the city of Arsinoë. It had 3000 apartments, 1500 of which were underground. The accounts given by modern travellers of its supposed ruins do not agree with what we have learned from the ancients respecting its architecture and site. The purposes for which it was built are unknown. Its supposed site is called Havara.
341 If this is not an abbreviation or corruption for Crocodilon, as Hardouin suggests, it may probably mean the "town of Rams," from the worship perhaps of that animal there.
342 Heliopolis or Rameses. In Scripture it is called by the names of On and No—Gen. xli. 45 and Ezek. xxx. 15. It stood on the eastern side of the Pelusiac arm of the Nile, near the right bank of the Great Canal which connected the river with the Red Sea, and close adjoining to the present overland route for travellers to India. It was one of the most ancient of the Egyptian cities; here the father-in-law of Joseph exercised the office of high-priest, and here the prophet Jeremiah is supposed to have written his Book of Lamentations. Its priests were the great depositaries of the theological and historical learning of Egypt. Solon, Thales, and Plato were reputed each to have visited its schools. According to Macrobius, Baalbec, the Syrian City of the Sun, was a colony from this place. It was the capital of the nome Heliopolites, and paid worship to the sun and the bull Mnevis, the rival of Apis. From Josephus we learn that after the dispersion and fall of the tribes of Judah and Israel, great numbers of the Jews took refuge at this place, forming almost one-half of its population. The ruins, which were extremely magnificent, occupied in the twelfth century an area nearly three miles in extent. Pliny speaks of the great obelisk there, which is still standing. (See B. xxxvi. c. 9.) The village of Matarieh occupies a part of its site, and besides the obelisk of red granite, there are a few remains of the Temple of the Sun.
343 Now called Birk-el-Mariout.
344 Or Dinocrates. He was the architect of the new temple of Diana at Ephesus, which was built after the destruction of the former one by Herostratus. It was this architect who formed a design for cutting Mount Athos into a statue of Alexander, with a city in the right hand and a reservoir of the mountain streams in the left.
345 Holland seems to think that the word "laxitate" applies to chlamys.
346 The chlamys was a scarf or cloak worn over the shoulders, and especially used by military persons of high rank. It did not reach lower than the knees, and was open in front, covering only the neck, back, and shoulders.
347 Its real dimensions were something less than 300 stadia, or thirty geographical miles long, and rather more than 150 stadia wide.
348 Or "Pseudostomata." These were crossed in small boats, as they were not navigable for ships of burden.
349 In the Pharaonic times Canopus was the capital of the nome of Menelaïtes, and the principal harbour of the Delta. It probably owed its name to the god Canobus, a pitcher full of holes, with a human head, which was worshipped here with peculiar pomp. It was remarkable for the number of its festivals and the general dissoluteness of its morals. Traces of its ruins are to be seen about three miles from the modern Aboukir.
350 Corresponding to the modern Raschid or Rosetta. It is supposed that this place was noted for its manufactory of chariots.
351 The town of Sebennys or Sebennytum, now Samannoud, gave name to one of the nomes, and the Sebennytic Mouth of the Nile.
352 Or the Pathinetic or Bucolic Mouth, said to be the same as the modern Damietta Mouth.
353 The capital of the Mendesian nome, called by the Arabs Ochmoun. This mouth is now known as the Deibeh Mouth.
354 Now called Szan or Tzan. The Tanitic Mouth, which is sometimes called the Saitic, is at the present day called Omm-Faredjé.
355 Its ruins are to be seen at the modern Tineh. This city in early times had the name of Abaris. It was situate on the eastern side of the most easterly mouth of the Nile, which, after it, was called the Pelusiac Mouth, about two miles from the sea, in the midst of morasses. Being the fiontier city towards Syria and Arabia it was strongly fortified. It was the birth-place of Ptolemy the geographer.
356 Butos or Buto stood on the Sebennytic arm of the Nile near its mouth, on the southern shores of the Butic Lake. It was the chief seat of the worship of the goddess Buto, whom the Greeks identified with Leto or Latona. The modern Kem Kasir occupies its site.
357 Called Harbait by the Arabs, and Farbait by the ancient Egyptians.
358 In the Delta. It was the capital of the nome of Leontopolites, and probably of late foundation, as no writer previous to Pliny mentions it. Its site is uncertain, but Thall-Essabouah, the "Hill of the Lion," has been suggested.
359 The chief town of the Athribitic nome in Lower Egypt. It stood on the eastern bank of the Tanitic branch of the Nile. This nome and town derived their name from the goddess Thriphis, whom the inscriptions there and at Panopolis designate as the "most great goddess." The ruins at Atrieb or Trieb, at the spot where the modern canal of Moueys turns off from the Nile, represent the ancient Athribis. They are very extensive, and among them are considerable remains of the Roman era.
360 This was situate near the city or town of Busiris in the Delta. The modern village of Bahbeyt is supposed to cover the ruins of the temple of Isis.
361 The modern Busyr or Abousir, where considerable ruins of the ancient city are still to be seen. It was the chief town of the nome of Busirites, and stood south of Sais, near the Phatnitic mouth, on the western bank of the Nile. This was also the name of a town in Middle Egypt, in the neighbourhood of Memphis, and represented by another village of the name of Abousir. Pliny, B. xxxvi. c. 16, speaks of the Catacombs in its vicinity.
362 The place of that name in the Delta is here meant.
363 Probably the town of that name, otherwise called Aphroditopolis, in the nome of Leontopolites.
364 The ruins of which are now called Sa-el-Hajjar. It was situate in the Delta, on the east side of the Canopic branch of the Nile. It was the ancient capital of Lower Egypt and contained the palace and burial-place of the Pharaohs. It was the chief seat of the worship of the Egyptian goddess Neith, also known as Sais. It gave its name to the nome of Saïtes.
365 It was situate in the Delta of Egypt and in the nome of Saïtes, on the eastern bank of the Canopic branch of the Nile. It was a colony of the Milesians, founded probably in the reign of Amasis, about B.C. 550, and remained a pure Greek city. It was the only place in Egypt in which, in the time of the later Pharaohs, foreigners were permitted to settle and trade. In later times it was famous for the worship of Aphrodite or Venus, and rivalled Canopus in the dissoluteness of its manners.
366 Ptolemy the geographer does this.
367 Arabia Petræa; that part of Arabia which immediately joins up to Egypt.
368 Called Arabia Felix to the present day.
369 The part of Arabia which joins up to Egypt, Arabia Petræa namely.
370 Strabo places this people as far south as the mouth of the Red Sea, i.e. on the east of the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb. Forster (in his 'Arabia,' vol. ii.) takes this name to be merely an inversion of Beni Kahtan, the great tribe which mainly peoples, at the present day, central and southern Arabia.
371 Probably the people of Esebon, the Heshbon of Scripture, spoken of by Jerome as being the city of Sihon, king of the Amorites.
372 The "tent-people," from the Greek σκηνὴ, "a tent." This seems to have been a name common to the nomadic tribes of Arabia. Ammianus Marcellinus speaks of them as being the same as the Saraceni or Saracens.
373 The modern El Katieh or El Kas; which is the summit of a lofty range of sandstone hills on the borders of Egypt and Arabia Petræa, immediately south of the Sirbonian Lake and the Mediterranean Sea. On its western side was the tomb of Pompey the Great.
374 The same as the Amalekites of Scripture, according to Hardouin. Bochart thinks that they are the same as the Chavilæi, who are mentioned as dwelling in the vicinity of Babylon.
375 The position which Pliny assigns to this nation would correspond with the northern part of the modern district of the Hedjaz. Forster identifies them with the Cauraitæ, or Cadraitæ of Arrian, and the Darræ of Ptolemy, tracing their origin to the Cedar or Kedar, the son of Ishmael, mentioned in Genesis xxv. 13, and represented by the modern Harb nation and the modern town of Kedeyre. See Psalm cxx. 5: "Woe is me, that I sojourn in Mesech, that I dwell in the tents of Kedar!"
376 An Arabian people, said to have descended from the eldest son of Ishmael, who had their original abodes in the north-western part of the Arabian peninsula, east and south-east of the Moabites and Edomites. Extending their territory, we find the Nabatæi of Greek and Roman history occupying nearly the whole of Arabia Petræa, along the northeast coast of the Red Sea, on both sides of the Ælanitic Gulf, and on the Idumæan mountains, where they had their capital, Petra, hewn out of the rock.
377 Now the Bahr-el-Soueys, or Gulf of Suez.
378 The Bahr-el-Akabah, or Gulf of Akabah.
379 Now Akabah, an Idumæan town of Arabia Petræa, situate at the head of the eastern gulf of the Red Sea, which was called after this town "Ælaniticus Sinus." It was annexed to the kingdom of Judah, with the other cities of Idumæa, by David, 2 Sam. viii. 14, and was one of the harbours on the Red Sea from which the ships of Solomon sailed for Ophir. See 1 Kings ix. 26 and 2 Chron. viii. 17. It was a place of commercial importance under the Romans and the head-quarters of the Tenth Legion. A fortress now occupies its site.
380 Its site is now known as Guzzah. It was the last city on the south-west frontier of Palestine, and from the earliest times was a strongly fortified place. It was taken from the Philistines by the Jews more than once, but as often retaken. It was also taken by Cyrus the Great and Alexander, and afterwards by Ptolemy Lagus, who destroyed it. It afterwards recovered, and was again destroyed by Alexander Jannæus, B.C. 96, after which, it was rebuilt by Gabinius and ultimately united to the Roman province of Syria. In A.D. 65 it was again destroyed, but was rebuilt, and finally fell into the hands of the Arabs, in A.D. 634.
381 Meaning the Mediterranean.
382 The present Suez. See B. vi. c. 33.
383 Or the "Hollow" Syria. This was properly the name given, after the Macedonian conquest, to the great valley between the two great ranges of Mount Lebanon, in the south of Syria, bordering upon Phœnicia on the west, and Palestine on the south. In the wars between the Ptolemies and the Seleucidæ, the name was applied to the whole of the southern portion of Syria, which became subject for some time to the kings of Egypt; but under the Romans, it was confined to Cœlesyria proper with the district east of Anti-Libanus, about Damascus, and a portion of Palestine east of Jordan.
384 Or Ostracine, the northern point of Arabia.
385 This was a great fortress of Syria founded by Seleucus B.C. 300, at the foot of Mount Pieria and overhanging the Mediterranean, four miles north of the Orontes and twelve miles west of Antioch. It had fallen entirely to decay in the sixth century of our era. There are considerable ruins of its harbour and mole, its walls and necropolis. They bear the name of Seleukeh or Kepse.
386 From the Greek ζεῦγμα, "a junction ;" built by Seleucus Nicator on the borders of Commagene and Cyrrhestice, on the west bank of the Euphrates, where the river had been crossed by a bridge of boats constructed by Alexander the Great. The modern Rumkaleh is supposed to occupy its site.
387 On this subject see B. vii. c. 57. The invention of letters and the first cultivation of the science of astronomy have been claimed for the Egyptians and other nations. The Tyrians were probably the first who applied the science of astronomy to the purposes of navigation. There is little doubt that warfare must have been studied as an art long before the existence of the Phœnician nation.
388 Strabo places this between Mount Casius and Pelusium.
389 See C. 12 of the present Book. Chabrias the Athenian aided Nectanebus II. against his revolted subjects.
390 Its ruins are to be seen on the present Ras Straki.
391 Now called the Sabakat Bardowal. It lay on the coast of Egypt, east of Mount Casius, and it is not improbable that the boundary-line between Egypt and Palæstina or Idumæa ran through the middle of its waters. It was strongly impregnated with asphaltus. A connection formerly existed between it and the Mediterranean, but this being stopped up, it gradually grew smaller by evaporation and is now nearly dry.
392 The present Kulat-el-Arich or El Arish, situate at the mouth of the brook El-Arish, called by the Scriptures the "river of Egypt." Its name signifies in Greek, "cutting off of noses," and is probably derived from the fact of its having been the place of exile for criminals who had been so mutilated, under the Æthiopian kings of Egypt. Poinsinet suggests however that the name means the "town of the circumcised."
393 The place on its site is still called Refah, but it was really situate on the coast. Gaza has been already mentioned in a Note to C. 12, p. 423.
394 Anthedon was on the coast of Palestine, although Pliny says to the contrary. It was situate about three miles to the south-west of Gaza, and was destroyed by Alexander Jannæus. In the time of Julian it was addicted to the worship of Astarte, the Syrian Venus. According to Dupinet the present name of its site is Daron.
395 Brotier says that this is the same as the Mount Gerizim of Scripture, but that was situate in Samaria, a considerable distance from the southern coast of Palæstina. Pliny is the only author that mentions it.
396 The Ascalon of Scripture, one of the five cities of the Philistines, situate on the coast of the Mediterranean, between Gaza and Jamnia. In early times it was the seat of the worship of Derceto, a fish with a woman's head. The ruins, which still bear the name of Askulân, are very extensive, and indicative of great strength. The shalot or scallion was originally a native of this place, and thence derived its name.
397 The Ashdod of Scripture. It was one of the five cities of the Philistines and the chief seat of the worship of Dagon. Herodotus states that it stood a siege of twenty-nine years from Psammetichus, king of Egypt. It was afterwards taken and retaken several times. It was situate between Ascalon and Jamnia, and its site is indicated by the modern village of Esdad, but no ruins of the ancient city are visible.
398 One of these was a city of the Philistines, assigned to the tribe of Judah in the fifteenth Chapter of Joshua, 45, according to the Septuagint version, but omitted in the Hebrew, which only mentions it in 2 Chron. xxvi. 6 (where it is called Jabneh in the English version), as one of the cities of the Philistines taken and destroyed by King Uzziah. The place of this name that lay in the interior, is probably the one spoken of by Josephus as in that part of the tribe of Judah occupied by the children of Dan, as also in the 1 Maccabees, x. 69–71. The one was probably the port of the other. The ruins of the port still retain the name of Yebora, and are situate on an eminence about an hour's distance from the sea, on the banks of the river Rûbin.
399 Or Joppa of Scripture, now called Yâfa or Jaffa. The timber from Lebanon intended for both the first and second Temples was landed here. It was taken and retaken more than once during the wars of the Maccabees, and was finally annexed by Pompey to the Roman province of Syria. It is mentioned several times in the New Testament in connection with Saint Peter. In the Jewish war, having become a refuge for pirates, it was taken by Cestius and destroyed, and even the very ruins were demolished by Vespasian. It was afterwards rebuilt, and in the time of the Crusades was alternately in the hands of the Christians and the Moslems.
400 To be devoured by the sea monster, from which she was delivered by Perseus, who had borrowed for the occasion the talaria or winged shoes of Mercury. In B. ix. c. 4, Pliny states that the skeleton of the monster was exhibited at Rome by M. Æmilius Scaurus, when he was Curule Ædile.
401 Probably the same as Derceto or Atargatis, the fish-goddess with a woman's head, of the Syrians.
402 Situate between Cæsarea and Joppa. It is probable that it owed its name to the Macedonian kings of either Egypt or Syria. Arsûf, a deserted village, but which itself was of considerable importance in the time of the Crusades, represents the ancient Apollonia.
403 The site of the Turris Stratonis was afterwards occupied by Cæsarea, a city on the coast, founded by Herod the Great, and named Cæsarea in honour of Augustus Cæsar. It was renowned for the extent and magnificence of its harbour, which was secured by a breakwater of stupendous construction. For some time it was considered the principal city of Palestine and the chief seat of the Roman government. Although it again changed its name, as Pliny states, it still retained its name of Cæsarea as the Metropolitan See of the First Palestine. It was also of considerable importance during the occupation of the Holy Land by the Crusaders. Its ruins are still visible, but have served as a quarry for many generations, and Jaffa, Sidon, Acre and Beyrout have been supplied with stones from this site. Massive remains of its mole or break-water and its towers still exist.
404 Or Phœnicia.
405 By some regarded as the Scriptural town of Sichem, but by others as a distinct place, though in its immediate vicinity. Its present name is Naplous or Nabolos, situate between Mounts Ebal and Gerizim. Its proper name under the Romans was Flavia Neapolis. It was the birth-place of Justin Martyr.
406 The city of Samaria, so called from Shemer, the owner of the hill which Omri, King of Israel, purchased, about B.C. 922, for its site. Herod greatly renovated this city, which he called Sebaste, in honour of his patron Augustus, in Greek "Sebastos." Its site is now occupied by a poor village, which bears the name of Sebustieh.
407 A town of Palæstina, frequently mentioned by Josephus as remarkable for the strength of its fortifications, and situate on the Lake Tiberias, opposite to Tarichæa. After a spirited defence, it was taken by Vespasian, who slaughtered 4000 of the survivors, upon which 5000 threw themselves from the walls, and were dashed to pieces below. The site had been forgotten for nearly eighteen centuries, when Lord Lindsay discovered it on a lofty hill on the east of Lake Tiberias, and nearly opposite the town of that name. It is now called El-Hossn, and the ruins of the fortifications are very extensive.
408 Antiochian Syria.
409 Peræa was the general name of that part of Palæstina which lay east of the river Jordan; but more usually, in a restricted sense, it signified a part only of that region, namely the district between the rivers Hieromax on the north, and Arnon on the south.
410 Jericho, so often mentioned in Scripture. It was celebrated for its palm-grove, which was presented by Antony to Cleopatra. A Bedouin encampment called Riha is all that now occupies its site.
411 A city eight or ten miles from the village Emmaüs of the New Testament. It was called Nicopolis, in commemoration, it has been suggested, of the destruction of Jerusalem. Its site is still marked by a village called Ammious, on the road from Jerusalem to Jaffa.
412 So often mentioned in the New Testament. This town lay to the S.E. of Joppa, and N.W. of Jerusalem, at the junction of several roads which lead from the sea-coast. It was destroyed by the Romans in the Jewish war, but was soon after rebuilt, and called Diospolis. A village called Lud occupies its site.
413 So called from Acrabbim, its chief town, situate nine miles from Nicopolis. The toparchy of Acrabbim, which formerly formed part of Samaria, was the most northerly of those of Judæa.
414 Situate in the country of Benjamin. Josephus reckons it second in importance only to Jerusalem, from which, according to Eusebius, it was distant fifteen miles, on the road to the modern Nablous. That author also identifies it with the Eshcol of Scripture. Its site is marked by a small Christian village, called by the natives Jufia.
415 Like the two preceding ones, this toparchy for a long time belonged to Samaria. Thamna, or Thamnis, was the Timnath-Serah in Mount Ephraim, mentioned in Joshua xix. 50, and xxiv. 30, as the place where Joshua was buried.
416 The toparchy of Bethleptepha of other authors. It appears to have been situate in the south of Judæa, and in that part which is by Josephus commonly called Idumæa. Reland has remarked, that the name resembles Beth-lebaoth, a city of the tribe of Simeon, mentioned in Joshua xix. 6.
417 From the Greek, meaning the "mountain district," or the "hill country," as mentioned in Luke i. 39.
418 Or "Sacred Solyma."
419 A fortress of Palæstina, erected by Herod the Great, at a distance of about sixty stadia from Jerusalem, and not far from Tekoa. Its site has been identified by modern travellers with El-Furedis, or the Paradise; probably the same as the spot called the "Frank Mountain," on the top of which the ruined walls of the fortress are still to be seen.
420 Called by the Arabs Bahr-el-Arden.
421 Situate on Mount Panias, or Paneas, on the range of Anti-Libanus.
422 In C 16 of the present Book.
423 On the contrary, as Parisot observes, the Jordan runs in a straight line almost into the Dead Sea.
424 The Lake of Sodom, or the Dead Sea, in which the Cities of the Plain were swallowed up.
425 In Scripture also called the Lake Tiberias, and the Sea of Gennesareth, or Chinnereth. It is now called the Sea of Tabariah, or Tabarieh.
426 The one of the two Bethsaidas, which was situate on the north of the Sea of Tiberias. It was enlarged by Philip the Tetrarch, who greatly beautified it, and changed its name to Julias, in honour of the daughter of Augustus, the wife of Tiberius. It is generally supposed by the learned world, that this was not the Bethsaida mentioned so often in the New Testament. Its ruins are probably those now seen on a hill called Et-Tell, on the north-western extremity of the lake.
427 On the east of the lake. From it the district of Hippene took its name.
428 Its ruins are to be seen at El-Kereh, on the south side of the lake. It was strongly fortified, and made a vigorous resistance against the Romans in the Jewish War. It received its name from the great quantities of fish which were salted there, τάριχοι.
429 Now Tabariah, or Tabarieh, a miserable village. It was built by Herod Antipas, in honour of the Emperor Tiberius. After the destruction of Jerusalem, it became the seat of the Jewish Sanhedrim.
430 These hot springs are by Josephus called Emmaüs, probably a form of the Hebrew name Hammath. Dr. Robinson, in his Biblical Researches, identifies this with the town of Hammath, of the tribe of Naphthali, mentioned in Joshua xix. 35.
432 This is an exaggeration, though it is the fact that many heavy substances, which in ordinary water would sink immediately, will float on the surface of this lake. It has been suggested, that the story here mentioned arose from the circumstance of the name of 'bulls,' or 'cows,' having been applied by the ancient Nabatæi to the large masses of asphaltum which floated on its surface.
433 The country of the Arabian Scenitæ, or "tent people."
434 It lay on the east of the Dead Sea, and not the south, as here mentioned by Pliny, being a border fortress in the south of Peræa, and on the confines of the Nabatæi. There was a tradition that it was at this place that John the Baptist was beheaded. The city now bears the name of Mascra.
435 A Greek name, signifying the "Fine Stream." These were warm springs, situate on the eastern side of Jordan, to which Herod the Great resorted during his last illness, by the advice of his physicians. The valley of Callirhoë was visited by Captains Irby and Mangles in 1818, and an interesting account of it is to be found in their 'Travels,' pp. 467–469. The waters are sulphureous to the taste.
436 The Essenes, or Hessenes. These properly formed one of the great sects into which the Jews were divided in the time of Christ. They are not mentioned by name in the New Testament, but it has been conjectured that they are alluded to in Matt. xix. 12, and Col. ii. 18, 23. As stated here by Pliny, they generally lived at a distance from large towns, in communities which bore a great resemblance to the monkish societies of later times. They sent gifts to the Temple at Jerusalem, but never offered sacrifices there. They were divided into four classes, according to the time of their initiation. Their origin is uncertain. Some writers look upon them as the same as the Assidians, or Chasidim, mentioned in 1 Maccabees, ii. 42, vii. 13. Their principal society was probably the one mentioned by Pliny, and from this other smaller ones proceeded, and spread over Palestine, Syria, and Egypt. The Essenes of Egypt were divided into two sects; the practical Essenes, whose mode of life was the same as those of Palestine; and the contemplative Essenes, who were called Therapeutœ. Both sects maintained the same doctrines; but the latter were distinguished by a more rigid mode of life. It has been suggested by Taylor, the editor of 'Calmet's Dictionary of the Bible,' that John the Baptist belonged to this sect.
437 Or Engedi. Its ancient name was Hazezon-Tamar, when it was inhabited by the Amorites. See Gen. xiv. 7; 2 Chron. xx. 2. According to Josephus, it gave name to one of the fifteen toparchies of Judæa. It still retains its name, Ain-Jedey, or "Fountain of the Goats," and was so called from a spring which issued out of the limestone rock at the base of a lofty cliff.
438 Its site is now known as Sebbeh, on the south-west of the Dead Sea.
439 δεκὰ πολεῖς, the "Ten Cities." He alludes to the circumstance, that the number of cities varied from time to time in this district; one being destroyed in warfare, and others suddenly rising from its foundation.
440 The capital city of Syria, both in ancient and modern times. It is now called Es-Sham. The only epithet given to it by the ancient poets is that of "ventosa," or "windy," found in the Pharsalia of Lucan, B. iii. 1. 215, which, it has been remarked, is anything but appropriately chosen.
441 Or the "Golden River." It is uncertain whether this was the Abana or Pharpar, mentioned in 2 Kings v. 12. Strabo remarks, that the waters of the Chrysorroös "are almost entirely consumed in irrigation, as it waters a large extent of deep soil."
442 The ancient Rabbath Ammon, a city of the Ammonites. It was afterwards called Astarte, and then Philadelphia, in honour of Ptolemy Philadelphus. According to D'Anville, the present name of its site is Amman.
443 Thirty-three miles from Apamea. Its ruins are probably those mentioned by Abulfeda under the name of Rafaniat. William of Tyre says, that it was taken in the year 1125 by the Count of Tripoh.
444 Previously called Beth-shan. It was the next city of the Decapolis in magnitude after Damascus. It was situate in the land of the tribe of Issachar, though it belonged to the Manasites. At this place the bodies of Saul and his sons were hung up by the Philistines; see 1 Sam. xxxi. 10–12. Reland suggests that it received the name of Scythopolis, not from a Scythian colony, but from the Succoth of Gen. xxxiii. 17, which appears to have been in its vicinity. Its ruins, which still bear the name of Baisan, are very extensive.
445 Called by Josephus the capital of Peræa, and the chief place of the district of the Gadarenes of the Evangelists. Its ruins, about six miles south-east of the Sea of Galilee, are very extensive.
446 Still called the Yarmak, evidently from its ancient name. Hippo has been mentioned in the last Chapter.
447 Or Dium, between Pella and Gadara. In later times, this place was included in Roman Arabia.
448 Also called Butis. It was the most southerly of the ten cities which comprised the Decapolis, standing about five miles south of Scythopolis, or Beth-shan. Its exact site seems not to have been ascertained; but it has been suggested that it is the modern El-Bujeh. From the expression used by Pliny, it would appear to have had mineral waters in its vicinity.
449 Of this place nothing is known; but it is most probable that the Gerasa of Ptolemy and Josephus is meant. According to the former writer, it was thirty-five miles from Pella. Its site is marked by extensive ruins, thirty-five miles east of the Jordan, known by the name of Gerash, and on the borders of the Great Desert of the Hauvan. According to Dr. Keith, the ruins bear extensive marks of splendour.
450 Ptolemy mentions a city of this name in Cœlesyria.
451 So called from having been originally groups of four principalities, held by princes who were vassals to the Roman emperors, or the kings of Syria.
452 Containing the northern district of Palestine, beyond the Jordan, between Antilibanus and the mountains of Arabia. It was bounded on the north by the territory of Damascus, on the east by Auranitis, on the south by Ituræa, and on the west by Gaulanitis. It was so called from its ranges of rocky mountains, or τραχῶνες, the caves in which gave refuge to numerous bands of robbers.
453 So called from the mountain of that name. Cæsarea Philippi also bore the name of Panias. It was situate at the south of Mount Hermon, on the Jordan, just below its source. It was built by Philip the Tetrarch, B.C. 3. King Agrippa called it Neronias; but it soon lost that name.
454 In C. xiv. of the present Book, as that in which the Jordan takes its rise.
455 A place of great strength in Cœle-Syria, now known as Nebi Abel, situate between Heliopolis and Damascus.
456 Situate between Tripolis and Antaradus, at the north-west foot of Mount Libanus. It lay within a short distance of the sea, and was famous for the worship paid by its inhabitants to Astarte, the Syrian Aphrodite. A temple was erected here to Alexander the Great, in which Alexander Severus, the Roman Emperor, was born, his parents having resorted thither to celebrate a festival, A.D. 205. From this circumstance, its name was changed to Cæsarea. Burckhardt fixes its site at a hill called Tel-Arka.
457 Of this place, which probably took its name from its numerous vines, nothing whatever is known.
458 Called by Pliny, in B. xii. c. 41, Gabba. It was situate at the foot of Mount Carmel between Cæsarea and Ptolemais, sixteen miles from the former. No remains of it are to be seen. It must not be confounded with Gabala, in Galilee, fortified by Herod the Great.
459 The town was situate between Cæsarea and Ptolemais. The river has been identified with the modern Nahl-el-Zerka, in which, according to Pococke, crocodiles have been found.
460 Called Dor, before the conquest of Canaan by the Israelites. See Joshua xvii. 11, and Judges i. 27. It afterwards belonged to the half-tribe of Manasseh. Its site is now called Tortura.
461 Its site is now called Atlik, according to D'Anville. Parisot suggests that it is the modern Keufah; others that it is Hepha, near Mount Carmel.
462 Insignificant in height and extent, but celebrated in Scripture history. It still bears the name of Cape Carmel.
463 It is not improbable that he means the town of Porphyrium, now Khaifa, at the foot of the mountain.
464 Probably the Gitta of Polybius. Of it and Jeba, nothing is known.
465 The Nahr-Naman, or Abou, on which Ptolemais was situate.
466 Employed in the extensive manufacture of that article at Tyre and Sidon, to the north of this district.
467 A corruption of Acco, the native name; from which the English name Acre, and the French St. Jean d'Acre. The earliest mention of it is in the Book of Judges, i. 31. It is supposed that it was Ptolemy I., the son of Lagus, who enlarged it and gave it the name of Ptolemais. Its citadel, however, still retained the name of Ace. Under the Romans, Ptolemais, as mentioned by Pliny, was a colony, and belonged to Galilee. The modern city of Acre occupies its site.
468 The Ach-Zib of Scripture, mentioned in Joshua xix. 29, and Judges I. 31. Its ruins are to be seen near the sea-shore, about three hours' journey north of Acre. The spot is still called Es-Zib.
469 Still called the Ras-el-Abiad, or White Promontory.
470 A colony of the Sidonians: its scanty ruins are still to be seen at the poor village of Sur. The wars of the Crusades completed its downfall. The island is still joined to the mainland by the mole which was erected by Alexander the Great during the siege of the place; or, according to some, by the Syrians themselves.
471 Carthage is supposed to have been colonized immediately by the people of Utica.
472 From which was made the famous Tyrian purple.
473 Or "ancient Tyre," which was built on the mainland.
474 The Zarephath of 1 Kings xvii. 9, 10, whither Elijah was sent to the widow, whose son he afterwards raised from the dead. Its site is now known as Sarfand.
475 Probably meaning "City of the Birds," perhaps from the quantities of game in its vicinity. Its site now bears the name of Adlan.
476 Its site is now called Saïda. In the time of David and Solomon, it was probably subject to the kings of Tyre.
477 Cadmus, the founder of Thebes, was said to have been the son of its king Agenor.
478 The Lebanon of Scripture. This intervening space, the ancient Cœle-Syria, is now inhabited by the Druses.
479 Perhaps the modern Nahr-el-Damur.
480 Now Beyrout. By some it has been identified with the Berotha, or Berothai, of the Hebrew Scriptures. Its full name as a Roman colony was, "Colonia Julia Augusta Felix Berytus." It was colonized by the veterans of the Fifth, or Macedonian, and the Eighth, or Augustan, Legions. Beyrout, or Berut, is now, in a commercial point of view, the most important place in Syria.
481 Nothing is known of this place. The name seems to mean, the "Town of the Lion."
482 Now the Nahr-el-Kelb, or "Dog's River."
483 The site of this place seems not to be known.
484 Now the Nahr-el-Ibrahim.
485 The modern town which stands on its site is called Jebeil. It is situate at the foot of Lebanon. The ancient name seems to have been Gebal, and the Geblites are mentioned in Joshua, xiii. 5; 1 Kings, v. 18; and Ezek. xxvii. 9. The ruins of the ancient city are very extensive. Astarte and Isis seem to have been worshipped here.
486 Now Batrun, a small town about twelve miles north of Byblus, said to have been founded by Ithobal, king of Tyre.
487 Now Gazir, according to D'Anville.
488 Twelve miles from Tripolis. Its name would seem to bear reference to a trireme, or galley. It has been said that this is the place referred to in the Book of Daniel, xi. 30.
489 Polybius speaks of this place as being burnt by Antiochus. Its site still bears the name of Calamon, according to D'Anville.
490 This properly consisted of three distinct cities, 600 feet apart, each with its own walls, but all connected in a common constitution; having one place of assembly, and forming in reality one city only. They were colonies, as here suggested by Pliny, of Tyre, Sidon, and Arados respectively. It is still a considerable place, called Tarabolos, or Tarablis, by the Turks.
491 Its site is still known as Ortosa, or Tortosa.
492 Probably the same as the Nahr-el-Kebir, or "Great River," to the north of Tripolis. It may have derived its Greek name, which signifies "free," from its similarity to that given to it by the people of the country.
493 This was an important city, near Antarados. Its ruins are spoken of as very extensive. Simyra is still called Sumira.
494 Now called Ruad; an island off the northern coast of Phœnicia, at a distance of twenty stadia from the mainland, Pliny falling short here in his measurement. The city of Arados was very populous, though built on a mere rock; and, contrary to Eastern custom, the houses contained many stories. It is spoken of by the prophet Ezekiel under the name of Arvad: see c. xxvii. 8, 11. In importance, it ranked next to the cities of Tyre and Sidon.
495 Its modern name does not appear to be known.
496 Also called Antarados, as lying nearly opposite to the city of Arados. According to Strabo, the port of Antarados was called Carne, or Carnos. In the time of the Crusades, it was known under the name of Tortosa. Its present name is Tartus.
497 Now Banias. It was situate twenty-four miles north of Antarados. Its name is supposed to have originated in the baths in its vicinity. The site is deserted; but a few ruins of the ancient town are still to be seen.
498 Eight miles from Balanea. Its ruins are known by the name of Boldo.
499 Its site is now known as Djebeleh, a small village in the vicinity of Laodicea, or Latakia. The sun was probably worshipped here, and hence the Emperor Heliogabalus derived his name.
500 About fifty miles south of Antioch, now called Ladikiyeh, or Latakia, noted for the excellence of its tobacco, which has an European reputation. It was built by Seleucus I., on the site of an earlier city, called Ramitha. It was afterwards greatly favoured by Julius Cæsar. Herod the Great built an aqueduct here, the ruins of which are still in existence. It is now a poor Turkish village; but there are considerable remains of the ancient city to be seen in its vicinity.
501 It has been suggested, that Pliny means the city of Lydda, in the tribe of Benjamin, which of course would be very much to the south, and quite out of the order in which he is proceeding. If that is not the place meant, this Diospolis is utterly unknown.
502 At some miles' distance to the north of Laodicea. Pococke found some traces of its site at a spot called Minta Baurdeleh, or the Bay of the Tower.
503 Pliny is in error here most probably, and is speaking of a place as being in Syria which in reality was in Cilicia, between Platanus and Cragus. The name implies its situation near a mountain torrent.
504 On a small bay, some miles north of Heraclea.
505 Or Antioch, the capital of the Greek kings of Syria, and the most famous of the sixteen cities built by Seleucus Nicator, and called after the name of his father, (or son, as some say,) Antiochus. It was built on the Orontes, and formed one of the most beautiful and pleasant cities of the ancient world. The modern Antakieh is a poor town, built on the north-western part of the site of the ancient city, by the river. The walls, built by Justinian, may still be traced for a circuit of four miles. Here the followers of our Saviour first obtained the name of "Christians."
506 That is, "Near Daphne," there being a celebrated grove of that name, consecrated to Apollo, in its immediate vicinity.
507 Now called the Nahr-el-Asy.
508 Now Seleuca, or Kepse, at the foot of Mount Pieria. It has been referred to in a previous note.
509 Now known as Djebel-el-Akra.
510 In the extreme north-east of Egypt. See pp. 422 and 424.
511 The beginning of the fourth watch was three o'clock in the morning. The height of this mountain does not in reality appear to be anything remarkable, and has been ascertained to be but 5318 feet. There is probably no foundation for the marvellous story here told by Pliny; nevertheless, we are told by Spartianus, that the Emperor Adrian passed a night upon the mountain, for the purpose of seeing this extraordinary sight; but a storm arising, it prevented the gratification of his curiosity. It lay near Nymphæum and Seleucia, and its base was washed by the waters of the Orontes.
512 Or Baalbec, in the interior of Syria.
513 According to Ansart, it still retains that name.
514 Now called Bylan. This was the name of the narrow pass between a portion of Mount Taurus and the Rock of Rossicum. According to Ansart, the spot is called at the present day Saggal Doutan.
515 This was a Phœnician colony, on the eastern side of the Gulf of Issus; it is said by Ansart still to retain its ancient name.
516 Now called Aima-Dagh, a branch of Mount Taurus, running from the head of the Gulf of Issus, north-east, to the principal chain, and dividing Syria from Cilicia and Cappadocia. There were two passes in it, the Syrian Gates and the Amanian Gates. It is often spoken of by Cicero, who was the Roman governor of Cilicia.
517 The locality of this place is unknown, as Pliny is the only author who mentions it.
518 Now Kulat-el-Mudik, situate in the valley of the Orontes, and capital of the province of Apamene. It was fortified and enlarged by Seleucus Nicator, who gave it its name, after his wife Apama. It also bore the Macedonian name of Pella. It was situate on a hill, and was so far surrounded by the windings of the Orontes, as to become a peninsula, whence its name of Chersonesus. Very extensive ruins of this place still exist.
519 It is suggested, that these are the Phylarchi Arabes of Strabo, now called the Nosairis, who were situate to the east of Apamea. The river Marsyas here mentioned was a small tributary of the Orontes, into which it falls on the east side, near Apamea.
520 This was situate in Cyrrhestica, in Syria, on the high road from Antioch to Mesopotamia, twenty-four miles to the west of the Euphrates, and thirty-six to the south-west of Zeugma; two and a half days' journey from Berœa, and five from Antioch. It obtained its Greek name of the "Sacred City" from Seleucus Nicator, owing to its being the chief seat of the worship of the Syrian goddess Astarte. Its ruins were first discovered by Maundrell.
521 In the former editions it is "Magog;" but Sillig's reading of "Mabog" is correct, and corresponds with the Oriental forms of Munbedj, Manbesja, Manbesjun, Menba, Manba, Manbegj, and the modern name, Kara Bambuche, or Buguk Munbedj.
522 Astarte, the semi-fish goddess.
523 This Chalcis is supposed to have been situate somewhere in the district of the Buckaa, probably south of Heliopolis, or Baalbec. It has been suggested, that its site may have been at, or near Zahle; in the vicinity of which, at the village of Heusn Nieba, are to be seen some remarkable remains. Or else, possibly, at Majdel Anjar, where Abulfeda speaks of great ruins of hewn stone.
524 Ansart suggests, that Belus is here the name of a mountain, and that it may be the same that is now called Djebel-il-Semmaq.
525 To the north of Chalcidene, a town of Syria, on the slopes of the Taurus, eighty miles to the north-east of Antioch. In the Roman times, it was the head-quarters of the Tenth Legion. The ruins near the modern village of Corus represent the ancient Cyrrhus. Of the Gazatæ and Gindareni, nothing is known.
526 Possibly meaning the "Burghers of Granum." Nothing is known of these people.
527 The people of Emesa, a city in the district of Apamene, on the right, or eastern bank of the Orontes, to which, in C. 26 of the present Book, Pliny assigns a desert district beyond Palmyra. It was celebrated in ancient times for its magnificent temple of the sun, and the appointment of its priest, Bassianus, or Heliogabalus, to the imperial dignity, in his fourteenth year. It was made a colony, with the jus Italicum, by Caracalla, and afterwards became the capital of Phœnicia Libanesia. The present name of its site is Hems.
528 The Hylatæ are totally unknown. Ituræa was situate in the north-east of Palestine, and, with Trachonitis, belonged to the tetrarchy of Philip. Its boundaries cannot be precisely determined; but it may probably be traversed by a line drawn from the Lake of Tiberias to Damascus.
529 According to Ptolemy, the people of Mariama, some miles to the west of Emesa.
530 In the district of Laodicea, according to Ptolemy.
531 Near the Portæ Amani, or "Passes of Amanus."
532 Pinara was near Pagræ, in Pieria, last mentioned.
533 Probably Seleucia, in Mesopotamia, now called Bir, on the left bank of the Euphrates, opposite to the ford of Zeugma, a fortress of considerable importance.
534 Its site is doubtful. Sebj d'Aboulgazi has been suggested.
535 The people of Arethusa, a city of Syria, not far from Apamea, situate between Epiphania and Emesa. In later times, it took the name of Restan.
536 The people of Berœa, a town of Syria, midway between Antioch and Hierapolis. Seleucus Nicator gave to it the Macedonian name of Berœa; but, in A.D. 638, it resumed its ancient name of Chaleb, or Chalybon. The modern Haleb, or Aleppo, occupies its site. Some excavations, on the eastern side of it, are the only vestiges of ancient remains in the neighbourhood.
537 The people of Epiphanæa, placed by Ptolemy in the district of Cassiotis, in which also Antioch and Larissa were situate. The Itinerary of Antoninus places it sixteen miles from Larissa, thirty-two from Emesa, and 101 from Antioch of Syria. It is supposed to have been identical with the ancient Hamath, mentioned in 2 Sam. viii. 9; 1 Kings viii. 65; Isaiah x. 9, and called "Hamath the great" in Amos vi. 2, which name it also retained in the time of St. Jerome.
538 The people of Laodicea ad Libanum, a city of Cœle-Syria, at the northern entrance to the narrow valley, between Libanus and Anti- Libanus. During the possession of Cœle-Syria by the Greek kings of Egypt, it was the south west border fortress of Syria. It was the chief city of a district called Laodicene.
539 Of Leucas, or Leucadia, nothing is known. Larissa, in Syria, was a city in the district of Apamene, on the western bank of the Orontes, about half-way between Apamea and Epiphania. The site is now called Kulat-Seijar.
540 In the western branch of the plateau of Iran, a portion of the Taurus chain. Considerable changes in the course of the lower portion of the river have taken place since the time when Pliny wrote. Caranitis is the modern Arzrum, or Erzrúm, of the Turks.
541 Now called Dujik Tagh, a mountain of Armenia.
542 It has been suggested, that the proper reading here would be Xerxene.
543 Probably the district where the goddess Anais was worshipped, who is mentioned by Pliny in B. xxxiii. c. 24.
544 From the place of confluence where the two mountain streams forming the Euphrates unite. This spot is now known as Kebban Ma'den.
545 A fortress upon the river Euphrates, in Lesser Armenia. It has been identified with the ferry and lead-mines of Kebban Ma'den, the points where the Kara Su is joined by the Myrad-Chaï, at a distance of 270 miles from its source; the two streams forming, by their confluence, the Euphrates.
546 Other readings have "Pastona" here, said by D'Anville to be the modern Pastek.
547 Called the metropolis of Lesser Armenia by Procopius. It was situate between Anti-Taurus and the Euphrates, and celebrated for its fertility, more especially in fruit-trees, oil, and wine. The site of the city Melitene is now called Malatiyah, on a tributary of the Euphrates, and near that river itself.
548 It is generally supposed that "twenty-four" would be the correct reading here.
549 There were two places of this name. The one here spoken of was a town of Lesser Armenia, on the right bank of the Euphrates, at the first, or principal curve, which takes place before the river enters Mount Taurus. It is represented by the modern Iz Oghlu.
550 No other writer is found to make mention of the Lycus, which flows into the Euphrates, though there is a river formerly so called, which flows into the Tigris below Larissa, the modern Nimroud. D'Anville is of opinion, that it is formed from the numerous springs, called by the people of the district Bing-gheul, or the "Thousand Springs."
551 Now called the Myrad-Chaï. Ritter considers it to be the south arm of the Euphrates. The Arsanus is mentioned by no writer except Pliny.
552 The defile at this place is now called the Cataract of Nachour, according to Parisot.
553 The more general reading here is "Omira." Hardouin is of opinion, that this is the district referred to in the Book of Judith, ii. 24. In the Vulgate, it appears to be twice called the river >Mambre; but in our version it is called Arbonaï.
554 Burnouf has concluded, from a cuneiform inscription which he deciphered, that the name of this people was Ayurâ, and that Hardouin is wrong in conjecturing that it was a name derived from the Greek ὄρος, "a mountain," and designating the people as a mountain tribe. If Burnouf is right, the proper reading here would seem to be Arœi, or Arrhœi.
555 The length of the schœnus has been mentioned by our author in C. 11 of the present Book. M. Saigey makes the Persian parasang to be very nearly the same length as the schœnus of Pliny.
556 Commagene was a district in the north of Syria, bounded by the Euphrates on the east, by Cilicia on the west, and by Amanus on the north. Its capital was Samosata.
557 The place here spoken of by Pliny is probably the same mentioned by Ptolemy as in Cataonia, one of the provinces of Cappadocia. According to Parisot, the site of the place is called at the present day 'Ra Claudie.'
558 Salmasius has confounded these cataracts with those of Nachour, or Elegia, previously mentioned. It is evident, however, that they are not the same.
559 Now called Someisat. In literary history, it is celebrated as being the birth-place of the satirist Lucian. Nothing remains of it but a heap of ruins, on an artificial mound.
560 In the district of Osrhoëne, in the northern part of Mesopotamia. It was situate on the Syrtus, now the Daisan, a small tributary of the Euphrates. Pliny speaks rather loosely when he places it in Arabia. It is supposed that it bore the name of Antiochia during the reign of the Syrian king, Antiochus IV. The modern town of Orfahor Uufah is supposed to represent its site.
561 "The beautiful stream." It is generally supposed that this was another name of Edessa.
562 Supposed to be the Haran, or Charan, of the Old Testament. It was here, as alluded to by Pliny, that Crassus was defeated and slain by the Parthian general, Surena. It was situate in Osroëne, in Mesopotamia, and not far from Edessa. According to Stephanus, it had its name from Carrha, a river of Syria, and was celebrated in ancient times for its temple of Luna, or Lunus.
563 According to Strabo, the Aborras, now the Khabur, flowed round this town. By Tacitus it is called Anthemusias. According to Isidorus of Charax, it lay between Edessa and the Euphrates.
564 Now Rakkah, a fortified town of Mesopotamia, on the Euphrates, near the mouth of the river Bilecha. It was built by order of Alexander the Great, and completed probably by Seleucus. It is supposed to have been the same place as Callinicum, the fortifications of which were repaired by Justinian. Its name was changed in later times to Leontopolis by the Emperor Leo.
565 Now called Sinjar, according to Brotier. Some writers imagine that this was the site of "the plain in the land of Shinar," on which the Tower of Babel was built, mentioned in the Book of Genesis, xi. 2.
566 Mentioned in C. 17 of the present Book.
567 Probably not that in the district of Cassiotis, and on the western bank of the Orontes, mentioned in C. 19 of the present Book. Of this locality nothing seems to be known, except that Dupinet states that it is now called Adelphe by the Turks.
568 Probably the "Antiochia ad Taurum" mentioned by the geographer Stephanus, and by Ptolemy. Some writers place it at the modern Aintab, seventy-five miles north-east of Aleppo.
569 Now called Roum-Cala, or the "Roman Castle." For Zeugma see p. 424.
570 In the north-east of the district of Astropatene, originally called Rhaga. It was rebuilt by Seleucus Nicator, and by him called Europus. Colonel Rawlinson has identified it with the present Veramin, at no great distance from the ancient Rhages.
571 Its ruins are to be seen at the ford of El Hamman, near the modern Rakkah. It stood on the banks of the Euphrates; and here was the usual, and, for a long time, the only ford of the Euphrates. It is supposed to have derived its name from the Aramean word "Thiphsach," signifying "a ford."
572 Or "Dwellers in Tents." See p. 422.
573 According to Ortelius and Hardouin, this is the place called Sura by Pliny, in C. 26 of the present Book; but Parisot differs from that opinion. Bochart suggests, that "Ur, of the Chaldees," is the place referred to under this name; but, as Hardouin observes, that place lay at a considerable distance to the south.
574 So called from the circumstance that Palmyra stood in the midst of them. It was built by King Solomon, in an oasis of the Desert, in the midst of palm groves, from which it received its Greek name, which was a translation also of the Hebrew "Tadmor," "the city of palm-trees." It lay at a considerable distance from the Euphrates. Its site presents considerable ruins; but they are all of the Roman period, and greatly inferior to those of Baalbec or Heliopolis.
575 The rock fortress of the Idumæans in Arabia Petræa, now called Wady-Musa, half-way between the head of the Gulf of Akabah and the Dead Sea.
576 Which it continued to do until it was conquered under its queen, Zenobia, by the Emperor Aurelian, in A.D. 270. It was partially destroyed by him, but was afterwards fortified by Justinian; though it never recovered its former greatness.
577 See B. vi. c. 30.
578 Pliny is the only author that makes mention of Stelendene.
579 In C. 19 of the present Book.
580 Previously mentioned by Pliny. See p. 439. Of Elatium nothing is known.
581 The same place that is also mentioned in history as Flavia Firms Sura. The site of Philiscum is totally unknown.
582 Nothing is known of this place.
583 Parisot remarks, that it is true that the Euphrates increases periodically, much in the same manner as the Nile; but that its increase does not arise from similar causes, nor are the same results produced by it, seeing that the river does not convey the same volume of water as the Nile, and that the country in the vicinity of its bed does not, like Egypt, form a valley pent up between two ranges of hills.
585 Or "Passes." As to Mount Amanus, see C. 18 of the present Book.
586 Parisot suggests that this is the Chersos of Xenophon, the modern Kermes.
587 The Deli-Su of modern times according to D'Anville, the Maher-Su according to Pococke.
588 Pliny is the only writer that mentions this river Lycus.
589 The Gulf of Issos is now called the Gulf of Scanderoon or Iskenderun, from the town of that name, the former Alexandria ad Issum, mentioned here by Pliny. In the vicinity of Issus, Alexander defeated the army of Darius. The exact site of the town appears not to have been ascertained.
590 Which still preserves its name in Iskenderun, on the east side of the Gulf. It probably received its name in honour of Alexander the Great.
591 Or the "Green" River. Its identity is unknown.
592 Now called Ayas Kala or Kalassy. It was a place, in the Roman period, of some importance.
593 The modern river Jihan.
594 Or "Passes" of Cilicia, through the range of Taurus.
595 Called Mallo in modern times, according to Hardouin and Dupinet.
596 At the mouth of the Pyramus, according to Tzetzes.
597 Famous as the birth-place of St. Paul, the Apostle of the Gentiles. Its ruins still bear the name of Tersus. During the civil war it took part with Julius Cæsar, and from him received the name of Juliopolis.
598 They lie between the rivers Djihoun and Syhoun, according to Ansart.
599 Now called Messis, according to D'Anville and Mannert. The site of Cassipolis, or Cassiopolis according to some readings, is unknown.
600 The sites of Thynos and Zephyrium appear to be unknown. Anchiale was situate on the coast, upon the river Anchialcus, according to the geographer Stephanus. Aristobulus, quoted by Strabo, says that at this place was the tomb of Sardanapalus, and on it a relief in stone representing a man snapping the fingers of the right hand. He adds, "It is said that there is an Assyrian inscription also, recording that Sardanapalus built Anchiale and Tarsus in one day, and exhorting the reader to eat, drink, &c., as everything else is not worth That, the meaning of which was shown by the attitude of the figure." Athenæus however cites Amyntas as his authority for stating that the tomb of Sardanapalus was at Nineveh. Leake is of opinion that a mound on the banks of the river beyond the modern villages of Kazalu and Karaduar forms the remains of Anchiale.
601 The modern Syhou, according to Ansart.
602 Now called the Tersoos Chai. It is remarkable for the coldness of its waters, and it was here that Alexander the Great nearly met with his death from bathing when heated, in the stream.
603 Now Chelendreh. It was a strong place on the coast, situate on a high rock nearly surrounded by the sea. None of its ruins seem older than the early period of the Roman empire. The Turks call it Gulnare.
604 Probably so called from a temple to the Sea Nymphs there.
605 To distinguish it from Solæ or Soli of Cyprus. It was situate between the rivers Cydnus and Lamus, and was said to have been colonized by Argives and Lydians from Rhodes. Alexander mulcted its inhabitants of 200 talents, for their adhesion to the Persians. It was celebrated as the birth-place of the Stoic philosopher Chrysippus, the comic poet Philemon, and the poet and astronomer Aratus. Its name is perpetuated in the word Solecism, which is said to have been first applied to the corrupt dialect of Greek spoken by the inhabitants of this city, or as some say, of Soli in Cyprus.
606 It still retains its ancient name, and is situate on the western side of the Sarus, now the Syhoun or Syhan. Pompey settled here some of the Cilician pirates whom he had conquered.
607 Leake, in his 'Asia Minor,' p. 196, says, "The vestiges of Cibyra are probably those observed by Captain Beaufort upon a height which rises from the right bank of a considerable river about eight miles to the eastward of the Melas, about four miles to the west of Cape Karáburnu, and nearly two miles from the shore." Ptolemy mentions Cibyra as an inland town of Cilicia Trachea, but Scylax places it on the coast.
608 Its ruins are still called Pinara or Minara. It was an inland city of Lycia, some distance west of the river Xanthus, and at the foot of Mount Cragus.
609 Or perhaps 'Podalie.' Of it nothing seems to be known.
610 Or Selinuntum, now Selenti, on the coast of Cilicia. In consequence of the death here of the Emperor Trajan, it received the name of Trajanopolis. Of Ale, if that is the correct reading, nothing whatever is known.
611 On the coast of Cilicia; mentioned by Strabo as having a port. Leake places it at or near the ruined castle called Sokhta Kalesi, below which is a port, and a peninsula on the east side of the harbour covered with ruins.
612 In the district of Selenitis. It has been identified with the site of the modern fortress of Lambardo. It is also suggested that it may have been the same place as Laerte, the native city of Diogenes Laertius. Of Doron nothing seems to be known.
613 Its ruins are supposed to be those seen by Leake near the island of Crambusa. Here the walls of an ancient city may still be traced, and a mole of unhewn rocks projects from one angle of the fortress about 100 yards across the bay.
614 Strabo describes this cave as a vast hollow of circular form, surrounded by a margin of rock on all sides of considerable height; on descending it, the ground was found full of shrubs, both evergreens and cultivated, and in some parts the best saffron was grown. He also says that there was a cave which contained a large spring, from which arose a river of clear water which immediately afterwards sank into the earth and flowed underground into the sea. It was called the Bitter Water. This cave, so famed in ancient times, does not appear to have been examined by any modem traveller. It was said to have been the bed of the giant Typhon or Typhœus.
615 Now known as the Ghiuk-Su.
616 Supposed to be the same as the modern Lessan-el-Kahpeh.
617 Or Holmi, on the coast of Cilicia Tracheia, a little to the south-west of Seleucia. Leake thinks that the modern town of Aghaliman occupies the site of Holmœ.
618 Probably the same place as the Aphrodisias mentioned by Livy, Diodorus Siculus, and Ptolemy.
619 On the headland now called Cape Anemour, the most southerly part of Asia Minor. Beaufort discovered on the point indications of a considerable ancient town.
620 Its site is now called Alaya or Alanieh. This spot was Strabo's boundary-line between Pamphylia and Cilicia. Some slight remains of the ancient town were seen here by Beaufort, but no inscriptions were found.
621 Identified by Beaufort with the modern Manaugat-Su.
622 So called, either from an adjacent mountain of that name, or its founder, Anazarbus. Its later name was Cæsarea ad Anazarbum. Its site is called Anawasy or Amnasy, and is said to display considerable remains of the ancient town. Of Augusta nothing is known: Ptolemy places it in a district called Bryelice.
623 Identified by Ainsworth with the ruins seen at Kara Kaya in Cilicia.
624 Pompey settled some of the Cilician pirates here after his defeat of them. It was thirty miles east of Anazarbus, but its site does not appear to have been identified.
625 An island off the shore of Cilicia, also called Sebaste.
626 Some of the MSS. read "Riconium" here.
627 Its ruins are called Selefkeh. This was an important city of Seleucia Aspera, built by Seleucus I. on the western bank of the river Calycadnus. It had an oracle of Apollo, and annual games in honour of Zeus Olympius. It was a free city under the Romans. It was here that Frederick Barbarossa, the emperor of Germany, died. Its ruins are picturesque and extensive.
628 Meaning that the inhabitants of Holmia were removed by Seleucus to his new city of Seleucia.
629 Said by Vitruvius to have had the property of anointing those who bathed in its waters. If so, it probably had its name from the Greek word λιπαρὸς, "fat." It flowed past the town of Soloë. Bombos and Paradisus are rivers which do not appear to have been identified.
630 A branch of the Taurus range.
631 It bordered in the east on Lycaonia, in the north on Phrygia, in the west on Pisidia, and in the south on Cilicia and Pamphylia.
632 A well-fortified city at the foot of Mount Taurus. It was twice destroyed, first by its inhabitants when besieged by Perdiccas, and again by the Roman general Servilius Isauricus. Strabo says that Amyntas of Galatea built a new city in its vicinity out of the ruins of the old one. D'Anville and others have identified the site of Old Isauria with the modern Bei Sheher, and they are of opinion that Seidi Sheher occupies the site of. New Isaura, but Hamilton thinks that the ruins on a hill near the village of Olou Bounar mark the site of New Isaura. Of the two next places nothing seems to be known at the present day.
633 In the last Chapter.
634 In Pisidia, at the southern extremity of Lake Caralitis. Tacitus, Annals, iii. 48, says that this people possessed forty-four fortresses: whereas Strabo speaks of them as the most barbarous of all the Pisidian tribes, dwelling only in caves. They were conquered by the consul Quirinius in the time of Augustus.
635 Pisidia was a mountainous region formed by that part of the main chain of Mount Taurus which sweeps round in a semicircle parallel to the shore of the Pamphylian Gulf; the shore itself at the foot of the mountains forming the district of Pamphylia. On the south-east it was bounded by Cilicia, on the east and north-east by Lycaonia and Isauria, and by Phrygia Parorios on the north, where its boundaries greatly varied at different times.
636 Generally called "Antioch of Pisidia," was situate on the south side of the mountain boundary between Phrygia and Pisidia. The modern Yalobatch is supposed to occupy its site. The remains of the ancient town are numerous. Its title of Cæsarea was probably given to it on its becoming a Roman colony early in the imperial period.
637 D'Anville suggests that the modern Haviran occupies its site, and that Sadjakla stands on that of Sagalessos.
638 This country was bounded on the north by Galatia, on the east by Cappadocia, on the south by Cilicia Aspera, on the south-west by Isauria and Phrygia Parorios, and on the north-west by Great Phrygia. It was assigned under the Persian empire to the satrapy of Cappadocia, but considered by the Greek and Roman geographers the south-east part of Phrygia.
639 Phrygia, or the western part of Asia, the first part of the Asiatic continent that received the name of Asia. See Chapters 28 & 29 of the present Book.
640 D'Anville thinks that the place called II-Goun occupies the site of Philomela.
641 Hardouin suggests that the reading here is "Tibriani," the people of Tibrias. Ansart is of opinion that Thymbrium is meant, the place at which Cyrus defeated the army of Crœsus.
642 Its site is unknown. It was probably so called from the quarries of white stone or marble in its vicinity. Pelta and Tyrium are also equally unknown.
643 Iconium was regarded in the time of Xenophon as the easternmost town of Phrygia, while all the later authorities described it as the principal city of Lycaonia. In the Acts of the Apostles it is described as a very populous city, inhabited by Greeks and Jews. Its site is now called Kunjah or Koniych.
644 It has been suggested that this may be the Tarbassus of Artemidorus, quoted by Strabo. Hyde was in later times one of the episcopal cities of Lycaonia.
645 Their district is called Melyas by Herodotus, B. i. c. 173. The city of Arycanda is unknown.
646 United with Cilicia it now forms the province of Caramania or Kermanieh. It was a narrow strip of the southern coast of Asia Minor, extending in an arch along the Pamphylian Gulf between Lycia on the west, Cilicia on the east, and on the north bordering on Pisidia.
647 Tradition ascribed the first Greek settlements in this country to Mopsus, son of Apollo (or of Rhacius), after the Trojan war.
648 Now called the Gulf of Adalia, lying between Cape Khelidonia and Cape Anemour.
649 Now called Candeloro, according to D'Anville and Beaufort.
650 Or Aspendus, an Argeian colony on the river Eurymedon. The "mountain" of Pliny is nothing but a hill or piece of elevated ground. It is supposed that it still retains its ancient name. In B. xxxi. c. 7, Pliny mentions a salt lake in its vicinity.
651 Hardouin suggests that the correct reading is 'Petnelessum.'
652 A city of remarkable splendour, between the rivers Catarrhactes and Cestrus, sixty stadia from the mouth of the former. It was a celebrated seat of the worship of Artemis or Diana. In the later Roman empire it was the capital of Pamphylia Secunda. It was the first place visited by St. Paul in Asia Minor. See Acts, xiii. 13 and xiv. 25. Its splendid ruins are still to be seen at Murtana, sixteen miles north-east of Adalia.
653 Now known as the Kapri-Su.
654 Now called Duden-Su. It descends the mountains of Taurus in a great broken waterfall, whence its name.
655 Probably occupying the site of the modern Atalieh or Satalieh.
656 On the borders of Lycia and Pamphylia, at the foot of Mount Solyma. Its ruins now bear the name of Tekrova.
657 It was inclosed by Caria and Pamphylia on the west and east, and on the north by the district of Cibyrates in Phrygia.
658 The Gulf of Satalieh or Adalia.
659 Still known as Cape Khelidonia or Cameroso.
660 Parisot remarks here, "Pliny describes on this occasion, with an exactness very remarkable for his time, the chain of mountains which runs through the part of Asia known to the ancients, although it is evident that he confines the extent of them within much too small a compass."
661 The Caspian and the Hyrcanian Seas are generally looked upon as identical, but we find them again distinguished by Pliny in B. vi. c. 13, where he says that this inland sea commences to be called the Caspian after you have passed the river Cyrus (or Kúr), and that the Caspii live near it; and in C. 16, that it is called the Hyrcanian Sea, from the Hyrcani who live along its shores. The western side would therefore in strictness be called the Caspian, and the eastern the Hyrcanian Sea.
662 The name of Imaüs was, in the first instance, applied by the Greek geographers to the Hindú-Kúsh and to the chain parallel to the equator, to which the name of Himâlaya is usually given at the present day. The name was gradually extended to the intersection running north and south, the meridian axis of Central Asia, or the Bolor range. The divisions of Asia into 'intra et extra Imaum,' were unknown to Strabo and Pliny, though the latter describes the knot of mountains formed by the intersections of the Himalaya, the Hindú-Kúsh, and Bolor, by the expression 'quorum (Montes Emodi) promontorium Imaüs vocatur.' The Bolor chain has been for ages, with one or two exceptions, the boundary between the empires of China and Turkestan."—Dr. Smith's Dictionary of Ancient Geography.
663 The Gates of Armenia are spoken of in B. vi. c. 12, the Gates of the Caspian in C. 16 of the same Book, and the Gates of Cilicia in C. 22 of the present Book.
664 See C. ix. of the next Book.
665 Strabo gives this name to only the eastern portion of the Caucasian chain which overhangs the Caspian Sea and forms the northern boundary of Albania, and in which he places the Amazons. Mela seems to apply the name to the whole chain which other writers call Caucasus, confining the latter term to a part of it. Pliny (B. v. c. 27 & B. vi. c. 11) gives precisely the same representation, with the additional error of making the Ceraunii (i. e. the Caucasus of others) part of the Great Taurus Chain. He seems to apply the name of Caucasus to the spurs which spread out both to the north-east and the south-east from the main chain near its eastern extremity, and which he regarded as a continuous range, bordering the western shores of the Caspian. See B. vi. c. 10."—Dr. Smith's Dictionary of Ancient Geography.
666 Of Chelidonium, now Kheidonia, formed by the range of Taurus.
667 See B. ii. c. 116. The flame which continually burned on this mountain has been examined by Beaufort, the modern traveller. The name of the mountain is now Yanar: it is formed of a mass of scaglia with serpentine. Spratt says that the flame is nothing more than a stream of inflammable gas issuing from a crevice, such as is seen in several places in the Apennines. By Homer it is represented as a fabulous monster, which is explained by Servius, the commentator of Virgil, in the following manner. He says that flames issue from the top of the mountain, and that there are lions in the vicinity; the middle part abounds in goats, and the lower part with serpents. Simena appears to be unknown.
668 So called from ῞ηφαιστς, the Greek name of Vulcan. Pliny mentions this spot also in B. ii. c. 110. The flame probably proceeded from an inflammable gas, or else was ignited by a stream of naphtha.
669 More generally known as Phœnicus, a flourishing city on Mount Olympus; now Yanar Dagh, a volcano on the eastern coast of Lycia, with which it often exchanged names. Having become the head-quarters of the pirates, it was destroyed by the Roman general Servilius Isauricus. Its ruins are to be seen at a spot called Deliktash.
670 Mentioned again in B. xxxvi. c. 34, as the spot whence the gagates lapis or 'agate' took its name. The ruins at Aladja are regarded by Leake as marking the site of Gagæ; but Sir Charles Fellowes identifies the place with the modern village of Hascooe, the vicinity of which is covered with ruins.
671 On the road from Phaselis in Lycia to Patara. Its site is a village called Hadgivella, about sixteen miles south-west of Phaselis. The remains are very considerable.
672 The remains of Rhodiopolis were found by Spratt and Forbes in the vicinity of Corydalla.
673 On the Limyrus, probably the modern Phineka; the ruins to the north of which are supposed to be those of Limyra.
674 The modern Akhtar Dagh.
675 Now Andraki. This was the port of Myra, next mentioned. It stood at the mouth of the river now known as the Andraki. Cramer observes that it was here St. Paul was put on board the ship of Alexandria, Acts xxvii. 5, 6.
676 Still called Myra by the Greeks, but Dembre by the Turks. It was built on a rock twenty stadia from the sea. St. Paul touched here on his voyage as a prisoner to Rome, and from the mention made of it in Acts xxvii. 5, 6, it would appear to have been an important sea-port. There are magnificent ruins of this city still to be seen, in part hewn out of the solid rock.
677 From an inscription found by Cockerell at the head of the Hassac Bay, it is thought that Aperlœ is the proper name of this place, though again there are coins of Gordian which give the name as Aperrœ. It is fixed by the Stadismus as sixty stadia west of Somena, which Leake supposes to be the same as the Simena mentioned above by Pliny.
678 Now called Antephelo or Andifilo, on the south coast of Lycia, at the head of a bay. Its theatre is still complete, with the exception of the proscenium. There are also other interesting remains of antiquity.
679 Fellowes places the site of Phellos near a village called Saaret, west-north-west of Antiphellos, where he found the remains of a town; but Spratt considers this to mark the site of the Pyrra of Pliny, mentioned above—judging from Pliny's words. Modern geographers deem it more consistent with his meaning to look for Phellos north of Antiphellos than in any other direction, and the ruins at Tchookoorbye, north of Antiphellos, on the spur of a mountain called Fellerdagh, are thought to be those of Phellos.
680 The most famous city of Lycia. It stood on the western bank of the river of that name, now called the Echen Chai. It was twice besieged, and on both occasions the inhabitants destroyed themselves with their property, first by the Persians under Harpagus, and afterwards by the Romans under Brutus. Among its most famous temples were those of Sarpedon and of the Lycian Apollo. The ruins now known by the name of Gunik, have been explored by Sir C. Fellows and other travellers, and a portion of its remains are now to be seen in the British Museun, under the name of the Xanthian marbles.
681 Its ruins still bear the same name. It was a flourishing seaport, on a promontory of the same name, sixty stadia east of the mouth of the Xanthus. It was early colonized by the Dorians from Crete, and became a chief seat of the worship of Apollo, from whose son Patarus it was said to have received its name. Ptolemy Philadelphus enlarged it, and called it Arsinoë, but it still remained better known by its old name. This place was visited by St. Paul, who thence took ship for Phœnicia. See Acts xxi. 1.
682 This was more properly the name of a mountain district of Lycia. Strabo speaks of Cragus, a mountain with eight summits, and a city of the same name. Beaufort thinks that Yedy-Booroon, the Seven Capes, a group of high and rugged mountains, appear to have been the ancient Mount Cragus of Lycia.
683 Probably the Gulf of Macri, equal in size to the Gulf of Satalia, which is next to it.
684 This place lay in the interior at the base of Cragus, and its ruins are still to be seen on the east side of the range, about half-way between Telmessus and the termination of the range on the south coast.
685 Its ruins are to be seen at Mei, or the modern port of Macri.
686 Its site is unknown. That of Candyba has been ascertained to be a place called Gendevar, east of the Xanthus, and a few miles from the coast. Its rock-tombs are said to be beautifully executed. The Œnian grove or forest, it has been suggested, may still be recognized in the extensive pine forest that now covers the mountain above the city. The sites of Podalia and Choma seem to be unknown.
687 In some editions "Cyane." Leake says that this place was discovered to the west of Andriaca by Cockerell. It appears from Scott and Forbes's account of Lycia, that three sites have been found between port Tristorus and the inland valley of Kassabar, which from the inscriptions appeared anciently to have borne this name, Yarvoo, Ghiouristan, and Toussa. The former is the chief place and is covered with ruins of the Roman and middle-age construction. At Ghiouristan there are Lycian rock-tombs.
688 Its ruins are to be seen near the modern Doover, in the interior of Lycia, about two miles and a half east of the river Xanthus. Of the three places previously mentioned the sites appear to be unknown.
689 Mentioned by the geographer Stephanus as being in Caria.
690 Its site is fixed at Katara, on both sides of the Katara Su, the most northern branch of the Xanthus. The ruins are very considerable, lying on both sides of the stream. Balbura is a neuter plural.
691 It lay to the west of Balbura, near a place now called Ebajik, on a small stream that flows into the Horzoom Tchy. In B. xxxv. c. 17, Pliny mentions a kind of chalk found in the vicinity of this place. Its ruins are still to be seen, but they are not striking.
692 In the south-west corner of Asia Minor, bounded on the north and north-east by the mountains Messagis and Cadmus, dividing it from Lydia and Phrygia, and adjoining to Phrygia and Lycia on the south-east.
694 Now Cape Ghinazi. It was also called Artemisium, from the temple of Artemis or Diana situate upon it.
695 Discharging itself into the bay of Telmissus, now Makri.
696 "Telmissus" is the reading here in some editions.
697 Situate in the district of Caria called Peræa. It was also the name given to a mountainous district. In Hoskyn's map the ruins of Dædala are placed near the head of the Gulf of Glaucus, on the west of a small river called Inegi Chai, probably the ancient Ninus, where Dædalus was bitten by a water-snake, in consequence of which he died.
698 On the Gulf of Glaucus: Stephanus however places it in Lycia. Mela speaks only of a promontory of this name.
699 Leake places this river immediately west of the Gulf of Glaucus.
700 Placed by Strabo sixty stadia from the sea, west of the Gulf of Glaucus, and east of Carinus. Its site is uncertain, but it may possibly be the place discovered by Fellows, which is proved by inscriptions to have been called Cadyanda, a name otherwise unknown to us. This lies N.N.E. of Makri, on the Gulf of Glaucus or Makri, at a place called Hoozoomlee, situate on an elevated plain.
701 The same as the river Calbis of Strabo and Mela, at present the Dalamon Tchy, Quingi or Taas, having its sources in Mount Cadmus above Cibyra. It was said to have derived its name from an Indian, who had been thrown into it from an elephant.
702 Their district was Cibyratis, of which the chief city was Cibyra. This place, uniting with the towns of Balbura, Bubon, and Œnianda, had the name of Tetrapolis; of which league Cibyra was the head, mustering 30,000 infantry and 2000 cavalry. The iron found in this district was easily cut with a chisel or other sharp tool. The site of this powerful city has been ascertained to be at Horzoom, on the Horzoom Tchy, a branch of the Dalamon Tchy or Indus. The ruins are very extensive, and the theatre in fine preservation.
703 Placed by Strabo west of Calynda. The ancient descriptions of its locality vary, but the place now known as Kaiguez is said to denote its site. The Caunii are frequently mentioned in the Persian, Grecian, and Roman histories. It was noted for its dried figs, mentioned by Pliny in B. xv. c. 19.
704 Supposed by Mannert to be the Physcus of Strabo and the Phuscæ of Ptolemy.
705 Leake says that this harbour is now called Aplothíka by the Greeks, and Porto Cavaliere by the Italians. He also says that on its western shore are the ruins of an Hellenic fortress and town, which are undoubtedly those of Loryma.
706 It had a port of the same name.
707 Called Pandion by Mela, according to Parisot.
708 Parisot suggests that it is the same as Loryma previously mentioned.
709 Like the Gulf of Schœnus, a portion probably of the Dorian Gulf, now the Gulf of Syme.
710 The modern name of this promontory is not given by Hamilton, who sailed round it. It has been confounded with the Cynos Sema of Strabo, now Cape Velo. The site of Hyda or Hyde is unknown.
711 There was a town of this name as well. Stephen of Byzantium tells us that it received its name from a shepherd who saved the life of Podalirius, when shipwrecked on the coast of Caria.
712 Part of it was situate on an island now called Cape Krio, connected by a causeway with the mainland. Its site is covered with ruins of a most interesting character in every direction. The Triopian promontory, evidently alluded to by Pliny, is the modern Cape Krio.
713 It has been remarked that in his description here Pliny is very brief and confused, and that he may intend to give the name of Triopia either to the small peninsula or island, or may include in this term the western part of the whole of the larger peninsula.
714 Of these conventus. For an account of Cibyra see last page.
715 On the Lycus, now known as the Choruk-Su. By different writers it has been assigned to Lydia, Caria, and Phrygia, but in the ultimate division of the Roman provinces it was assigned to the Greater Phrygia. It was founded by Antiochus II. on the site of a previous town, and named in honour of his wife Laodice. Its site is occupied by ruins of great magnificence. In the Apostolic age it was the seat of a flourishing Christian Church, which however very soon gave signs of degeneracy, as we learn from St. John's Epistle to it, Revel. ii. 14–22. St. Paul also addresses it in common with the neighbouring church of Colossæ. Its site is now called Eski-Hissar, or the Old Castle.
716 A tributary of the Phrygian Mæander.
717 The people of Hydrela, a town of Caria, said to have been founded by one of three brothers who emigrated from Sparta.
718 The people of Themisonium, now called Tseni.
719 The people of Hierapolis, a town of Phrygia, situate on a height between the rivers Lycus and Mæander, about five miles north of Laodicea, on the road from Apamea to Sardis. It was celebrated for its warm springs, and its Plutonium, or cave of Pluto, from which issued a mephitic vapour of a poisonous nature; see B. ii. c. 95. The Christian Church here is alluded to by St. Paul in his Epistle to the Colossians, iv. 13. Its ruins are situate at an uninhabited place called Pambuk-Kalessi.
720 Situate in the north of Phrygia Salutaris; its ruins being probably those to be seen at Afiour-Kara-Hisar. From the time of Constantine this place became the capital of Phrygia Salutaris. It stood in a fiuitful plain, near a mountain quarry of the celebrated Synnadic marble, which was white with red veins and spots. This marble was also called "Docimiticus," from Docimia, a nearer place.
721 As already mentioned in C. 25 of the present Book.
722 The site of Appia does not appear to be known. Cicero speaks of an application made to him by the Appiani, when he was governor of Cilicia, respecting the taxes with which they were burdened, and the buildings of their town.
723 Eucarpia was a town of Phrygia, not far from the sources of the Mæander, on the road from Dorylæum to Apamea Cibotus. The vine grew there in great luxuriance, and to its fruitfulness the town probably owed its name. Kiepert places it in the vicinity of Segielar, but its exact site is unknown.
724 The site of Dorylæum is now called Eski-Shehr. The hot-baths here are mentioned by Athenæus, and its waters were pleasant to the taste. Sheep-feeding appears to have been carried on here to a great extent, and under the Greek empire it was a flourishing place. The site of Midæum does not seem to be known.
725 The people of Julia, Juliopolis, or Julianopolis, a town of Lydia, probably to the south of Mount Tmolus.
726 This place was built near Celænæ by Antiochus Soter, and named after his mother Apama. Strabo says that it lay at the mouth of the river Marsyas. Its site has been fixed at the modern Denair. Some ancient ruins are to be seen.
727 Pliny commits an error here; Celænæ was a different place from Apamea, though close to it.
728 Meaning the "Fountains of the Pipe," and probably deriving its name from the legend here mentioned by Pliny, and in B. xvi. c. 44. Strabo describes the Marsyas and Mæander as rising, according to report, in one lake above Celænæ, which produced reeds adapted for making the mouth-pieces of musical instruments, but he gives no name to the lake. Hamilton found near Denair or Apamea, a lake nearly two miles in circumference, full of reeds and rushes, which he looks upon as the lake on the mountain Aulocrene, described by Pliny in the 31st Chapter of the present Book. His account however is very confused, as he mentions on different occasions a region of Aulocrene, a valley of Aulocrene, and a mountain of Aulocrene.
729 People of "the Mother City," said by Stephen of Byzantium to have received that name from Cybele, the Mother of the Gods.
730 Nothing is known of the site of Dionysopolis. It is mentioned in a letter of Cicero's to his brother Quintus, in which he speaks of the people of this place as being very hostile to the latter.
731 The site of Euphorbium is denoted, according to Leake, by the modern Sandukli. It lay between Synnas and Apamea, and not improbably, like Eucarpia, received its name from the fertility of its territory.
732 The site of Acmona has been fixed at Ahatkoi, but it seems doubtful.
733 The site of Pelta is by D'Anville called Ris-Chak or Hou-Chak.
734 The people of Silbium or Silbia, near Metropolis.
735 The Dorian settlements on the coast of Caria were so called. The Dorian Gulf was probably the Sinus Ceramicus mentioned below.
736 Of these places nothing whatever seems to be known.
737 Pitaium and Eutane seem to be unknown.
738 A member of the Dorian Hexapolis, or League of the Six Cities. The site of this famous city is occupied by the modern Boodroum, and its ruins are very extensive. It was famous as being the birth-place of the two historians Herodotus and Dionysius. It was the largest and best fortified city of Caria.
739 According to Parisot the site of this place is now called Angeli and Karabaglas.
740 This place must not be confounded with Tehnessus or Telmissus in Lycia, which has been previously mentioned. It was situate six miles from Halicarnassus. Of the other places here mentioned nothing seems to be known.
741 Now the Gulf of Staneo, Kos, or Boodroum. It took its name from the port of Ceramus, now Keramo, according to D'Anville.
742 Now the Gulf of Mandeliyeh. It took its name from the city of lasus, the site of which is now called Askem or Asyn-Kalessi.
743 Its ruins are to be seen at the port called Gumshlu. This was a Dorian colony on the coast of Caria, founded probably on the site of the old town of the Leleges.
744 It has been suggested that this was only another name for the new town of Myndos, in contradistinction to Palæomyndos, or "old Myndos."
745 Scylax the geographer is supposed to have been a native of this place. The town is supposed to have been built partly on the mainland and partly on an island. Pastra Linani is supposed to have been the harbour of Caryanda.
746 A Dorian city on the Promontory of Termerium.
747 Situate near lasus and Myndos. Leake conjectures that it may have been on the bay between Pastra Limâne and Asyn Kalesi. There was a statue here of Artemis Cindyas, under the bare sky, of which the incredible story was told that neither rain nor snow ever fell on it.
748 See note14 on the last page.
749 Its ruins are to be seen at the spot still called Melasso. It was a very flourishing city, eight miles from the coast of the Gulf of Iasus, and situate at the foot of a rock of fine white marble. It was partly destroyed in the Roman civil wars by Labienus. Its ruins are very extensive.
750 Hamilton has fixed the site of this place between four and five miles south-east of Kuyuja, near the mouth of the valley of the Kara-Su. The surrounding district was famous for the excellence of its figs. The city was built by Antiochus, the son of Seleucus.
751 Now called the Mendereh or Meinder.
752 Pococke thinks that the present Jenjer is the Orsinus, while Mannert takes it to be the Hadchizik, a little winding river that falls into the Mæander.
753 Now called Guzel-Hissar, according to Ansart.
754 On the road from Dorylæum to Apamea. It is said to have received its name from Attalus II., who named the town after his brother and predecessor EumenesII. Its site is known as Ishekle, and it is still marked by numerous ruins and sculptures.
755 A tributary of the Mæander. Its modern name is not mentioned.
756 Mannert takes the ruins to be seen at Jegni-Chehr to be those of ancient Orthosia. The town of Lysias does not appear to have been identified.
757 The situation of this district is not known. See B. xvi. c. 16, where it appears that this region was famous for its boxwood.
758 One of the numerous places of that name devoted to the worship of Bacchus. It was built on both sides of the ravine of the brook Eudon, which fell into the Meæander. Its ruins are to be seen at Sultan-Hissar, a little to the west of Hazeli.
759 Its ruins are to be seen at Ghiuzel-Hissar, near Aidin. This was a flourishing commercial city, included sometimes in Ionia, sometimes in Caria. It stood on the banks of the Eudon, a tributary of the river Mæander. Under the Seleucidæ it was called Antiochia and Seleucia.
760 From the beauty and fertility of the surrounding country.
761 An Ionic town of Caria, on the north side of the Sinus Latmicus, fifty stadia from the mouth of the Mæander.
762 Or Euromus, a town of Caria, at the foot of Mount Grion, which runs parallel with Latmos. Ruins of a temple to the north-west of Alabanda are considered to belong to Euromus.
763 A town of uncertain site. It must not be confounded with the place of the same name, mentioned in c. 31 of the present Book.
764 The ruins of its citadel and walls still exist on the east side of Mount Latmos, on the road from Bafi to Tchisme.
765 Situate about twenty miles south of Tralles. The modern site is doubtful, but Arab Hissa, on a branch of the Mæander, now called the Tchina, is supposed to represent Alabanda. It was notorious for the luxuriousness of its inhabitants. A stone found in the vicinity was used for making glass and glazing vessels. See B. xxxvi. c. 13.
766 Built by Antiochus I. Soter, and named, in honour of his wife, Stratonice. It stood south of Alabanda, near the river Marsyas. It is supposed that it stood on the site of a former city called Idrias, and still earlier, Chrysaoris.
767 D'Anville identifies it with a place called Keramo, but no such place appears to be known. Strabo places it near the sea between Cnidus and Halicarnassus, and Ceramus comes next after Cnidus. Ptolemy seems to place it on the south side of the bay. Of Hynidos nothing appears to be known.
768 Its situation is unknown; but there can be little doubt that it was founded by the Dorians who emigrated to the coast of Asia Minor from Argolis and Trœzene in the Peloponnesus. Phorontis appears to be unknown.
769 Parisot observes that many of the towns here mentioned belonged to the northern part of Phrygia.
770 The people of Alinda in Caria, which was surrendered to Alexander the Great by Alinda, queen of Caria. It was one of the strongest places in Caria. Its position has been fixed by Fellowes at Demmeergee-derasy, between Arab-Hissa and Karpuslee, on a steep rock.
771 Of Xystis, as also of Hydissa, nothing appears to be known.
772 Inhabitants of Apollonia in Caria, of which place nothing appears to be known.
773 Pococke says that the modern site of Trapezopolis is called Karadche.
774 The people of Aphrodisias, an ancient city of Caria, situate at the modern Ghera or Geyra, south of Antiochia on the Mæander. Aphrodite or Venus seems to have been principally worshipped at this place. Strabo places it in Phrygia.
775 Or Coscinia, a place in Caria, which, as we may gather from Strabo, ranked below a town. Leake thinks that Tshina, where Pococke found considerable remains, is the site of this place.
776 On the eastern bank of the Harpasus, a tributary of the Mæander. Its ruins are supposed to be those seen at a place called Harpas Kalessi. In B. ii. c. 98, Pliny speaks of a wonderful rock at this place.
777 Now known as the Harpa.
778 By this name alone it is known to Homer.
779 Its ruins, now called Sart, are very extensive, though presenting nothing of importance. Its citadel, situated on a rock, was considered to be almost impregnable.
780 Now called Kisilja Musa Dagh. It was famous for its wine, saffron, and gold.
781 Now called the Sarabat. It was famous for its gold-producing sands.
782 On the road between Thyatira and Sardes: near it was situate the necropolis of Sardes.
783 Strabo says that some persons called the citadel only by that name.
784 There was a city of Mysia or Phrygia of the name of Cadus or Cadi; but nothing is known of the place here alluded to, whose people would appear to have been a colony from Macedonia.
785 The people of Philadelphia, now Ala-Cher, or the "Fine City," twelve leagues south-east of Sardes, and nine leagues south of Attalia.
787 Dwellers in Mesotmolus, a town which, from its name, would appear to have been situate on the middle of Mount Tmolus.
788 Now called the Gulf of Melasso.
789 Now the Cape of Melasso.
790 The remains of the Temple of Didymæan Apollo at Branchidæ are still visible to those sailing along the coast. It was in the Milesian territory, and above the harbour Panormus. The name of the site was probably Didyma or Didymi, but the place was also called Branchidæ, from that being the name of a body of priests who had the care of the temple. We learn from Herodotus that Crœsus, king of Lydia, consulted this oracle, and made rich presents to the temple. The temple, of which only two columns are left, was of white marble.
791 The ruins of this important city are difficult to discover on account of the great changes made on the coast by the river Meander. They are usually supposed to be those at the poor village of Palatia on the south bank of the Mendereh; but Forbiger has shown that these are more probably the remains of Myus, and that those of Miletus are buried in a lake formed by the Mendereh at the foot of Mount Latmus.
792 See B. vii. c. 57. Josephus says that he lived very shortly before the Persian invasion of Greece.
793 Now called the Monte di Palatia.
794 Generally called "Heraclea upon Latmus," from its situation at the western foot of Mount Latmus. Ruins of this town still exist at the foot of that mountain on the borders of Lake Baffi.
795 Its ruins are now to be seen at Palatia. It was the smallest city of the Ionian Confederacy, and' was situate at the mouth of the Mæander, thirty stadia from its mouth.
796 Mannert says that its ruins are to be seen at a spot called by the Turks Sarasun-Kalesi.
797 One of the twelve Ionian cities, situate at the foot of Mount Mycale. It stood originally on the shore, but the change in the coast by the alluvial deposits of the Mæander left it some distance from the land. It was celebrated as being the birth-place of the philosopher Bias. Its ruins are to be seen at the spot called Samsun.
798 Now called Cape Santa Maria, or Samsun.
800 Between Ephesus and Neapolis. It belonged to the Samians who exchanged with the Ephesians for Neapolis, which lay nearer to their island. The modern Scala Nova occupies the site of one of them, it is uncertain which.
801 Its ruins are to be seen at the modern Inek-Bazar. It was situate on the river Lethæus, a tributary of the Mæander. It was famous for its temple of Artemis Leucophryene, the ruins of which still exist.
802 See B. ii. c. 91.
803 Now known as Ak-Hissar or the "White Castle." Strabo informs us that it was founded by Seleucus Nicator.
804 From the excellence of its horses.
805 Its ruins are to be seen near the modern Ayazaluk. It was the chief of the twelve Ionian cities on the coast of Asia Minor, and devoted to the worship of Artemis, whose temple here was deemed one of the wonders of the world. Nothing, except some traces of its foundations, is now to be seen of this stupendous building.
806 It was more generally said to have been founded by the Carians and the Leleges.
807 Now called the Kara-Su, or Black River, or Kuchuk-Meinder, or Little Mæander.
808 It has been observed that though Pliny seems to say that the Caÿster receives many streams, they must have had but a short course, and could only be so many channels by which the rivers descend from the mountain slopes that shut in the contracted basin of the river.
809 This lake or marsh seems to be the morass situate on the road from Smyrna to Ephesus, into which the Phyrites flows, and out of which it comes a considerable stream.
810 The Phyrites is a small river that is crossed on the road from Ephesus to Smyrna, and joins the Caÿster on the right bank ten or twelve miles above Ayazaluk, near the site of Ephesus.
811 See B. ii. c. 91. for further mention of this island.
812 Said to be derived from the Greek, meaning "The beautiful (stream) from Pion."
813 One of the twelve Ionian cities of Asia, founded by Andræmon. Notium was its port. There do not seem to be any remains of either of these places.
814 Called also the Hales or Ales, and noted for the coolness of its waters.
815 At Clarus, near Colophon. When Germanicus was on his way to the East, this oracle foretold to him his speedy death. Chandler is of opinion that he discovered the site of this place at Zillé, where he found a spring of water with marble steps to it, which he considers to have been the sacred fountain. Others again suggest that these ruins may be those of Notium.
816 Its site was probably near the modern Ekklesia, but no traces of the city itself are to be found.
817 Implying that in his time Notium was not in existence, whereas in reality Notium superseded Old Colophon, of which it was the port, and was sometimes known as New Colophon.
818 Now known as Cape Curco.
819 The site of this place is now known as Ritri, on the south side of a small peninsula, which projects into the bay of Erythræ. The ruins are considerable.
820 On the south side of the bay of Smyrna. In Strabo's time this city appears to have been removed from Chytrium, its original site. Chandler found traces of the city near Vourla, from which he came to the conclusion that the place was very small and inconsiderable.
821 According to Nicander, this was a mountain of the territory of Clazomenæ, almost surrounded by sea.
822 Or "the Horses," originally four islands close to the mainland, off Clazomenæ.
823 This was probably the same causeway that was observed by Chandler in the neighbourhood of Vourla, the site of ancient Clazomenæ.
824 See B. ii. c. 91, where he speaks of this place as being swallowed up in the earth.
825 From Clazomenæ.
826 Now called Izmir by the Turks, Smyrna by the western nations of Europe; the only one of the great cities on the western coast of Asia Minor that has survived to the present day. This place stood at the head of the cities that claimed to be the birth-place of Homer; and the poet was worshipped here for a hero or demi-god in a magnificent building called the Homereum. There are but few remains of the ancient city: the modern one is the greatest commercial city of the Levant.
827 Hardouin takes this to be the name of a town, but Ortelius and Pinetus seem to be more correct in thinking it to be the name of a mountain.
828 It does not appear that all these mountains have been identified. Cadmus is the Baba Dagh of the Turks.
829 Mentioned in C. 29 of the present Book.
830 In the time of Strabo this tributary of the Hermus seems to have been known as the Phrygius.
832 The present Gulf of Smyrna.
833 Or the "Ants."
834 Probably so called from the whiteness of the promontory on which it was situate. It was built by Tachos, the Persian general, in B.C. 352, and remarkable as the scene of the battle between the Consul Licinius Crassus and Aristonicus in B.C. 131. The modern name of its site is Lefke.
835 Its ruins are to be seen at Karaja-Fokia or Old Fokia, south-west of Fouges or New Fokia. It was said to have been founded by Phocian colonists under Philogenes and Damon.
836 The people of Hyrcania, one of the twelve cities which were prostrated by an earthquake in the reign of Tiberius Cæsar; see B. ii. c. 86.
837 The people of Magnesia "ad Sipylum," or the city of Magnesia on the Sipylus. It was situate on the south bank of the Hermus, and is famous in history as the scene of the victory gained by the two Scipios over Antiochus the Great, which secured to the Romans the empire of the East, B.C. 190. This place also suffered from the great earthquake in the reign of Tiberius, but was still a place of importance in the fifth century.
838 The people, it is supposed, of a place called Hierocæsarea.
839 The people probably of Metropolis in Lydia, now Turbali, a city on the plain of the Caÿster, between Ephesus and Smyrna. Cilbis, perhaps the present Durgut, was their chief place.
840 A people dwelling in the upper valley of Caÿster.
841 Or Mysian Macedonians.
842 The people of Mastaura in Lydia. Its site is still known as Mastaura-Kalesi.
843 The people of Briula, the site of which is unknown.
844 The people of Hypæpæ, a small town of Lydia, on the southern slope of Mount Tmolus, forty-two miles from Ephesus. Under the Persian supremacy, the worship of Fire was introduced at this place. Arachne, the spinner, and competitor with Minerva, is represented by Ovid as dwelling at this place; he calls it on two occasions "the little Hypæpæ." Leake is of opinion that the ruins seen at Bereki belong to this place.
845 The people of Dios Hieron, or the "Temple of Jupiter." This was a small place in Ionia between Lebedus and Colophon. It has been suggested that it was on the banks of the Caÿster, but its site is uncertain.
846 AEolis, properly so called, extended as far north as the promontory of Lectum, at the northern entrance of the bay of Adramyttium.
847 Near Cyme, a place of Pelasgian origin. It was called Egyptian Larissa, because Cyrus the Great settled here a body of his Egyptian soldiers. According to D'Anville its site is still known as Larusar.
848 Said to have been so called from Cyme an Amazon. It was on the northern, side of the Hermus: Herodotus gives it the surname of Phriconis. Its site is supposed to be at the modern Sanderli or Sandarlio. The father of the poet Hesiod was a native of this place.
849 It was probably so called in honour of the Emperor Augustus.
850 Situate at a short distance from the coast. We learn from Tacitus that it suffered from the great earthquake in the time of Tiberius. Its site is called Guzel-Hissar, according to D'Anville.
851 Originally named Agroeira or Alloeira. There is a place still called Aala, on the river Hermus, but Hamilton found no remains of antiquity there.
852 Or the "New Walls." Strabo speaks of it as distant thirty stadia from Larissa.
853 Its site is unknown; but it must not be confounded with the place of that name mentioned in the last Chapter, which stood on the sea-coast. It suffered from the great earthquake in the reign of Tiberius Cæsar.
854 Or Grynium, forty stadia from Myrina, and seventy from Elæa. It contained a sanctuary of Apollo with an ancient oracle and a splendid temple of white marble. Parmenio, the general of Alexander, took the place by assault and sold the inhabitants as slaves. It is again mentioned by Pliny in B. xxxii. c. 21.
855 This passage seems to be in a corrupt state, and it is difficult to arrive at Pliny's exact meaning.
856 The port of the Pergameni. Strabo places it south of the river Caïcus, twelve stadia from that river, and 120 from Pergamum. Its site is uncertain, but Leake fixes it at a place called Kliseli, on the road from the south to Pergamum.
857 Its modern name is said to be Ak-Su or Bakir.
858 On the coast of the Elaitic gulf. It was almost destroyed by an earthquake in the reign of the Emperor Titus. Its site is by some thought to have been at Sanderli.
859 Supposed to have been situate near the modern Cape Coloni. It was here that in the war with Antiochus, B.C. 191–190, the Roman fleet was hauled up for the winter and protected by a ditch or rampart.
860 So called from Lysimachus, the son of Agathocles.
861 A strong place opposite to Lesbos. It was on the road from Adramyttium to the plain of the Caïcus. Its site is generally fixed at Dikeli Koi.
862 Or Carine. The army of Xerxes, on its route to the Hellespont, marched through this place. Its site is unknown.
863 It lay outside of the bay of Adramyttium and the promontory of Pyrrha.
864 Mentioned in the Iliad with Chryse and Tenedos.
865 A place called Kutchulan, or, as some write it, Cotschiolan-Kuni, is supposed to occupy its site.
866 Or Thebes, in the vicinity of Troy.
867 In the plain of Thebes between Antandros and Adramyttium. It had a temple of Artemis, of which the Antandrii had the superintendence, Its site does not appear to have been ascertained.
868 Not improbably the Chryse, mentioned by Homer in the Iliad, B. i. II. 37, 390, 431; but there were several places of this name.
869 See the note to Scepsis in the present Chapter.
870 Or Gergis, Gergithus, or Gergithes, a town in the Troad, north of Scamander. It was a place with an acropolis and strong walls. Attalus, king of Pergamus, transplanted the people of Gergis to another spot near the sources of the Caïcus, whence we afterwards find a place called Gergetha or Gergithion, in the vicinity of Larissa. The old town of Gergis was by some said to have been the birth-place of the Sibyl, and its coins have her image impressed on them.
871 Also called Neandria, upon the Hellespont.
872 South of Adramyttium; in its vicinity were copper-mines and celebrated vineyards. It was here that Thucydides is said to have died.
873 In the district of Coryphantes, opposite to Lesbos, and north of Atarneus. Pliny speaks of the oysters of Coryphas, B. xxxii. c. 6.
874 This Aphrodisias does not appear to have been identified.
875 Again mentioned by Pliny in B. xi. c. 80. Scepsis was an ancient city in the interior of the Troad, south-east of Alexandria, in the mountains of Ida. Its inhabitants were removed by Antigonus to Alexandria; but being permitted by Lysimachus to return to their homes, they built a new city, and the remains of the old town were then called Palæscepsis. This place is famous in literary history for being the spot where certain MSS. of Aristotle and Theophrastus were buried to prevent their transfer to Pergamus. When dug up they were found nearly destroyed by mould, and in this condition were removed by Sylla to Athens.
876 Sometimes called the Lycormas, now known as the Fidhari or Fidharo.
877 Frequently mentioned by Homer.
878 Still known as Ida or Kas-Dagh.
879 More generally known as Adramyttium or Adramyteum, now Adramiti or Edremit. According to tradition it was founded by Adramys, the brother of Crœsus, king of Lydia. It is mentioned as a sea-port in the Acts, xxvii. 2. There are no traces of ancient remains on its site.
880 One of the heights of Mount Ida in the Troad, now called Kaz-Dag. The territory in this vicinity, as we learn from Virgil and Seneca, was famous for its fertility. The modern village of Iné is supposed to occupy the site of the ancient town of Gargara.
881 Now Antandro, at the head of the Gulf of Adramyttium. Aristotle also says that its former name was Edonis, and that it was inhabited by a Thracian tribe of Edoni. Herodotus as well as Aristotle also speak of the seizure of the place by the Cimmerii in their incursion into Asia.
882 Now Cape Baba or Santa Maria, the south-west promontory of the Troad.
883 Or Sminthian Apollo. This appears to have been situate at the Chrysa last mentioned by Pliny as no longer in existence. Strabo places Chrysa on a hill, and he mentions the temple of Smintheus and speaks of a symbol which recorded the etymon of that name, the mouse which lay at the foot of the wooden figure, the work of Scopas. According to an ancient tradition, Apollo had his name of Smintheus given him as being the mouse-destroyer, for, according to Apion, the meaning of Smintheus was a "mouse."
884 According to tradition this place was in early times the residence of Cycnus, a Thracian prince, who possessed the adjoining country, and the island of Tenedos, opposite to which Colone was situate on the mainland. Pliny however here places it in the interior.
885 The site of this Apollonia is at Abullionte, on a lake of the same name, the Apolloniatis of Strabo. Its remains are very inconsiderable.
886 Or Lycus, now known as the Edrenos.
887 Of this people nothing whatever is known.
888 D'Anville thinks that the modern Bali-Kesri occupies the site of Miletopolis.
889 Stephanus Byzantinus mentions a place called Pœmaninum near Cyzicus.
890 The inhabitants of Polichna, a town of the Troad.
891 The people of Pionia, near Scepsis and Gargara.
893 The same as the Olympeni or Olympieni, in the district of Olympene at the foot of Mount Olympus; next to whom, on the south and west, were the Abretteni.
894 On the south-western coast of the Troad, fifty stadia south of Larissa. In the time of Strabo it had ceased to exist. No ruins of this place have been known to be discovered, but Prokesch is induced to think that the architectural remains to be seen near Cape Baba are those of Hamaxitus.
895 Or Cebrene or Cebren. It was separated from the territory of Scepsis by the river Menander. Leake supposes it to have occupied the higher region of Ida on the west, and that its site may have been at a place called Kushunlu Tepe, not far from Baramitsh.
896 Mentioned in Acts xvi. 8. It is now called Eski Stambul or Old Stambul. It was situate on the coast of Troas, opposite to the south-eastern point of the island of Tenedos, and north of Assus. It was founded by Antigonus, under the name of Antigonia Troas, and peopled with settlers from Scepsis and other neighbouring towns. The ruins of this city are very extensive.
897 Or Nea, mentioned in B. ii. c. 97.
898 Now called the Mendereh-Chai.
899 On the north-west promontory of Troas. Here Homer places the Grecian fleet and camp during the Trojan war. The promontory is now called Yenisheri.
900 Now called Jeni-Scher, according to Ansart. It was at this spot that the Greeks landed in their expedition against Troy.
901 Usually identified with the Mendereh-Chai or Scamander.
902 The modern Gumbrek.
903 Or "ancient Scamander."
904 Now known as the Koja-Chai; memorable as the scene of the three great victories by which Alexander the Great overthrew the Persian empire, B.C. 334. Here also a victory was gained by Lucullus over Mithridates, B.C. 78.
905 Or Sea of Marmora.
906 It is not exactly known whether New Ilium was built on the same site as the Ilium or Troy which had been destroyed by the Greeks; but it has been considered improbable that the exploits mentioned in the Iliad should have happened in so short a space as that lying between the later Ilium and the coast. The site of New Ilium is generally considered to be the spot covered with ruins, now called Kissarlik, between the villages called Kum-kioi, Kalli-fath, and Tchiblak.
907 The Dictator Sylla showed especial favour to Ilium.
908 Now called Cape Intepeh or Barbieri.
909 The modern Paleo Castro probably occupies its site.
910 More generally called Dardanus, or Dardanum, said to have been built by Dardanus. It was situate about a mile south of the promontory Dardanis or Dardanium. Its exact site does not appear to be known: from it the modern Dardanelles are supposed to have derived their name.
911 Situate between Percote and Abydus, and founded by Scamandrius and Ascanius the son of Æneas. The village of Moussa is supposed to occupy its site. The army of Alexander mustered here after crossing the Hellespont.
912 Alexander the Great visited this place on his Asiatic expedition in B.C. 334, and placed chaplets on the tomb of Achilles.
913 So called from Æas, the Greek name of Ajax.
914 Teuthrania was in the south-western corner of Mysia, between Temnus and the borders of Lydia, where in very early times Teuthras was said to have founded a Mysian kingdom, which was early subdued by the kings of Lydia: this part was also called Pergamene.
915 Called Pionitæ in the preceding Chapter.
916 A town in the Troad, the site of which is unknown.
917 A town on the Propontis, according to Stephanus. The sites of most of the places here mentioned are utterly unknown.
918 Also called Pergama or Pergamus. Its ruins are to be seen at the modern Pergamo or Bergamo. It was the capital of the kingdom of Pergamus, and situate in the Tcuthranian district of Mysia, on the northern bank of the river Caïcus. Under its kings, its library almost equalled that of Alexandria, and the formation of it gave rise to the invention of parchment, as a writing material, which was thence called Charta Pergamena. This city was an early seat of Christianity, and is one of the seven churches of Asia to whom the Apocalyptic Epistles are addressed. Its ruins are still to be seen.
919 At the beginning of the preceding Chapter.
920 The people of Thyatira, mentioned in B. v. c. 31.
921 The people of Mygdonia, a district between Mount Olympus and the coast, in the east of Mysia and the west of Bithynia.
922 The people of the Holy Village." Hierocome is mentioned by Livy as situate beyond the river Mæander.
923 The people of Attalia, mentioned in C. 32.
924 Previously mentioned in the present Chapter.
925 Or "the Table." Now known as Capo de Janisseri.
926 Also called the Milyæ, probably of the Syro-Arabian race; they were said to have been the earliest inhabitants of Lycia.
927 The Leleges are now considered to have been a branch of the great Indo-Germanic race, who gradually became incorporated with the Hellenic race, and thus ceased to exist as an independent people.
928 A nation belonging probably more to mythology than history. Strabo supposes them to have been of Thracian origin, and that their first place of settlement was Mysia.
929 By some supposed to have been a people of Phrygia.
930 Mentioned in C. 29 of the present Book.
931 From the Greek δαμάω "to subdue." Hardouin thinks that this appellation is intended to be given by Pliny to Asia in general, and not to the city of Apamea in particular, as imagined by Ortelius and others.
932 It is so described by Homer.
933 This was the light-house built upon it by Ptolemy II. Philadelphus, whence the name of pharus came to be applied to similar structures. It was here also that, according to the common story, the seventy Translators of the Greek version of the Old Testament, hence called the Septuagint, were confined while completing their work.
934 The narrow or fortified channel.
935 The Neptunian channel.
936 Mentioned also in C. 14 of the present Book.
937 In C. 17 of the present Book.
938 The boatmen of Ruad, the ancient Aradus, still draw fresh water from the spring Ain Ibrahim, in the sea, a few rods from the shore of the opposite coast.