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1 "Symphoniæ cantu." Hardouin is of opinion that this means the music of the "symphonia," that being some kind of musical instrument. But, as Ajasson remarks, the meaning is much more likely to be, "singing in concert," where there are several performers, and each takes his own part in the symphony. It might, however, possibly mean singing and music combined, similar to the performance of Arion, mentioned at the end of the Chapter.
2 The organ was so called by the ancients, from the resemblance borne by its pipes to "hydraula," or water-pipes, and from the fact of the bellows being acted on by the pressure of water. According to an author quoted by Athcnaus, B. iv. c. 75, the first organist was Ctesibius of Alexandria, who lived about B. C. 200. It is not improbable that Pliny refers to this invention in B. vii. c. 38. The pipes of the organ of Ctesibius were partly of bronze and partly of reed, and Tertullian describes it as a very complicated instrument.
3 Ælian, Hist. Anim. B. vi. c. 15, tells this story as well, and Aulus Gellius, B. vii. c. 8, relates it from the fifth Book of the Ægyptiaca of Apion, who stated that he himself had witnessed the fact.
4 The Lucrine Lake originally communicated with the sea, but was afterwards separated from the Bay of Cumæ by a dyke eight stadia in length. In the time of Augustus, however, Agrippa opened a communication between the Lake and the Bay, for the purpose of forming the Julian harbour. If the circumstance here mentioned by Pliny happened before this period, "invectus" must mean "carried by human agency;" but if after, it is possible that the fish may have been carried into the lake by the tide. For an account of the lake, see B. iii. c. 9.
5 See B. iii. c. 9.
6 "Pinnarum aculeas." See the remarks of Cuvier on this passage, and his conclusion as to the fish meant, in his Note in p. 369.
7 Oppian, in his Halieutica, B. v. 1. 453, mentions this story also, and of course Solinus does.
8 See B. v. c. 3.
9 The island and city of Caria. See B. v. c. 29.
10 Being alarmed by the pursuit of the fish while he was swimming.
11 Athenæus, B. xiii., tells this story more at large, and states that the name of the child was Dionysius. Hardouin remarks, that Solinus, the ape of Pliny, has absolutely read this passage as though the child's name had been Babylon; upon the strength of which, Saumaise had proposed to alter the reading in Pliny, not remembering at the time that the boy's name had been given by Atheneus.
12 This story is also told by Plutarch, in his work on the Instincts of Animals.
13 Anlus Gellius, B. vii. c. 8, mentions this story, borrowing it probably from Theophrastus.
14 The people of the territory in which Amphilochian Argos was situate, and lying to the south of Ambracia. See B. iv. c. 2.
15 The people of Tarentum. See B. iii. c. 16.
16 Ovid tells the story of Arion more fully, and in beautiful language, in the Fasti, B. ii. 1. 92, et seq.
17 A promontory in the south of Laconia, now Cape Matapan. See B. iv. c. 7. Solinus, c. 7, tells us that there was a temple of Arion of Methymna, situate on this spot, in which there was a figure of him seated on a dolphin's back, and made of bronze; with an inscription stating that this wonderful circumstance took place in the 29th Olympiad, in which year Arion had been victorious in the Sicilian games. Philostorgius, in B. i. of his Ecclesiastical History, tells us also of a martyr who was saved by a dolphin, which bore him to Helenopolis, a city of Nicomedia.
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