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Thus far have I treated of the position and the wonders of the earth, of the waters, the stars, and the proportion of the universe and its dimensions. I shall now proceed to describe its individual parts; although indeed we may with reason look upon the task as of an infinite nature, and one not to be rashly commenced upon without incurring censure. And yet, on the other hand, there is nothing which ought less to require an apology, if it is only considered how far from surprising it is that a mere mortal cannot be acquainted with everything. I shall therefore not follow any single author, but shall employ, in relation to each subject, such writers as I shall look upon as most worthy of credit. For, indeed, it is the characteristic of nearly all of them, that they display the greatest care and accuracy in the description of the countries in which they respectively flourished; so that by doing this, I shall neither have to blame nor contradict any one.

The names of the different places will here be simply given, and as briefly as possible; the account of their celebrity, and the events which have given rise thereto, being deferred to a more appropriate occasion; for it must be remembered that I am here speaking of the earth as a whole, and I wish to be understood as using the names without any reference whatever to their celebrity, and as though the places themselves were in their infancy, and had not as yet acquired any fame through great events. The name is men- tioned, it is true, but only as forming a part of the world and the system of the universe.

The whole globe is divided into three parts, Europe, Asia, and Africa. Our description commences where the sun sets and at the Straits of Gades1, where the Atlantic ocean, bursting in, is poured forth into the inland seas. As it makes its entrance from that side, Africa is on the right hand and Europe on the left; Asia lies between them2; the boundaries being the rivers Tanais3 and Nile. The Straits of the ocean, of which I have just spoken, extend fifteen miles in length and five4 in breadth, measured from the village of Mellaria5 in Spain to the Album Promontorium6 or White Promontory in Africa, as we learn from Turranius Gracilis, who was born in that vicinity. Titus Livius and Cornelius Nepos however have stated the breadth, where it is least, to be seven miles, and where greatest, ten; from so small a mouth as this does so immense an expanse of water open upon us! Nor is our astonishment diminished by the fact of its being of great depth; for, instead of that, there are numerous breakers and shoals, white with foam, to strike the mariner with alarm. From this circumstance it is, that many have called this spot the threshold of The Inland Sea.

At the narrowest part of the Straits, there are mountains placed to form barriers to the entrance on either side, Abyla7 in Africa, and Calpe8 in Europe, the boundaries formerly of the labours of Hercules9. Hence it is that the inhabitants have called them the Columns of that god; they also believe that they were dug through by him; upon which the sea, which was before excluded, gained admission, and so changed the face of nature.


I shall first then speak of Europe, the foster-mother of that people which has conquered all other nations, and itself by far the most beauteous portion of the earth. Indeed, many persons have, not without reason10, considered it, not as a third part only of the earth, but as equal to all the rest, looking upon the whole of our globe as divided into two parts only, by a line drawn from the river Tanais to the Straits of Gades. The ocean, after pouring the waters of the Atlantic through the inlet which I have here described, and, in its eager progress, overwhelming all the lands which have had to dread its approach, skirts with its winding course the shores of those parts which offer a more effectual resistance, hollowing out the coast of Europe especially into numerous bays, among which there are four Gulfs that are more particularly remarkable. The first of these begins at Calpe, which I have previously mentioned, the most distant mountain of Spain; and bends, describing an immense curve, as far as Locri and the Promontory of Bruttium11.


The first land situate upon this Gulf is that which is called the Farther Spain or Bætica12; next to which, beginning at the frontier town of Urgi13, is the Nearer, or Tarraconensian14 Spain, extending as far as the chain of the Pyrenees. The Farther Spain is divided lengthwise into two provinces, Lusitania15 and Bætica, the former stretching along the northern side of the latter, and being divided from it by the river Ana16. The source of this river is in the district of Laminium17, in the Nearer Spain. It first spreads out into a number of small lakes, and then again contracts itself into a narrow channel, or entirely disappears under ground18, and after frequently disappearing and again coming to light, finally dis- charges itself into the Atlantic Ocean. Tarraconensian Spain lies on one side, contiguous to the Pyrenees, running down- wards along the sides of that chain, and, stretching across from the Iberian Sea to the Gallic ocean19, is separated from Bætica and Lusitania by Mount Solorius20, the chains of the Oretani21 and the Carpetani22, and that of the Astures23.


Bætica, so called from the river which divides it in the middle, excels all the other provinces in the richness of its cultivation and the peculiar fertility and beauty of its vegetation.

It consists of four jurisdictions, those of Gades24, of Corduba25, of Astigi26, and of Hispali27. The total number of its towns is 175; of these nine are colonies28, and eight muni- cipal towns29; twenty-nine have been long since presented with the old Latin rights30; six are free towns31, three federate32, and 120 tributary.

In this district, the things that more especially deserve notice, or are more easily explained in the Latin tongue, are the following, beginning at the river Ana, along the line of the seashore; the town of Onoba, surnamed Æstuaria33; the rivers Luxia and Urium34, flowing through this territory between the Ana and the Bætis; the Marian35 Mountains; the river Bætis; the coast of Corum36, with its winding bay; opposite to which is Gades, of which we shall have occasion to speak among the islands37. Next comes the Promontory of Juno38, and the port of Bæsippo39; the towns of Bœlo40 and Mellaria41, at which latter begin the Straits of the Atlantic; Carteia42, called by the Greeks Tartessos43; and the mountain of Calpe.

Along the coast of the inland sea44 is the town of Barbesula45 with its river; also Salduba46; the town of Suel47; and then Malaca48, with its river, one of the federate towns. Next to this comes Mænoba49, with its river; then Sexifirmum50, surnamed Julium; Selambina51; Abdera52; and Murci53, which is at the boundary of Bætica. M. Agrippa supposed that all this coast was peopled by colonists of Punic origin. Beyond the Anas, and facing the Atlantic, is the country of the Bastuli54 and the Turditani. M. Varro informs us, that the Iberians, the Persians, the Phœnicians, the Celts, and the Carthaginians spread themselves over the whole of Spain; that the name "Lusitania" is derived from the games (lusus) of Father Bacchus, or the fury (lyssa55) of his frantic attendants, and that Pan56 was the governor of the whole of it. But the traditions respecting Hercules57 and Pyrene, as well as Saturn, I conceive to be fabulous in the highest degree.

The Bætis does not rise, as some writers have asserted, near the town of Mentisa58, in the province of Tarraco, but in the Tugiensian Forest59; and near it rises the river Tader60, which waters the territory of Carthage61. At Ilorcum62 it turns away from the Funeral Pile63 of Scipio; then taking a sweep to the left, it falls into the Atlantic Ocean, giving its name to this province: at its source it is but small, though during its course it receives many other streams, which it deprives as well of their waters as their renown. It first enters Bætica in Ossigita-nia64, and glides gently, with a smooth current, past many towns situate on either side of its banks.

Between this river and the sea-shore the most celebrated places inland are Segida65, also surnamed Augurina; Julia66, called Fidentia; Urgao67 or Alba, Ebora68 or Cerealis, Iliberri69 or Liberini, Ilipula70 or Laus, Artigi71 or Julienses, Vesci72 or Faventia, Singili73, Attegua74, Arialdunum, Agla Minor75, Bæbro76, Castra Vinaria77, Cisimbrium78, Hippo Nova or New Hippo79, Ilurco80, Osca81, Escua82, Sucubo83, Nuditanum, Old Tuati84; all which towns are in that part of Bastitania which extends towards the sea, but in the jurisdiction85 of Corduba. In the neighbourhood of the river itself is Ossigi86, also surnamed Laconicum, Iliturgi87 or Forum Julium, Ipasturgi88 or Triumphale, Setia, and, fourteen miles inland, Obulco89, which is also called Pontificense.

Next to these comes Epora90, a federate town, Sacili91 Martialium, and Onoba92. On the right bank is Corduba, a Roman colony, surnamed Patricia93; here the Bætis first becomes navigable. There are also the towns of Carbula and Detunda94, and the river Singulis95, which falls into the Bætis on the same side.

The towns in the jurisdiction of Hispalis are the following: Celti, Arua96, Canama97, Evia, Ilipa98, surnamed Illa, and Italica99. On the left of the river is the colony of Hispalis100 named Romuliensis, and, on the opposite side101, the town of Osset102, surnamed Julia Constantia, Vergentum, or Juli Genius103, Orippo, Caura104, Siarum, and the river Menoba105, which enters the Bætis on its right bank. Between the æstuaries of the Bætis lie the towns of Nebrissa106, surnamed Veneria, and of Colobona107. The colonies are, Asta108, which is also called Regia, and, more inland, that of Asido109, surnamed Cæsariana.

The river Singulis, discharging itself into the Bætis at the place already mentioned, washes the colony of Astigi110, sur- named Augusta Firma, at which place it becomes navigable. The other colonies in this jurisdiction which are exempt from tribute are Tucci, surnamed Augusta Gemella111, Itucci called Virtus Julia112, Attubi or Claritas Julia113, Urso114 or Genua Urbanorum; and among them in former times Munda115, which was taken with the son of Pompey. The free towns are Old Astigi116 and Ostippo117; the tributary towns are Callet, Callecula, Castra Gemina, the Lesser Ilipula, Merucra, Sacrana, Obulcula118, and Oningis. As you move away from the sea-coast, near where the river Menoba is navigable, you find, at no great distance, the Alontigiceli and the Alostigi119.

The country which extends from the Bætis to the river Anas, beyond the districts already described, is called Bæturia, and is divided into two parts and the same number of nations; the Celtici120, who border upon Lusitania, in the ju- risdiction of Hispalis, and the Turduli, who dwell on the verge121 of Lusitania and Tarraconensis, and are under the protection of the laws of Corduba. It is evident that the Celtici have sprung from the Celtiberi, and have come from Lusitania, from their religious rites, their language, and the names of their towns, which in Bætica are distinguished by the following epithets122, which have been given to them. Seria has received the surname of Fama Julia123, Nertobriga that of Concordia Julia124, Segida that of Restituta Julia125, and Contributa126 that of Julia. What is now Curiga was formerly Ucultuniacum, Constantia Julia127 was Laconimurgis, the present Fortunales were the Tereses128, and the Emanici were the Callenses129. Besides these, there are in Celtica the towns of Acinippo130, Arunda131, Aruci132, Turobriga, Lastigi, Salpesa, Sæpone, and Serippo.

The other Bæturia, which we have mentioned, is inhabited by the Turduli, and, in the jurisdiction of Corduba, has some towns which are by no means inconsiderable; Arsa133, Mellaria134, Mirobriga135, and Sisapo136, in the district of Osintias.

To the jurisdiction of Gades belongs Regina, with Roman citizens; and Læpia, Ulia137, Carisa138 surnamed Aurelia, Urgia139 or Castrum Julium, likewise called Cæsaris Salutariensis, all of which enjoy the Latian rights. The tributary towns are Besaro, Belippo140, Barbesula, Lacippo, Bæsippo, Callet, Cappacum, Oleastro, Ituci, Brana, Lacibi, Saguntia141, and Audorisæ.

M. Agrippa has also stated the whole length of this province to be 475 miles142, and its breadth 257; but this was at a time when its boundaries extended to Carthage143, a circumstance which has often caused great errors in calculations; which are generally the result either of changes effected in the limits of provinces, or of the fact that in the reckoning of distances the length of the miles has been arbitrarily increased or diminished. In some parts too the sea has been long making encroachments upon the land, and in others again the shores have advanced; while the course of rivers in this place has become more serpentine, in that more direct. And then, besides, some writers begin their measurements at one place, and some at another, and so proceed in different directions; and hence the result is, that no two accounts agree.

(2.) At the present day the length of Bætica, from the town of Castulo144, on its frontier, to Gades is 250 miles, and from Murci, which lies on the sea-coast, twenty-five miles more. The breadth, measured from the coast of Carteia, is 234 miles. Who is there that can entertain the belief that Agrippa, a man of such extraordinary diligence, and one who bestowed so much care on his subject, when he proposed to place before the eyes of the world a survey of that world, could be guilty of such a mistake as this, and that too when seconded by the late emperor the divine Augustus ? For it was that emperor who completed the Portico145 which had been begun by his sister, and in which the survey was to be kept, in conformity with the plan and descriptions of M. Agrippa.


The ancient form of the Nearer Spain, like that of many other provinces, is somewhat changed, since the time when Pompey the Great, upon the trophies which he erected in the Pyrenees, testified that 877 towns, from the Alps to the borders of the Farther Spain, had been reduced to subjection by him. The whole province is now divided into seven jurisdictions, those of Carthage146, of Tarraco, of Cæsar Augusta147, of Clunia148, of Asturica149, of Lucus150, and of the Bracari151. To these are to be added the islands, which will be described on another occasion, as also 293 states which are dependent on others; besides which the province contains 179 towns. Of these, twelve are colonies, thirteen, towns with the rights of Roman citizens, eighteen with the old Latian rights, one confederate, and 135 tributary.

The first people that we come to on the coast are the Bastuli; after whom, proceeding according to the order which I shall follow, as we go inland, there are the Mentesani, the Oretani, and the Carpetani on the Tagus, and next to them the Vaccæi, the Vectones, and the Celtiberian Arevaci. The towns nearest to the coast are Urci, and Barea152 included in Bætica, the district of Mavitania, next to it Deitania, and then Contestania, and the colony of Carthago Nova; from the Promontory of which, known as the Promontorium Saturni153, to the city of Cæsarea154 in Mauritania, the passage is a distance of 187 miles. The remaining objects worthy of mention on the coast are the river Tader155, and the free colony of Ilici156, whence the Ilicitanian Gulf157 derives its name; to this colony the Icositani are subordinate.

We next have Lucentum158, holding Latian rights; Dianium159, a tributary town; the river Sucro160, and in former times a town of the same name, forming the frontier of Contestania. Next is the district of Edetania, with the delightful expanse of a lake161 before it, and extending backward to Celtiberia. Valentia162, a colony, is situate three miles from the sea, after which comes the river Turium163, and Saguntum164 at the same distance, a town of Roman citizens famous for its fidelity, the river Uduba165, and the district of the Ilergaones166. The Iberus167, a river enriched by its commerce, takes its rise in the country of the Cantabri, not far from the town of Juliobriga168, and flows a distance of 450 miles; 260 of which, from the town of Varia169 namely, it is available for the purposes of navigation. From this river the name of Iberia has been given by the Greeks to the whole of Spain.

Next comes the district of Cossetania, the river Subi170, and the colony of Tarraco, which was built by the Scipios as Carthage171 was by the Carthaginians. Then the district of the Ilergetes, the town of Subur172, and the river Rubricatum173, beyond which begin the Laletani and the Indigetes174. Behind these, in the order in which they will be mentioned, going back from the foot of the Pyrenees, are the Ausetani175, the Lacetani176, and along the Pyrenees, the Cerretani177, next to whom are the Vascones178. On the coast is the colony of Barcino179, surnamed Faventia; Bætulo180 and Iluro181, towns with Roman citizens; the river Larnum182, Blandæ183, the river Alba184; Emporiæ185, a city consisting of two parts, one peopled by the original inhabitants, the other by the Greek descendants of the Phocæans; and the river Ticher186. From this to the Venus Pyrenæa187, on the other side of the Promontory, is a distance of forty miles.

I shall now proceed to give an account of the more remarkable things in these several jurisdictions, in addition to those which have been already mentioned. Forty-three different peoples are subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of Tarraco: of these the most famous are—holding the rights of Roman citizens, the Dertusani188 and the Bisgargitani; enjoying Latian rights, the Ausetani, and the Cerretani, both Julian and Augustan, the Edetani189, the Gerundenses190, the Gessorienses191, and the Teari192, also called Julienses. Among the tributaries are the Aquicaldenses193, the Onenses, and the Bæculonenses194.

Cæsar Augusta, a free colony, watered by the river Iberus, on the site of the town formerly called Salduba, is situate in the district of Edetania, and is the resort of fifty-five nations. Of these there are, with the rights of Roman citizens, the Bellitani195, the Celsenses196, a former colony, the Calagurritani197, surnamed the Nassici, the Ilerdenses198, of the nation of the Surdaones, near whom is the river Sicoris, the Oscenses199 in the district of Vescitania, and the Turiasonenses200. Of those enjoying the rights of the ancient Latins, there are the Cascantenses201 the Ergavicenses202, the Graccuritani203, the Leo- nicenses204, and the Osicerdenses; of federate states, there are the Tarragenses205; and of tributaries, the Arcobrigenses206, the Andologenses207, the Aracelitani208, the Bursaonenses209, the Calagurritani210, who are also surnamed the Fibularenses, the Complutenses211, the Carenses212, the Cincenses213, the Cortonenses, the Damanitani214, the Larnenses215, the Lursenses216, the Lumberitani217, the Lacetani, the Lubienses, the Pompelonenses218, and the Segienses.

Sixty-five different nations resort to Carthage219, besides the inhabitants of the islands. Of the Accitanian220 colony, there are the Gemellenses, and the town of Libisosona221, surnamed Foroaugustana, to both of which have been granted Italian222 rights. Of the colony of Salaria223, there are the people of the following towns, enjoying the rights of ancient Latium: the Castulonenses, also called the Cæsari Venales, the Sætabitani224 or Augustani, and the Valerienses225. The best known among the tributaries are the Alabanenses226, the Bastitani227, the Consaburrenses228, the Dianenses229, the Egelestani230, the Ilorcitani231, the Laminitani, the Mentesani232, both those called Oritani and those called Bastuli, and the Oretani who are surnamed Germani233, the people of Segobriga234 the capital of Celtiberia, those of Toletum235 the capital of Carpetania, situate on the river Tagus, and after them the Viatienses and the Virgilienses236.

To the jurisdiction of Clunia237 the Varduli contribute fourteen nations, of whom we need only particularize the Albanenses238, the Turmodigi239, consisting of four tribes, among which are the Segisamonenses240 and the Segisamaiulienses. To the same jurisdiction belong the Carietes241 and the Vennenses with five states, among which are the Velienses. Thither too resort the Pelendones of the Celtiberians, in four different nations, among whom the Numantini242 were especially famous. Also, among the eighteen states of the Vaccæi, there are the Intercatienses243, the Pallantini244, the Lacobrigenses, and the Caucenses245. But among the seven peoples belonging to the Cantabri, Juliobriga246 is the only place worthy of mention; and of the ten states of the Autrigones, Tritium and Virovesca247. The river Areva248 gives its name to the Arevaci; of whom there are six towns, Segontia249 and Uxama250, names which are frequently given to other places, as also Segovia251 and Nova Augusta, Termes252, and Clunia itself, the frontier of Celtiberia. The remaining portion turns off towards the ocean, being occupied by the Varduli, already mentioned, and the Cantabri.

Next upon these touch the twenty-two nations of the Astures, who are divided into the Augustani253 and the Transmontani, with the magnificent city of Asturica. Among these we have the Cigurri254, the Pæsici, the Lancienses255, and the Zoëlæ256. The total number of the free population amounts to 240,000 persons.

The jurisdiction of Lucus257 embraces, besides the Celtici and the Lebuni, sixteen different nations, but little known and with barbarous names. The number however of the free population amounts to nearly 166,000.

In a similar manner the twenty-four states of the jurisdiction of the Bracari contain a population of 175,000, among whom, besides the Bracari258 themselves, we may mention, without wearying the reader, the Bibali, the Cœlerni, the Gallæci, the Hequæsi, the Limici, and the Querquerni.

The length of the Nearer Spain, from the Pyrenees to the frontier of Castulo, is 607259 miles, and a little more if we follow the line of the coast; while its breadth, from Tarraco to the shore of Olarson260, is 307261 miles. From the foot of the Pyrenees, where it is wedged in by the near approach of the two seas, it gradually expands until it touches the Farther Spain, and thereby acquires a width more than double262.

Nearly the whole of Spain abounds in mines263 of lead, iron, copper, silver, and gold; in the Nearer Spain there is also found lapis specularis264; in Bætica there is cinnabar. There are also quarries of marble. The Emperor Vespasianus Augustus, while still harassed by the storms that agitated the Roman state, conferred the Latian rights on the whole of Spain. The Pyrenean mountains divide Spain from Gaul, their extremities projecting into the two seas on either side.


That part of the Gallias which is washed by the inland sea265 is called the province of [Gallia] Narbonensis266, having formerly borne the name of Braccata267. It is divided from Italy by the river Varus268, and by the range of the Alps, the great safeguards of the Roman Empire. From the remainder of Gaul, on the north, it is separated by the mountains Cebenna269 and Jura270. In the cultivation of the soil, the manners and civilization of the inhabitants, and the extent of its wealth, it is surpassed by none of the provinces, and, in short, might be more truthfully described as a part of Italy than as a province. On the coast we have the district of the Sordones271, and more inland that of the Consuarani272. The rivers are the Tecum and the Vernodubrum273. The towns are Illiberis274, the scanty remains of what was formerly a great city, and Ruscino275, a town with Latian rights. We then come to the river Atax276, which flows from the Pyrenees, and passes through the Rubrensian Lake277, the town of Narbo Martius, a colony of the tenth legion, twelve miles distant from the sea, and the rivers Arauris278 and Liria279. The towns are otherwise but few in number, in consequence of the numerous lakes280 which skirt the sea-shore. We have Agatha281, formerly belonging to the Massilians, and the district of the Volcæ Tectosages282; and there is the spot where Rhoda283, a Rhodian colony, formerly stood, from which the river takes its name of Rhodanus284; a stream by far the most fertilizing of any in either of the Gallias. Descending from the Alps and rushing through lake Lemanus285, it carries along with it the sluggish Arar286, as well as the torrents of the Isara and the Druentia287, no less rapid than itself. Its two smaller mouths are called Libica288, one being the Spanish, and the other the Metapinian mouth; the third and largest is called the Massiliotic289. There are some authors who state that there was formerly a town called Heraclea290 at the mouth of the Rhodanus or Rhone.

Beyond this are the Canals291 leading out of the Rhone, a famous work of Caius Marius, and still distinguished by his name; the Lake of Mastramela292, the town of Maritima293 of the Avatici, and, above this, the Stony Plains294, memorable for the battles of Hercules; the district of the Anatilii295, and more inland, that of the Desuviates296 and the Cavari. Again, close upon the sea, there is that of the Tricorii297, and inland, there are the Tricolli298, the Vocontii299, and the Segovellauni, and, after them, the Allobroges300.

On the coast is Massilia, a colony of Phocæan301 Greeks, and a federate302 city; we then have the Promontory of Zao303, the port of Citharista304, and the district of the Camatullici305; then the Suelteri306, and above them the Verrucini307. Again, on the coast, we find Athenopolis308, belonging to the Massilians, Forum Julii309 Octavanorum, a colony, which is also called Pacensis and Classica, the river Argenteus310, which flows through it, the district of the Oxubii311 and that of the Ligauni312; above whom are the Suetri313, the Quariates314 and the Adunicates315. On the coast we have Antipolis316, a town with Latian rights, the district of the Deciates, and the river Varus, which proceeds from Mount Cema, one of the Alps.

The colonies in the interior are Arelate Sextanorum317, Beterræ Septimanorum318, and Arausio319 Secundanorum; Valentia320 in the territory of the Cavari, and Vienna321 in that of the Allobroges. The towns that enjoy Latian rights are Aquæ Sextiæ322 in the territory of the Saluvii, Avenio323 in that of the Cavari, Apta Julia324 in that of the Volgientes, Alebece325 in that of the Reii Apollinares, Alba326 in that of the Helvi, and Augusta327 in that of the Tricastini, Anatilia, Aeria328, the Bormanni329, the Comaci, Cabellio330, Carcasum331 in the territory of the Volcæ Tectosages, Cessero332, Carpentoracte333 in the territory of the Memini, the Cenicenses334, the Cambolectri335, surnamed the Atlantici, Forum336 Voconi, Glanum Livi337, the Lutevani338, also called the Foroneronienses339, Nemausum340 in the territory of the Arecomici, Piscenæ341, the Ruteni342, the Sanagenses343, the Tolosani344 in the territory of the Tectosages on the confines of Aquitania, the Tasconi345, the Tarusconienses346, the Umbranici347, Vasio348 and Lucus Augusti349, the two capitals of the federate state of the Vocontii. There are also nineteen towns of less note, as well as twenty-four belonging to the people of Nemausum. To this list350 the Emperor Galba added two tribes dwelling among the Alps, the Avantici351 and the Bodiontici, to whom belongs the town of Dinia352. According to Agrippa the length of the province of Gallia Narbonensis is 370 miles, and its breadth 248353.

CHAP. 6. (5.)—OF ITALY.

Next comes Italy, and we begin with the Ligures354, after whom we have Etruria, Umbria, Latium, where the mouths of the Tiber are situate, and Rome, the Capital of the world, sixteen miles distant from the sea. We then come to the coasts of the Volsci and of Campania, and the districts of Picenum, of Lucania, and of Bruttium, where Italy extends the farthest in a southerly direction, and projects into the [two] seas with the chain of the Alps355, which there forms pretty nearly the shape of a crescent. Leaving Bruttium we come to the coast of [Magna] Græcia, then the Salentini, the Pediculi, the Apuli, the Peligni, the Frentani, the Marrucini, the Vestini, the Sabini, the Picentes, the Galli, the Umbri, the Tusci, the Veneti, the Carni, the Iapydes, the Histri, and the Liburni.

I am by no means unaware that I might be justly accused of ingratitude and indolence, were I to describe thus briefly and in so cursory a manner the land which is at once the foster-child356 and the parent of all lands; chosen by the providence of the Gods to render even heaven itself more glorious357, to unite the scattered empires of the earth, to bestow a polish upon men's manners, to unite the discordant and uncouth dialects of so many different nations by the powerful ties of one common language, to confer the enjoyments of discourse and of civilization upon mankind, to become, in short, the mother-country of all nations of the Earth.

But how shall I commence this undertaking? So vast is the number of celebrated places (what man living could enumerate them all?), and so great the renown attached to each individual nation and subject, that I feel myself quite at a loss. The city of Rome alone, which forms a portion of it, a face well worthy of shoulders so beauteous, how large a work would it require for an appropriate description! And then too the coast of Campania, taken singly by itself! so blest with natural beauties and opulence, that it is evident that when nature formed it she took a delight in accumulating all her blessings in a single spot—how am I to do justice to it? And then the climate, with its eternal freshness and so replete with health and vitality, the sereneness of the weather so enchanting, the fields so fertile, the hill sides so sunny, the thickets so free from every danger, the groves so cool and shady, the forests with a vegetation so varying and so luxuriant, the breezes descending from so many a mountain, the fruitfulness of its grain, its vines, and its olives so transcendent; its flocks with fleeces so noble, its bulls with necks so sinewy, its lakes recurring in never-ending succession, its numerous rivers and springs which refresh it with their waters on every side, its seas so many in number, its havens and the bosom of its lands opening everywhere to the commerce of all the world, and as it were eagerly stretching forth into the very midst of the waves, for the purpose of aiding as it were the endeavours of mortals!

For the present I forbear to speak of its genius, its manners, its men, and the nations whom it has conquered by eloquence and force of arms. The very Greeks themselves, a race fond in the extreme of expatiating on their own praises, have amply given judgment in its favour, when they named but a small part of it 'Magna Græcia358.' But we must be content to do on this occasion as we have done in our description of the heavens; we must only touch upon some of these points, and take notice of but a few of its stars. I only beg my readers to bear in mind that I am thus hasten- ing on for the purpose of giving a general description of everything that is known to exist throughout the whole earth.

I may premise by observing that this land very much resembles in shape an oak leaf, being much longer than it is broad; towards the top it inclines to the left359, while it terminates in the form of an Amazonian buckler360, in which the spot at the central projection is the place called Cocinthos, while it sends forth two horns at the end of its crescent-shaped bays, Leucopetra on the right and Lacinium on the left. It extends in length 1020 miles, if we measure from the foot of the Alps at Prætoria Augusta, through the city of Rome and Capua to the town of Rhegium, which is situate on the shoulder of the Peninsula, just at the bend of the neck as it were. The distance would be much greater if measured to Lacinium, but in that case the line, being drawn obliquely, would incline too much to one side. Its breadth is variable; being 410 miles between the two seas, the Lower and the Upper361, and the rivers Varus and Arsia362: at about the middle, and in the vicinity of the city of Rome, from the spot where the river Aternus363 flows into the Adriatic sea, to the mouth of the Tiber, the distance is 136 miles, and a little less from Castrum-novum on the Adriatic sea to Alsium364 on the Tuscan; but in no place does it exceed 200 miles in breadth. The circuit of the whole, from the Varus to the Arsia, is 3059 miles365.

As to its distance from the countries that surround it- Istria and Liburnia are, in some places366, 100 miles from it, and Epirus and Illyricum 50; Africa is less than 200, as we are informed by M. Varro; Sardinia367 is 120, Sicily 1 1/2, Corsica less than 80, and Issa368 50. It extends into the two seas towards the southern parts of the heavens, or, to speak with more minute exactness, between the sixth369 hour and the first hour of the winter solstice.

We will now describe its extent and its different cities; in doing which, it is necessary to premise, that we shall follow the arrangement of the late Emperor Augustus, and adopt the division which he made of the whole of Italy into eleven districts; taking them, however, according to their order on the sea-line, as in so hurried a detail it would not be possible otherwise to describe each city in juxtaposition with the others in its vicinity. And for the same reason, in describing the interior, I shall follow the alphabetical order which has been adopted by that Emperor, pointing out the colonies of which he has made mention in his enumeration. Nor is it a very easy task to trace their situation and origin; for, not to speak of others, the Ingaunian Ligurians have had lands granted to them as many as thirty different times.


To begin then with the river Varus; we have the town of Nicæa371, founded by the Massilians, the river Paulo372, the Alps and the Alpine tribes, distinguished by various names373, but more especially the Capillati374, Cemenelio375, a town of the state of the Vediantii, the port of Hercules Monæcus376, and the Ligurian coast. The more celebrated of the Ligurian tribes beyond the Alps are the Salluvii, the Deciates, and the Oxubii377; on this side of the Alps, the Veneni378, and the Vagienni, who are derived from the Caturiges379, the Statielli380, the Bimbelli381, the Magelli, the Euburiates, the Casmonates382, the Veleiates383, and the peoples whose towns we shall describe as lying near the adjoining coast. The river Rutuba384, the town of Albium Intemelium385, the river Merula386, the town of Albium Ingaunum387, the port of Vadum Sabatiorum388, the river Porcifera389, the town of Genua, the river Feritor390, the Portus Delphini391, Tigullia392, Tegesta393 of the Tigullii, and the river Macra394, which is the boundary of Liguria.

Extending behind all the before-mentioned places are the Apennines, the most considerable of all the mountains of Italy, the chain of which extends unbroken from the Alps395 to the Sicilian sea. On the other side of the Apennines, towards the Padus396, the richest river of Italy, the whole country is adorned with noble towns; Libarna397, the colony of Dertona398, Iria399, Barderate400, Industria401, Pollentia402, Carrea surnamed Potentia403, Foro Fulvî or Valentinum404, Augusta405 of the Vagienni, Alba Pompeia406, Asta407, and Aquæ Statiellorum408. This is the ninth region, according to the arrangement of Augustus. The coast of Liguria extends 211 miles409, between the rivers Varus and Macra.


Next to this comes the seventh region, in which is Etruria, a district which begins at the river Macra, and has often changed its name. At an early period the Umbri were expelled from it by the Pelasgi; and these again by the Lydians, who from a king of theirs410 were named Tyrrheni, but afterwards, from the rites observed in their sacrifices, were called, in the Greek language411, Tusci. The first town in Etruria is Luna412, with a noble harbour, then the colony of Luca413, at some distance from the sea, and nearer to it again the colony of Pisæ414, between the rivers Auser415 and Arnus416, which owes its origin to Pelops and the Pisans417, or else to the Teutani, a people of Greece. Next is Vada418 Volaterrana, then the river Cecinna419, and Populonium420 formerly belonging to the Etrurians, the only town they had on this coast. Next to these is the river Prile421, then the Umbro422, which is navigable, and where the district of Umbria begins, the port of Telamon423, Cosa424 of the Volcientes, founded by the Roman people, Graviscæ425, Castrum novum426, Pyrgi427, the river Cæretanus428, and Cære429 itself, four miles inland, called Agylla by the Pelasgi who founded it, Alsium430, Fregenæ431, and the river Tiber, 284432 miles from the Macra.

In the interior we have the colonies of Falisci433, founded by the Argives, according to the account of Cato434, and surnamed Falisci Etruscorum, Lucus Feroniæ435, Rusellana, the Senienses436, and Sutrina437. The remaining peoples are the Arretini438 Veteres, the Arretini Fidentes, the Arretini Julienses, the Amitinenses, the Aquenses, surnamed Taurini439, the Blerani440, the Cortonenses441, the Capenates442, the Clusini Novi, the Clusini Veteres443, the Florentini444, situate on the stream of the Arnus, Fæsulæ445, Ferentinum446, Fescennia447, Hortanum448, Herbanum449, Nepeta450, Novem Pagi451, the Claudian præfecture of Foroclodium452, Pistorium453, Perusia454, the Suanenses, the Saturnini, formerly called the Aurinini, the Subertani455, the Statones456, the Tarquinienses457, the Tuscanienses458, the Vetulonienses459, the Veietani460, the Vesentini461, the Volaterrani462, the Voleentini463, surnamed Etrusci, and the Volsinienses464. In the same district the territories of Crustumerium465 and Caletra466 retain the names of the ancient towns.


The Tiber or Tiberis, formerly called Thybris, and previously Albula468, flows down from nearly the central part of the chain of the Apennines, in the territory of the Arretini. It is at first small, and only navigable by means of sluices, in which the water is dammed up and then discharged, in the same manner as the Timia469 and the Glanis, which flow into it; for which purpose it is found necessary to collect the water for nine days, unless there should happen to be a fall of rain. And even then, the Tiber, by reason of its rugged and uneven channel, is really more suitable for navigation by rafts than by vessels, for any great distance. It winds along for a course of 150 miles, passing not far from Tifernum470, Perusia, and Ocriculum471, and dividing Etruria from the Umbri472 and the Sabini473, and then, at a distance of less than sixteen miles from the city, separating the territory of Veii from that of Crustuminum, and afterwards that of the Fidenates and of Latium from Vaticanum.

Below its union with the Glanis from Arretinum the Tiber is swollen by two and forty streams, particularly the Nar474 and the Anio, which last is also navigable and shuts in Latium at the back; it is also increased by the numerous aqueducts and springs which are conveyed to the City. Here it becomes navigable by vessels of any burden which may come up from the Italian sea; a most tranquil dispenser of the produce of all parts of the earth, and peopled and embellished along its banks with more villas than nearly all the other rivers of the world taken together. And yet there is no river more circumscribed than it, so close are its banks shut in on either side; but still, no resistance does it offer, although its waters frequently rise with great suddenness, and no part is more liable to be swollen than that which runs through the City itself. In such case, however, the Tiber is rather to be looked upon475 as pregnant with prophetic warnings to us, and in its increase to be considered more as a promoter of religion than a source of devastation.

Latium476 has preserved its original limits, from the Tiber to Circeii477, a distance of fifty miles: so slender at the beginning were the roots from which this our Empire sprang. Its inhabitants have been often changed, and different nations have peopled it at different times, the Aborigines, the Pelasgi, the Arcades, the Seculi, the Aurunci, the Rutuli, and, beyond Circeii, the Volsci, the Osci, and the Ausones whence the name of Latium came to be extended as far as the river Liris478.

We will begin with Ostia479, a colony founded by a king of Rome, the town of Laurentum480, the grove of Jupiter Indiges481, the river Numicius482, and Ardea483, founded by Danaë, the mother of Perseus. Next come the former site of Aphrodisium484, the colony of Antium485, the river and island called Astura486, the river Nymphæus487, the Clostra Romana488, and Circeii489, formerly an island, and, if we are to believe Homer, surrounded by the open sea, though now by an extensive plain. The circumstances which we are enabled to publish on this subject for the information of the world are very remarkable. Theophrastus, the first foreigner who treated of the affairs of Rome with any degree of accuracy (for Theopompus, before whose time no Greek writer had made mention of us, only stated the fact that the city had been taken by the Gauls, and Clitarchus, the next after him, only spoke of the embassy that was sent by the Romans to Alexander)—Theophrastus, I say, following something more than mere rumour, has given the circuit of the island of Circeii as being eighty stadia, in the volume which he wrote during the archonship of Nicodorus at Athens490, being the 440th year of our city. Whatever land therefore has been annexed to that island beyond the circumference of about ten miles, has been added to Italy since the year previously mentioned.

Another wonderful circumstance too.—Near Circeii are the Pomptine Marshes491, formerly the site, according to Mucianus, who was thrice consul, of four-and-twenty cities. Next to this comes the river Ufens492, upon which is the town of Terracina493, called, in the language of the Volsci, Anxur; the spot too where Amyclæ494 stood, a town destroyed by serpents. Next is the site of the Grotto495, Lake Fundanus496, the port of Caieta497, and then the town of Formiæ498, formerly called Hormiæ, the ancient seat of the Læstrygones499, it is supposed. Beyond this, formerly stood the town of Pyræ; and we then come to the colony of Minturnæ500, which still exists, and is divided501 by the river Liris, also called the Glanis. The town of Sinuessa502 is the last in the portion which has been added to Latium; it is said by some that it used to be called Sinope.

At this spot begins that blessed country Campania503, and in this vale first take their rise those hills clad with vines, the juice of whose grape is extolled by Fame all over the world; the happy spot where, as the ancients used to say, father Liber and Ceres are ever striving for the mastery. Hence the fields of Setia504 and of Cæcubum505 extend afar. and, next to them those of Falernum506 and of Calinum507. As soon as we have passed these, the hills of Massica508, of Gaurus509, and of Surrentum rise to our view. Next, the level plains of Laborium510 are spread out far and wide, where every care is bestowed on cultivating crops of spelt, from which the most delicate fermenty is made. These shores are watered by warm springs511, while the seas are distinguished beyond all others for the superlative excellence of their shell and other fish. In no country too has the oil of the olive a more exquisite flavour. This territory, a battle-ground as it were for the gratification of every luxurious pleasure of man, has been held successively by the Osci, the Greeks, the Umbri, the Tusci, and the Campani.

On the coast we first meet with the river Savo512, the town of Volturnum with a river513 of the same name, the town of Liternum514, Cumæ515, a Chalcidian colony, Misenum516, the port of Baiæ517, Bauli518, the Lucrine Lake519, and Lake Avernus, near which there stood formerly a town520 of the Cimmerians. We then come to Puteoli521, formerly called the colony of Dicæ- archia, then the Phlegræn522 Plains, and the Marsh of Acherusia523 in the vicinity of Cumæ.

Again, on the coast we have Neapolis524, also a colony of the Chalcidians, and called Parthenope from the tomb there of one of the Sirens, Herculaneum525, Pompeii526, from which Mount Vesuvius may be seen at no great distance, and which is watered by the river Sarnus527; the territory of Nuceria, and, at the distance of nine miles from the sea, the town of that name528, and then Surrentum529, with the Promontory of Minerva530, formerly the abode of the Sirens. The distance thence by sea to Circeii is seventy-eight miles This region, beginning at the Tiber, is looked upon as the first of Italy according to the division of Augustus.

Inland there are the following colonies:—Capua531, so called from its champaign country, Aquinum532, Suessa533, Venafrum534, Sora535, Teanum surnamed Sidicinum536, Nola537; and the towns of Abella538, Aricia539, Alba Longa540, the Acer- rani541, the Allifani542, the Atinates543, the Aletrinates544, the Anagnini545, the Atellani546, the Affilani547, the Arpinates548, the Auximates549, the Abellani550, the Alfaterni (both those who take their names from the Latin, the Hernican and the Labicanian territory), Bovillæ551, Calatia552, Casi- num553, Calenum554, Capitulum555 of the Hernici, the Cereatini556, surnamed Mariani, the Corani557, descended from the Trojan Dardanus, the Cubulterini, the Castrimœnienses558, the Cingulani559, the Fabienses560 on the Alban Mount, the Foropopulienses561 of the Falernian district, the Frusinates562, the Ferentinates563, the Freginates564, the old Frabaterni565, the new Frabaterni, the Ficolenses566, the Fre- gellani567, Forum Appî568, the Forentani569, the Gabini570, the Interamnates Succasini571, also surnamed Lirinates, the Ilionenses Lavinii572, the Norbani573, the Nomentani574, the Prænestini575 (whose city was formerly called Stephané), the Privernates576, the Setini577, the Signini578, the Suessulani579, the Telesini580, the Trebulani, surnamed Balinienses581, the Trebani582, the Tusculani583, the Verulani584, the Veliterni585, the Ulubrenses586, the Urbinates587, and, last and greater than all, Rome herself, whose other name588 the hallowed mysteries of the sacred rites forbid us to mention without being guilty of the greatest impiety. After it had been long kept buried in secresy with the strictest fidelity and in respectful and salutary silence, Valerius Soranus dared to divulge it, but soon did he pay the penalty589 of his rashness.

It will not perhaps be altogether foreign to the purpose, if I here make mention of one peculiar institution of our forefathers which bears especial reference to the inculcation of silence on religious matters. The goddess Angerona590, to whom sacrifice is offered on the twelfth day before the calends of January [21st December], is represented in her statue as having her mouth bound with a sealed fillet.

Romulus left the city of Rome, if we are to believe those who state the very greatest number, having three591 gates and no more. When the Vespasians were emperors592 and censors, in the year from its building 826, the circumference of the walls which surrounded it was thirteen miles and two-fifths. Surrounding as it does the Seven Hills, the city is divided into fourteen districts, with 265 cross-roads593 under the guardianship of the Lares. If a straight line is drawn from the mile-column594 placed at the entrance of the Forum, to each of the gates, which are at present thirty-seven in number (taking care to count only once the twelve double gates, and to omit the seven old ones, which no longer exist), the result will be [taking them altogether], a straight line of twenty miles and 765 paces595. But if we draw a straight line from the same mile-column to the very last of the houses, including therein the Prætorian encampment, and follow throughout the line of all the streets, the result will then be something more than seventy miles. Add to these calculations the height of the houses, and then a person may form a fair idea of this city, and will certainly be obliged to admit that there is not a place throughout the whole world that for size can be compared to it. On the eastern side it is bounded by the agger of Tarquinius Superbus, a work of surpassing grandeur; for he raised it so high as to be on a level with the walls on the side on which the city lay most exposed to attack from the neighbouring plains. On all the other sides it has been fortified either with lofty walls or steep and precipitous hills596, but so it is, that its buildings, increasing and extending beyond all bounds, have now united many other cities to it597.

Besides those previously mentioned, there were formerly in the first region the following famous towns of Latium: Satricum598, Pometia599, Scaptia, Politorium600, Tellene, Tifata, Cænina601, Ficana602, Crustumerium, Ameriola603, Medullum604, Corniculum605, Saturnia606, on the site of the present city of Rome, Antipolis607, now Janiculum, forming part of Rome, Antemnæ608, Carnerium609, Collatia610, Amitinum611, Norbe, Sulmo612, and, with these, those Alban nations613 who used to take part in the sacrifices614 upon the Alban Mount, the Albani, the Æsulani615, the Accienses, the Abolani, the Bube- tani616, the Bolani617, the Cusuetani, the Coriolani618, the Fidenates619, the Foretii, the Hortenses620, the Latinienses, the Longulani621, the Manates, the Macrales, the Mutucumenses, the Munienses, the Numinienses, the Olliculani, the Octulani, the Pedani622, the Polluscini, the Querquetulani, the Sicani, the Sisolenses, the Tolerienses, the Tutienses, the Vimitellarii, the Velienses, the Venetulani, and the Vitellenses. Thus we see, fifty-three peoples of ancient Latium have passed away without leaving any traces of their existence.

In the Campanian territory there was also the town of Stabiæ623, until the consulship of Cneius Pompeius and L. Cato, when, on the day before the calends of May [30th of April], it was destroyed in the Social War by L. Sulla the legatus, and all that now stands on its site is a single farmhouse. Here also Taurania has ceased to exist, and the remains of Casilinum624 are fast going to ruin. Besides these, we learn from Antias that king L. Tarquinius took Apiolæ625, a town of the Latins, and with its spoils laid the first foundations of the Capitol. From Surrentum626 to the river Silarus627, the former territory of Picentia628 extends for a distance of thirty miles. This belonged to the Etruscans, and was remarkable for the temple of the Argive Juno, founded by Jason629. In it was Picentia, a town630 of the territory of Salernum631.


At the Silarus begins the third region of Italy, consisting of the territory of Lucania and Bruttium; here too there have been no few changes of the population. These districts have been possessed by the Pelasgi, the Œnotrii, the Itali, the Morgetes, the Siculi, and more especially by people who emigrated from Greece632, and, last of all, by the Leucani, a people sprung from the Samnites, who took possession under the command of Lucius. We find here the town of Pæstum633, which received from the Greeks the name of Posidonia, the Gulf of Pæstum634, the town of Elea, now known as Velia635, and the Promontory of Palinurum636, a point at which the land falls inwards and forms a bay637, the distance across which to the pillar638 of Rhegium is 100 miles. Next after Palinurum comes the river Melpes639, then the town of Buxentum640, called in [Magna] Græcia Pyxus, and the river Laus; there was formerly a town641 also of the same name.

At this spot begins the coast of Bruttium, and we come to the town of Blanda642, the river Batum643, Parthenius, a port of the Phocians, the bay of Vibo644, the place645 where Clampetia formerly stood, the town of Temsa646, called Temese by the Greeks, and Terina founded by the people of Crotona647, with the extensive Gulf of Terina; more inland, the town of Consentia648. Situate upon a peninsula649 is the river Acheron650, from which the people of Acherontia derive the name of their town; then Hippo, now called Vibo Valentia, the Port of Hercules651, the river Metaurus652, the town of Tauroentum653, the Port of Orestes, and Medma654. Next, the town of Scyllæum655, the river Cratæis656, the mother of Scylla it is said; then the Pillar of Rhegium, the Straits of Sicily, and the two promontories which face each other, Cænys657 on the Italian, and Pelorus658 on the Sicilian side, the distance between them being twelve stadia. At a distance thence of twelve miles and a half, we come to Rhegium659, after which begins Sila660, a forest of the Apennines, and then the pro- montory of Leucopetra661, at a distance of fifteen miles; after which come the Locri662, who take their surname from the promontory of Zephyrium663, being distant from the river Silarus 303 miles.

At this spot ends the first664 great Gulf of Europe; the seas in which bear the following names:—That from which it takes its rise is called the Atlantic, by some the Great Atlantic, the entrance of which is, by the Greeks, called Porthmos, by us the Straits of Gades. After its entrance, as far as it washes the coasts of Spain, it is called the Hispanian Sea, though some give it the name of the Iberian or Balearic665 Sea. Where it faces the province of Gallia Narbonensis it has the name of the Gallic, and after that, of the Ligurian, Sea. From Liguria to the island of Sicily, it is called the Tuscan Sea, the same which is called by some of the Greeks the Notian666, by others the Tyrrhenian, while many of our people call it the Lower Sea. Beyond Sicily, as far as the country of the Salentini, it is styled by Polybius the Ausonian Sea. Eratosthenes however gives to the whole expanse that lies between the inlet of the ocean and the island of Sardinia, the name of the Sardoan Sea; thence to Sicily, the Tyrrhenian; thence to Crete, the Sicilian; and beyond that island, the Cretan Sea.


The first islands that we meet with in all these seas are the two to which the Greeks have given the name of Pityussæ667, from the pine-tree668, which they produce. These islands now bear the name of Ebusus, and form a federate state. They are separated by a narrow strait669 of the sea, and are forty-six670 miles in extent. They are distant from Dianium671 700 stadia, Dianium being by land the same distance672 from New Carthage. At the same distance673 from the Pityussæ, lie, in the open sea, the two Baleares, and, over against the river Sucro674, Colubraria675. The Baleares676, so formidable in war with their slingers677, have received from the Greeks the name of Gymnasiæ.

The larger island is 100678 miles in length, and 475 in circumference. It has the following towns; Palma679 and Pollentia680, enjoying the rights of Roman citizens, Cinium681 and Tucis, with Latin rights: Bocchorum, a federate town, is no longer in existence. At thirty miles' distance is the smaller island, 40 miles in length, and 150682 in circumference; it contains the states of Jamnon683, Sanisera, and Magon684.

In the open sea, at twelve miles' distance from the larger island, is Capraria685 with its treacherous coast, so notorious for its numerous shipwrecks; and, opposite to the city of Palma, are the islands known as the Mænariæ686, Tiquadra687, and Little Hannibalis688.

The earth of Ebusus has the effect of driving away serpents, while that of Colubraria produces them; hence the latter spot is dangerous to all persons who have not brought with them some of the earth of Ebusus. The Greeks have given it the name of Ophiusa689. Ebusus too produces no690 rabbits to destroy the harvests of the Baleares. There are also about twenty other small islands in this sea, which is full of shoals. Off the coast of Gaul, at the mouth of the Rhodanus, there is Metina691, and near it the island which is known as Blascon692, with the three Stœchades, so called by their neighbours the Massilians693, on account of the regular order in which they are placed; their respective names are Prote694, Mese695, also called Pomponiana, and Hypæa696. After these come Sturium697, Phœnice, Phila, Lero, and, opposite to Antipolis698, Lerina699, where there is a remembrance of a town called Vergoanum having once existed.

CHAP. 12. (6.)—CORSICA.

In the Ligurian Sea, but close to the Tuscan, is Corsica, by the Greeks called Cyrnos, extending, from north to south 150 miles, and for the most part 50 miles in breadth, its circumference being 325. It is 62 miles distant from the Vada Volaterrana700. It contains thirty-two states, and two colonies, that of Mariana701, founded by C. Marius, and that of Aleria, founded by the Dictator Sylla. On this side of it is Oglasa702, and, at a distance of less than sixty miles from Corsica, Planaria703, so called from its appearance, being nearly level with the sea, and consequently treacherous to mariners.

We next have Urgo704, a larger island, and Capraria, which the Greeks have called Ægilion705; then Igilium706 and Dianium707, which they have also called Artemisia, both of them opposite the coast of Cosa; also Barpana708, Mænaria, Co- lumbaria, and Venaria. We then come to Ilva709 with its iron mines, an island 100 miles in circumference, 10 miles distant from Populonium, and called Æthalia by the Greeks: from it the island of Planasia710 is distant 28 miles. After these, beyond the mouths of the Tiber, and off the coast of Antium, we come to Astura711, then Palmaria and Sinonia, and, opposite to Formiæ, Pontiæ. In the Gulf of Puteoli are Pandateria712, and Prochyta, so called, not from the nurse of Æneas, but because it has been poured forth713 or detached from Ænaria714, an island which received its name from having been the anchorage of the fleet of Æneas, though called by Homer Inarime715; it is also called Pithecusa, not, as many have fancied, on account of the multitudes of apes found there, but from its extensive manufactories of pottery. Between Pausilipum716 and Neapolis lies the island of Megaris717, and then, at a distance of eight miles from Surrentum, Capreæ718, famous for the castle of the emperor Tiberius: it is eleven miles in circumference.


Leucothea comes next, and after it, but out of sight, as it lies upon the verge of the African Sea, Sardinia. It is situate somewhat less719 than eight miles from the nearest point of Corsica, and the Straits between them are even still more reduced by the small islands there situate, called the Cuniculariæ720, as also those of Phintonis721 and Fossæ, from which last the Straits themselves have obtained the name of Taphros722.

(7.) Sardinia extends, upon the east side, a distance of 188 miles, on the west 175, on the south 77, and on the north 125, being 565 miles in circumference. Its promontory of Caralis723 is distant from Africa 200, and from Gades 1400 miles. Off the promontory of Gordis724 it has two islands called the Isles of Hercules725, off that of Sulcis, the island of Enosis726, and off that of Caralis, Ficaria727. Some writers place Beleris not far from it, as also Callodis, and the island known as Heras Lutra728.

The most celebrated peoples of this island are the Ilienses729, the Balari, and the Corsi; and among its eighteen towns, there are those of the Sulcitani730, the Valentini731, the Neapoli- tani732, the Bosenses733, the Caralitani734, who enjoy the rights of Roman citizens, and the Norenses735. There is also one colony which is called Ad Turrim Libysonis736. Timæus has called this island Sandaliotis, on account of the similarity of its shape to the sole of a shoe, while Myrtilus has given it the name of Ichnusa737, from its resemblance to the print of a footstep. Opposite to the Gulf of Pæstum is Leucasia738, so called from a Siren who is buried there; opposite to Velia are Poiitia and Isacia, both known by one name, that of Œnotrides, a proof that Italy was formerly possessed by the Œnotrians. Opposite to Vibo are the little islands called Ithacesiæ739 from the watch-tower of Ulysses situate there.

CHAP. 14. (8.)—SICILY.

But more celebrated than all is Sicily, called Sicania by Thucydides, and by many writers Trinacria or Trinacia, from its triangular appearance. According to Agrippa it is 618740 miles in circumference. In former times it was a continuation of the territory of Bruttium, but, in consequence of the overflowing of the sea, became severed from it; thus forming a strait of 15 miles in length, and a mile and a half in width in the vicinity of the Pillar of Rhegium. It was from this circumstance of the land being severed asunder that the Greeks gave the name of Rhegium741 to the town situate on the Italian shore.

In these Straits is the rock of Scylla, as also Charybdis742, a whirlpool of the sea, both of them noted for their perils. Of this triangle, the promontory, which, as we have already743 mentioned, is called Pelorus, faces Scylla and juts out towards Italy, while Pachynum744 extends in the direction of Greece, Peloponnesus being at a distance from it of 440 miles, and Lilybæum745, towards Africa, being distant 180 miles from the promontory of Mercury746, and from that of Caralis in Sardinia 190. These promontories and sides are situate at the following distances from each other: by land it is 186 miles from Pelorus to Pachynum, from Pachynum to Lilybæum 200, and from Lilybæum to Pelorus 170747.

In this island there are five colonies and sixty-three cities or states. Leaving Pelorus and facing the Ionian Sea, we have the town of Messana748, whose inhabitants are also called Mamertini and enjoy the rights of Roman citizens; the promontory of Drepanum749, the colony of Tauromenium750, formerly called Naxos, the river Asines751, and Mount Ætna, wondrous for the flames which it emits by night. Its crater is twenty stadia in circumference, and from it red-hot cinders are thrown as far as Tauromenium and Catina, the noise being heard even at Maroneum752 and the Gemellian Hills. We then come to the three rocks of the Cyclopes753, the Port of Ulysses754, the colony of Catina755, and the rivers Symæthus756 and Terias; while more inland lie the Læstrygonian Plains.

To these rivers succeed the towns of Leontinum757 and Megaris, the river Pantagies758, the colony of Syracuse759, with the fountain of Arethusa760, (the people in the Syracusan ter- ritory drink too of the fountains of Temenitis761, Archidemia, Magæa, Cyane, and Milichie,) the port of Naustathmus762, the river Elorus, and the promontory of Pachynum. This side763 of Sicily begins with the river Hirminius764, then follow the town of Camarina765, the river Gelas766, and the town of Agragas767, which our people have named Agrigentum. We next come to the colony of Thermæ768, the rivers Achates769, Mazara, and Hypsa; the town of Selinus770, and then the Promontory of Lilybæum, which is succeeded by Drepana771, Mount Eryx772, the towns of Panhormus773, Solus774 and Himera775, with a river of the same name, Cephalœdis776, Aluntium777, Agathyrnum, the colony of Tyndaris778, the town of Mylæ779, and then Pelorus, the spot at which we began.

In the interior there are the following towns enjoying Latin privileges, those of the Centuripini780, the Netini781, and the Segestani782; tributary towns are those of the Assorini783, the Ætnenses784, the Agyrini785, the Acestæi, the Acrenses786, the Bidini787, the Cetarini788, the Cacyrini789, the Drepanitani, the Ergetini790, the Echetlienses791, the Erycini792, the Entellini793, the Enini794, the Enguini795, the Gelani796, the Gala- tini797, the Halesini798, the Hennenses, the Hyblenses799, the Herbitenses800, the Herbessenses801, the Herbulenses, the Halicyenses802, the Hadranitani803, the Imacarenses, the Ipanenses, the Ietenses804, the Mytistratini805, the Magellini, the Murgentini806, the Mutycenses807, the Menanini808, the Naxii809, the Noæi810, the Petrini811, the Paropini812, the Phthinthienses813, the Semellitani, the Scherini, the Selinuntii814, the Symæthii, the Talarienses, the Tissinenses815, the Triocalini816, the Tyraci- nenses, and the Zanclæi817, a Messenian colony on the Straits of Sicily. Towards Africa, its islands are Gaulos818, Melita, 87 miles from Camerina, and 113 from Lilybæum, Cosyra819, Hieronnesos820, Cæne821, Galata822, Lopadusa, Æthusa, written by some Ægusa, Bucinna823, Osteodes824, distant from Soluntum 75 miles, and, opposite to Paropus, Ustica.

On this side of Sicily, facing the river Metaurus, at a di- stance of nearly 25825 miles from Italy, are the seven826 islands called the Æolian, as also the Liparæan islands; by the Greeks they are called the Hephæstiades, and by our writers the Vulcanian827 Isles; they are called "Æolian" because in the Trojan times Æolus was king there.

(9.) Lipara828, with a town whose inhabitants enjoy the rights of Roman citizens, is so called from Liparus, a former king who succeeded829 Æolus, it having been previously called Melogonis or Meligunis. It is 25 miles830 distant from Italy, and in circumference a little less. Between this island and Sicily we find another, the name of which was formerly Therasia, but now called Hiera, because it is sacred to Vulcan831: it contains a hill which at night vomits forth flames. The third island is Strongyle832, lying one mile833 to the east of Lipara, over which Æolus reigned as well; it differs only from Lipara in the superior brilliancy of its flames. From the smoke of this volcano it is said that some of the inhabitants are able to predict three days beforehand what winds are about to blow; hence arose the notion that the winds are governed by Æolus. The fourth of these islands is Didyme834, smaller than Lipara, the fifth Ericusa, the sixth Phœnicusa, left to be a pasture-ground for the cattle of the neighbouring islands, and the last and smallest Euonymos. Thus much as to the first great Gulf of Europe.


At Locri begins the fore-part of Italy, called Magna Græcia, whose coast falls back in three bays835 formed by the Ausonian sea, so called from the Ausones, who were the first inhabitants of the country. According to Varro it is 86 miles in extent; but most writers have made it only 75. Along this coast there are rivers innumerable, but we shall mention those only that are worthy of remark. After leaving Locri we come to the Sagra836, and the ruins of the town of Caulon, Mystiæ837, Consilinum Castrum838, Cocinthum839, in the opinion of some, the longest headland of Italy, and then the Gulf of Scylacium840, and Scylacium841 itself, which was called by the Athenians, when they founded it, Scylletium. This part of Italy is nearly a peninsula, in consequence of the Gulf of Terinæum842 running up into it on the other side; in it there is a harbour called Castra Hannibalis843: in no part is Italy narrower than here, it being but twenty miles across. For this reason the Elder Dionysius entertained the idea of severing844 this portion from the main-land of Italy at this spot, and adding it to Sicily. The navigable rivers in this district are the Carcines845, the Crotalus, the Semirus, the Arocas, and the Targines. In the interior is the town of Petilia846, and there are besides, Mount Clibanus847, the promontory of Lacinium, in front of which lies the island of Dioscoron848, ten miles from the main-land, and another called the Isle of Calypso, which Homer is supposed to refer to under the name of Ogygia; as also the islands of Tiris, Eranusa, and Meloessa. According to Agrippa, the promontory of Lacinium849 is seventy miles from Caulon.

(11.) At the promontory of Lacinium begins the second Gulf of Europe, the bend of which forms an are of great depth, and terminates at Acroceraunium, a promontory of Epirus, from which it is distant850 seventy-five miles. We first come to the town of Croton851, and then the river Neæthus852, and the town of Thurii853, situate between the two rivers Crathis and Sybaris, upon the latter of which there was once a city854 of the same name. In a similar manner Heraclia855, sometimes called Siris, lies between the river of that name and the Aciris. We next come to the rivers Acalandrus and Casuentum856, and the town of Metapontum857, with which the third region of Italy terminates. In the interior of Bruttium, the Aprustani858 are the only people; but in Lucania we find the Atinates, the Bantini, the Eburini859, the Grumentini, the Potentini, the Sontini860, the Sirini, the Tergilani, the Ursentini, and the Volcentani861, whom the Numestrani join. Besides these, we learn from Cato862 that Thebes in Lucania has disappeared, and Theopompus informs us that there was formerly a city of the Lucani called Pandosia863, at which Alexander, the king of Epirus, died.


Adjoining to this district is the second region of Italy, which embraces the Hirpini, Calabria, Apulia, and the Salentini, extending a distance of 250 miles along the Gulf of Tarentum, which receives its name from a town of the Laconians so called, situate at the bottom of the Gulf; to which was annexed the maritime colony which had previously settled there. Tarentum864 is distant from the promontory of Lacinium 136 miles, and throws out the territory of Calabria opposite to it in the form of a peninsula. The Greeks called this territory Messapia, from their leader865; before which it was called Peucetia, from Peucetius866, the brother of Œnotrius, and was comprised in the territory of Salentinum. Between the two promontories867 there is a distance of 100 miles. The breadth across the peninsula from Tarentum868 to Brundusium by land is 35 miles, considerably less if measured from the port of Sasina869. The towns inland from Tarentum are Varia870 surnamed Apulia, Messapia, and Aletium871; on the coast, Senum, and Callipolis872, now known as Anxa, 75 miles from Tarentum. Thence, at a distance of 32 miles, is the Pro- montory of Acra Iapygia873, at which point Italy projects the greatest distance into the sea. At a distance of 19 miles from this point is the town of Basta874, and then Hydruntum875, the spot at which the Ionian is separated from the Adriatic sea, and from which the distance across to Greece is the shortest. The town of the Apolloniates876 lies opposite to it, and the breadth of the arm of the sea which runs between is not more than fifty miles. Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, was the first who entertained the notion of uniting these two points and making a passage on foot, by throwing a bridge across, and after him M. Varro877, when commanding the fleet of Pompey in the war against the Pirates. Other cares however prevented either of them from accomplishing this design. Passing Hydruntum, we come to the deserted site of Soletum878, then Fratuertium, the Portus Tarentinus, the haven of Miltopa, Lupia879, Balesium880, Cælia881, and then Brundusium882, fifty miles from Hydruntum. This last place is one of the most famous .ports of Italy, and, although more distant, affords by far the safest passage across to Greece, the place of disembarkation being Dyrrachium, a city of Illyria; the distance across is 225 miles.

Adjoining Brundusium is the territory of the Pediculi883; nine youths and as many maidens, natives of Illyria, became the parents of sixteen nations. The towns of the Pediculi are Rudiæ884, Egnatia885, and Barium886; their rivers are the Iapyx (so called from the son of Dædalus, who was king there, and who gave it the name of Iapygia), the Pactius887, and the Aufidus, which rises in the Hirpinian mountains and flows past Canusium888.

At this point begins Apulia, surnamed the Daunian, from the Daunii, who take their name from a former chief, the father-in-law of Diomedes. In this territory are the towns of Salapia889, famous for Hannibal's amour with a courtezan, Sipontum890, Uria, the river Cerbalus891, forming the boundary of the Daunii, the port of Agasus892, and the Promontory of Mount Garganus893, distant from the Promontory of Salentinum or Iapygia 234 miles. Making the circuit of Garganus, we come to the port of Garna894, the Lake Pantanus895, the river Frento, the mouth of which forms a harbour, Teanum of the Apuli896, and Larinum, Cliternia897, and the river Tifernus, at which the district of the Frentani898 begins. Thus there were three different nations of the Apulians, [the Daunii,] the Teani, so called from their leader, and who sprang from the Greeks, and the Lucani, who were subdued by Calchas899, and whose country is now possessed by the Atinates. Besides those already mentioned, there are, of the Daunii, the colonies of Luceria900 and Venusia901, the towns of Canusium902 and Arpi, formerly called Argos Hippium903 and founded by Diomedes, afterwards called Argyrippa. Here too Diomedes destroyed the nations of the Monadi and the Dardi, and the two cities of Apina and Trica904, whose names have passed into a by-word and a proverb.

Besides the above, there is in the interior of the second region one colony of the Hirpini, Beneventum905, so called by an exchange of a more auspicious name for its old one of Maleventum; also the Æculani906, the Aquilonii907, the Abellinates surnamed Protropi, the Compsani, the Caudini, the Ligures, both those called the Corneliani and Bebiani, the Vescellani, the Æclani, the Aletrini, the Abellinates908 surnamed Marsi, the Atrani, the Æcani909, the Alfellani910, the Atinates911, the Arpani, the Borcani, the Collatni, the Cori- nenses, the Cannenses912, rendered famous by the defeat of the Romans, the Dirini, the Forentani913, the Genusini914, the Herdo- nienses, the Hyrini915, the Larinates surnamed Frentani916, the Merinates917 of Garganus, the Mateolani, the Netini918, the Ru- bustini919, the Silvini920, the Strapellini921, the Turmentini, the Vibinates922, the Venusini, and the Ulurtini. In the interior of Calabria there are the Ægetini, the Apamestini923, the Argentini, the Butuntinenses924, the Deciani, the Grumbestini, the Norbanenses, the Palionenses, the Sturnini925, and the Tutini: there are also the following Salentine nations; the Aletini926, the Basterbini927, the Neretini, the Uxentini, and the Veretini928.


We now come to the fourth region, which includes the most valiant probably of all the nations of Italy. Upon the coast, in the territory of the Frentani929, after the river Tifernus, we find the river Trinium930, with a good harbour at its mouth, the towns of Histonium931, Buca932, and Ortona, and the river Aternus933. In the interior are the Anxani surnamed Frentani, the Higher and Lower Carentini934, and the Lanuenses; in the territory of the Marrucini, the Teatini935; in that of the Peligni, the Corfinienses936, the Superæquani937, and the Sulmonenses938; in that of the Marsi, the Anxantini939, the Atinates940, the Fucentes941, the Lucenses942, and the Marruvini943; in that of the Albenses, the town of Alba on Lake Fucinus; in that of the Æquiculani, the Cliternini944, and the Carseolani945; in that of the Vestini, the Angulani946, the Pinnenses, and the Peltuinates, adjoining to whom are the Aufinates947 Cismontani; in that of the Samnites, who have been called Sabelli948, and whom the Greeks have called Saunitæ, the colony of old Bovianum949, and that of the Undecumani, the Aufidenates950, the Esernini951, the Fagifulani, the Ficolenses952, the Sæpinates953, and the Tereventinates; in that of the Sabini, the Amiternini954, the Curenses955, Forum Decî956, Forum Novum, the Fidenates, the Interamnates957, the Nursini958, the Nomentani959, the Reatini960, the Trebulani, both those called Mutusci961 and those called Suffenates962, the Tiburtes, and the Tarinates.

In these districts, the Comini963, the Tadiates, the Cædici, and the Alfaterni, tribes of the Æquiculi, have disappeared. From Gellianus we learn that Archippe964, a town of the Marsi, built by Marsyas, a chieftain of the Lydians, has been swallowed up by Lake Fucinus, and Valerianus informs us that the town of the Viticini in Picenum was destroyed by the Romans. The Sabini (called, according to some writers, from their attention to religious965 observances and the worship of the gods, Sevini) dwell on the dew-clad hills in the vicinity of the Lakes of the Velinus966. The Nar, with its sulphureous waters, exhausts these lakes, and, descending from Mount Fiscellus967, unites with them near the groves of Vacuna968 and Reate, and then directs its course towards the Tiber, into which it discharges itself. Again, in another direction, the Anio969, taking its rise in the mountain of the Trebani, carries into the Tiber the waters of three lakes remarkable for their picturesque beauty, and to which Subla- queum970 is indebted for its name. In the territory of Reate is the Lake of Cutiliæ971, in which there is a floating island, and which, according to M. Varro, is the navel or central point of Italy. Below the Sabine territory lies that of La- tium, on one side Picenum, and behind it Umbria, while the range of the Apennines flanks it on either side.


The fifth region is that of Picenum, once remarkable for the denseness of its population; 360,000 Picentines took the oaths of fidelity to the Roman people. They are descended from the Sabines, who had made a vow to celebrate a holy spring972. Their territory commenced at the river Aternus973, where the present district and colony of Adria974 is, at a distance of six miles from the sea. Here we find the river Vomanus, the territories of Prætutia and Palma975, Castrum Novum976, the river Batinus; Truentum977, with its river of the same name, which place is the only remnant of the Liburni978 in Italy; the river Albula979; Tervium, at which the Prætutian district ends, and that of Picenum begins; the town of Cupra980, Castellum Firmanorum981, and above it the colony of Asculum982, the most illustrious in Picenum; in the interior there is the town of Novana983. Upon the coast we have Cluana984, Potentia, Numana, founded by the Siculi, and Ancona985, a colony founded by the same people on the Promontory of Cumerus, forming an elbow of the coast, where it begins to bend in- wards, and distant from Garganus 183 miles. In the interior are the Auximates986, the Beregrani987, the Cingulani, the Cuprenses surnamed Montani988, the Falarienses989, the Pausulani, the Planinenses, the Ricinenses, the Septempedani990, the Tollentinates, the Treienses, and the Pollentini of Urbs Salvia991.


Adjoining to this is the sixth region, which includes Umbria and the Gallic territory in the vicinity of Ariminum. At Ancona begins the coast of that part of Gaul known as Gallia Togata992. The Siculi and the Liburni possessed the greater part of this district, and more particularly the territories of Palma, of Prætutia, and of Adria. These were expelled by the Umbri, these again by the Etrurians, and these in their turn by the Gauls. The Umbri are thought to have been the most ancient race in Italy, it being supposed that they were called "Ombrii" by the Greeks, from the fact of their having survived the rains993 which had inundated the earth. We read that 300 of their towns were conquered by the Tusci; at the present day we find on their coast the river Æsis994, Senogallia995, the river Metaurus, the colonies of Fanum Fortunæ996 and Pisaurum997, with a river of the same name; and, in the interior, those of Hispellum998 and Tuder.

Besides the above, there are the Amerini999, the Attidiates1000, the Asisinates1001, the Arnates1002, the Æsinates1003, the Camertes1004, the Casuentillani, the Carsulani1005, the Dolates surnamed Salentini, the Fulginiates1006, the Foroflaminienses1007, the Forojulienses surnamed Concupienses, the Forobrentani, the Forosempronienses1008, the Iguvini1009, the Interamnates surnamed Nartes, the Mevanates1010, the Mevanionenses, the Matilicates1011, the Narnienses1012, whose town used formerly to be called Nequinum; the Nucerini1013, both those surnamed Favonienses and those called Camellani; the Ocriculani1014, the Ostrani1015, the Pitulani, both those surnamed Pisuertes and the others called Mergentini; the Plestini1016, the Sentinates1017, the Sarsi- nates1018, the Spoletini1019, the Suasini1020, the Sestinates1021, the Suillates1022, the Tadinates1023, the Trebiates1024, the Tuficani1025, the Tifernates1026 surnamed Tiberini, and the others called Metaurenses, the Vesinicates, the Urbinates, both those surnamed Metaurenses1027 and the others called Hortenses, the Vettonenses1028, the Vindinates, and the Viventani. In this district there exist no longer the Feliginates who possessed Clusiolum above Interamna, and the Sarranates, with their towns of Acerræ1029, surnamed Vafriæ, and Turocelum, also called Vettiolum; as also the Solinates, the Curiates, the Fallienates, and the Apiennates. The Arienates also have disappeared with the town of Crinovolum, as well as the Usidicani, the Plangenses, the Pæsinates, and the Cælestini. Cato writes that Ameria above-mentioned was founded 964 years before the war with Perseus.


The eighth region is bounded by Ariminum, the Padus, and the Apennines. Upon the coast we have the river Crustumium1030, and the colony of Ariminum1031, with the rivers Ariminus and Aprusa. Next comes the river Rubico1032, once the boundary of Italy, and after it the Sapis1033, the Vitis, and the Anemo, and then, Ravenna, a town of the Sabines1034, with the river Bedesis, 105 miles from Ancona; and, not far from the sea, Butrium1035, a town of the Umbri. In the interior there are the colonies of Bononia1036, formerly called Felsina, when it was the chief place of Etruria1037, Brixillum1038, Mutina1039, Parma1040, and Placentia1041. There are also the towns of Cæsena1042, Claterna, Forum Clodî1043, Forum Livî, Forum Popilî, Forum Truentinorum1044, Forum Cornelî, Forum Licinî, the Faventini1045, the Fidentini1046, the Otesini, the Padinates1047, the Regi- enses1048, who take their name from Lepidus, the Solonates1049, the Saltus Galliani1050, surnamed Aquinates, the Tannetani1051, the Veliates1052, who were anciently surnamed Regiates, and the Urbanates1053. In this district the Boii1054 have disappeared, of whom there were 112 tribes according to Cato; as also the Senones, who captured Rome.

(16.) The Padus1055 descends from the bosom of Mount Vesulus, one of the most elevated points of the chain of the Alps, in the territories of the Ligurian Vagienni1056, and rises at its source in a manner that well merits an inspection by the curious; after which it hides itself in a subterranean channel until it rises again in the country of the Forovibienses. It is inferior in fame to none whatever among the rivers, being known to the Greeks as the Eridanus and famous as the scene of the punishment of Phaëton1057. At the rising of the Dog-star it is swollen by the melted snows; but, though it proves more furious in its course to the adjoining fields than to the vessels that are upon it, still it takes care to carry away no portion of its banks, and when it recedes, renders them additionally fertile. Its length from its source is 300 miles, to which we must add eighty-eight for its sinuosities; and it receives from the Apennines and Alps not only several navigable rivers, but immense lakes as well, which discharge themselves into its waters, thus conveying altogether as many as thirty streams into the Adriatic Sea.

Of these the best known are the following—flowing from the range of the Apennines, the Jactus, the Tanarus1058, the Trebia which passes Placentia, the Tarus, the Incia, the Gabellus, the Scultenna, and the Rhenus: from the chain of the Alps, the Stura1059, the Orgus, the two Duriæ, the Sessites, the Ticinus, the Lambrus, the Addua, the Ollius, and the Mincius. There is no river known to receive a larger increase than this in so short a space; so much so indeed that it is impelled onwards by this vast body of water, and, invading the land1060, forms deep channels in its course: hence it is that, although a portion of its stream is drawn off by rivers and canals between Ravenna and Altinum, for a space of 120 miles, still, at the spot where it discharges the vast body of its waters, it is said to form seven seas.

By the Augustan Canal the Padus is carried to Ravenna, at which place it is called the Padusa1061, having formerly borne the name of Messanicus. The nearest mouth to this spot forms the extensive port known as that of Vatrenus, where Claudius Cæsar1062, on his triumph over the Britons, entered the Adriatic in a vessel that deserved rather the name of a vast palace than a ship. This mouth, which was formerly called by some the Eridanian, has been by others styled the Spinetic mouth, from the city of Spina, a very powerful place which formerly stood in the vicinity, if we may form a conclusion from the amount of its treasure deposited at Delphi; it was founded by Diomedes. At this spot the river Vatrenus1063, which flows from the territory of Forum Corneli, swells the waters of the Padus.

The next mouth to this is that of Caprasia1064, then that of Sagis, and then Volane, formerly called Olane; all of which are situate upon the Flavian Canal1065, which the Tuscans formerly made from Sagis, thus drawing the impetuous stream of the river across into the marshes of the Atriani, which they call the Seven Seas; and upon which is the noble port of Atria1066, a city of the Tuscans, from which place the sea was formerly called the Atriatic, though now the Adriatic.

We next come to the overflowing mouths of Carbonaria, and the Fosses of Philistina1067, by some called Tarta- rus1068, all of which originate in the overflow of the waters in the Philistinian Canal, swollen by the streams of the Atesis, descending from the Tridentine Alps, and of the Togisonus1069, flowing from the territory of the Patavini. A portion of them also forms the adjoining port of Brundulum1070, in the same manner as Edron1071 is formed by the two rivers Meduacus and the Clodian Canal. With the waters of these streams the Padus unites, and with them discharges itself into the sea, forming, according to most writers, between the Alps and the sea-shore a triangular figure, 2000 stadia in circumference, not unlike the Delta formed by the Nile in Egypt. I feel somewhat ashamed to have to borrow from the Greeks any statement in reference to Italy; Metrodorus of Scepsos, however, informs us that this river has obtained its name of Padus from the fact, that about its source there are great numbers of pine-trees, which in the Gallic language are called "padi." In the tongue of the Ligurians this river is called "Bodincus," which signifies "the bottomless." This derivation is in some measure supported by the fact that near this river there is the town of Industria1072, of which the ancient name was Bodincomagum, and where the river begins to be of greater depth than in other parts.


From the river Padus the eleventh region receives its name of Transpadana; to which, situate as it is wholly in the interior, the river, by its bounteous channel, conveys the gifts of all the seas. The towns are Vibî Forum1073 and Segusio; and, at the foot of the Alps, the colony of Augusta Taurinorum1074, at which place the Padus becomes navigable, and which was founded by the ancient race of the Ligurians, and of Augusta Prætoria1075 of the Salassi, near the two passes of the Alps, the Grecian1076 and the Penine (by the latter it is said that the Carthaginians passed into Italy, by the Grecian, Hercules)—the town of Eporedia1077, the foundation of which by the Roman people was enjoined by the Sibylline books; the Gauls call tamers of horses by the name of "Epore- diæ"—Vercellæ1078, the town of the Libici, derived its origin from the Salluvii, and Novaria1079, founded by the Vertacoma- cori, is at the present day a district of the Vocontii, and not, as Cato supposes, of the Ligurians; of whom two nations, called the Lævi and the Marici, founded Ticinum1080, not far from the Padus, as the Boii, descended from the Transalpine nations, have founded Laus Pompeia1081 and the Insubres Me- diolanum1082.

From Cato we also learn that Comum, Bergomum1083, and Licinîforum1084, and some other peoples in the vicinity, originated with the Orobii, but he admits that he is ignorant as to the origin of that nation. Cornelius Alexander however informs us that they came from Greece, interpreting their name as meaning "those who live upon the mountains1085." In this district, Parra has disappeared, a town of the Orobii, from whom, according to Cato, the people of Bergomum are descended; its site even yet shows that it was situate in a position more elevated than fruitful1086. The Caturiges have also perished, an exiled race of the Insubres, as also Spina previously mentioned; Melpum too, a place distinguished for its opulence, which, as we are informed by Cornelius Nepos, was destroyed by the Insubres, the Boii, and the Senones, on the very day on which Camillus took Veii.


We now come to the tenth region of Italy, situate on the Adriatic Sea. In this district are Venetia1087, the river Silis1088, rising in the Tarvisanian1089 mountains, the town of Alti- num1090, the river Liquentia rising in the mountains of Opitergium1091, and a port with the same name, the colony of Concordia1092; the rivers and harbours of Romatinum1093, the greater and less Tiliaventum1094, the Anaxum1095, into which the Varamus flows, the Alsa1096, and the Natiso with the Turrus, which flow past the colony of Aquileia1097 at a distance of fifteen miles from the sea. This is the country of the Carni1098, and adjoining to it is that of the lapydes, the river Timavus1099, the fortress of Pucinum1100, famous for its wines, the Gulf of Tergeste1101, and the colony of that name, thirty-three miles from Aquileia. Six miles beyond this place lies the river Formio1102, 189 miles distant from Ravenna, the ancient boundary1103 of enlarged Italy, and now the frontier of Istria. That this region takes its name from the river Ister which flows from the Danube, also called the Ister, into the Adriatic opposite the mouth of the Padus, and that the sea which lies between them is rendered fresh by their waters running from opposite directions, has been erroneously asserted by many, and among them by Nepos even, who dwelt upon the banks of the Padus. For it is the fact that no river which runs from the Danube discharges itself into the Adriatic. They have been misled, I think, by the circumstance that the ship Argo came down some river into the Adriatic sea, not far from Tergeste; but what river that was is now unknown. The most careful writers say that the ship was carried across the Alps on men's shoulders, having passed along the Ister, then along the Savus, and so from Nauportus1104, which place, lying between Æmona1105 and the Alps, from that circumstance derives its name.


Istria projects in the form of a peninsula. Some writers have stated its length to be forty miles, and its circumference 125; and the same as to Liburnia which adjoins it, and the Flanatic Gulf1106, while others make it 2251107; others again make the circumference of Liburnia 180 miles. Some persons too extend Iapydia, at the back of Istria, as far as the Flanatic Gulf, a distance of 130 miles, thus making Liburnia but 150 miles. Tuditanus1108, who subdued the Istri, had this inscription on his statue which was erected there: "From Aquileia to the river Titus is a distance of 1000 stadia."

The towns of Istria with the rights of Roman citizens are Ægida1109, Parentium, and the colony of Pola1110, now Pietas Julia, formerly founded by the Colchians, and distant from Tergeste 100 miles: after which we come to the town of Nesactium1111, and the river Arsia, now1112 the boundary of Italy. The distance across from Ancona to Pola is 120 miles. In the interior of the tenth region are the colonies of Cremona, Brixia in the territory of the Cenomanni1113, Ateste1114 belonging to the Veneti, and the towns of Acelum1115, Patavium1116, Opitergium, Belunum1117, and Vicetia; with Mantua1118, the only city of the Tuscans now left beyond the Padus. Cato informs us that the Veneti are descendants of the Trojans1119, and that the Cenomanni1120 dwelt among the Volcæ in the vicinity of Massilia. There are also the towns of the Fertini1121, the Tridentini1122, and the Beruenses, belonging to the Rhæti, Verona1123, belonging to the Rhæti and the Euganei, and Ju- lienses1124 to the Carni. We then have the following peoples, whom there is no necessity to particularize with any degree of exactness, the Alutrenses, the Asseriates, the Flamonienses1125 with those surnamed Vanienses, and the others called Culici, the Forojulienses1126 surnamed Transpadani, the Foretani, the Nedinates1127, the Quarqueni1128, the Taurisani1129, the Togienses, and the Varvari. In this district there have disappeared—upon the coast—Iramene, Pellaon, and Palsatium, Atina and Cælina belonging to the Veneti, Segeste and Ocra to the Carni, and Noreia to the Taurisci. L. Piso also informs us that although the senate disapproved of his so doing, M. Claudius Marcellus1130 razed to the ground a tower situate at the twelfth mile-stone from Aquileia.

In this region also and the eleventh there are some celebrated lakes1131, and several rivers that either take their rise in them or else are fed by their waters, in those cases in which they again emerge from them. These are the Addua1132, fed by the Lake Larius, the Ticinus by Lake Verbannus, the Mincius by Lake Benacus, the Ollius by Lake Sebinnus, and the Lambrus by Lake Eupilis—all of them flowing into the Padus.

Cælius states that the length of the Alps from the Upper Sea to the Lower is 1000 miles, a distance which Timagenes shortens by twenty-two. Cornelius Nepos assigns to them a breadth of 100 miles, and T. Livius of 3000 stadia; but then in different places. For in some localities they exceed 100 miles; where they divide Germany, for instance, from Italy; while in other parts they do not reach seventy, being thus narrowed by the providential dispensation of nature as it were. The breadth of Italy, taken from the river Var at the foot of these mountains, and passing along by the Vada1133 Sabatia, the Taurini, Comum, Brixia, Verona, Vicetia, Opitergium, Aquileia, Tergeste, Pola, and Arsia, is 745 miles.


Many nations dwell among the Alps; but the more remarkable, between Pola and the district of Tergeste, are the Secusses, the Subocrini, the Catali, the Menocaleni, and near the Carni the people formerly called the Taurisci, but now the Norici. Adjoining to these are the Rhæti and the Vindelici, who are all divided into a multitude of states. It is supposed that the Rhæti are the descendants of the Tuscans, who were expelled by the Gauls and migrated hither under the command of their chief, whose name was Rhætus. Turning then to the side of the Alps which fronts Italy, we have the Euganean1134 nations enjoying Latin rights, and of whom Cato enumerates thirty-four towns. Among these are the Triumpilini, a people who were sold1135 with their territory; and then the Camuni, and several similar tribes, each of them in the jurisdiction of its neighbouring municipal town. The same author also considers the Lepontii1136 and the Salassi to be of Tauriscan origin, but most other writers, giving a Greek1137 interpretation to their name, consider the Lepontii to have been those of the followers of Hercules who were left behind in consequence of their limbs being frozen by the snow of the Alps. They are also of opinion that the inhabitants of the Grecian Alps are descended from a portion of the Greeks of his army, and that the Euganeans, being sprung from an origin so illustrious, thence took their name1138. The head of these are the Stœni1139. The Vennonenses1140 and the Sarunetes1141, peoples of the Rhæti, dwell about the sources of the river Rhenus, while the tribe of the Lepontii, known as the Uberi, dwell in the vicinity of the sources of the lhodanus, in the same district of the Alps. There are also other native tribes here, who have received Latin rights, such as the Octodurenses1142, and their neighbours the Centrones1143, the Cottian1144 states, the Ligurian Vagienni, descended from the Caturiges1145, as also those called Montani1146; besides numerous nations of the Capillati1147, on the confines of the Ligurian Sea.

It may not be inappropriate in this place to subjoin the inscription now to be seen upon the trophy1148 erected on the Alps, which is to the following effect:—"To the Emperor Cæsar—The son1149 of Cæsar now deified, Augustus, Pontifex Maximus, and emperor fourteen years, in the seventeenth1150 year of his holding the tribuni- tial authority, the Senate and the Roman people, in remembrance that under his command and auspices all the Alpine nations which extended from the upper sea to the lower were reduced to subjection by the Roman people—The Alpine nations so sub- dued were: the Triumpilini, the Camuni, the Ve- nostes1151, the Vennonenses, the Isarci, the Breuni, the Genaunes1152, the Focunates, four nations of the Vindelici, the Consuanetes, the Rucinates, the Licates1153, the Catenates, the Ambisontes, the Ru- gusci, the Suanetes1154, the Calucones, the Brixentes, the Lepontii, the Uberi, the Nantuates, the Seduni, the Varagri, the Salassi, the Acitavones, the Medulli, the Uceni1155, the Caturiges, the Bri- giani, the Sogiontii, the Brodiontii, the Nemaloni, the Edenates1156, the Esubiani, the Veamini, the Gal- litæ, the Triulatti, the Ecdini, the Vergunni, the Eguituri1157, the Nementuri, the Oratelli, the Nerusi, the Velauni, and the Suetri."

The twelve states of the Cottiani1158 were not included in the list, as they had shown no hostility, nor yet those which had been placed by the Pompeian law under the jurisdiction of the municipal towns.

Such then is Italy, sacred to the gods, such are the nations, such the cities of her peoples; to which we may add, that this is that same Italy, which, when L. Æmilius Paulus1159 and C. Attilius Regulus were Consuls, on hearing of the rising in Gaul, unaided, and without any foreign assistance whatever, without the help even of that portion which lies beyond the Padus, armed 80,000 horse and 700,000 foot. In abundance of metals of every kind. Italy yields to no land whatever; but all search for them has been prohibited by an ancient decree of the Senate, who gave orders thereby that Italy shall be exempted1160 from such treatment.


The nation of the Liburni adjoins the river Arsia1161, and extends as far as the river Titus. The Mentores, the Hymani1162, the Encheleæ, the Buni, and the people whom Callimachus calls the Peucetiæ, formerly formed part of it; but now the whole in general are comprised under the one name of Illyricum. But few of the names of these nations are worthy of mention, or indeed very easy of pronunciation. To the jurisdiction of Scardona1163 resort the Iapydes and fourteen cities of the Liburni, of which it may not prove tedious if I mention the Lacinienses, the Stlupini, the Burnistæ, and the Olbonenses. Belonging to the same jurisdiction there are, in the enjoyment of Italian rights, the Alutæ1164, the Flanates1165, from whom the Gulf takes its name, the Lopsi, and the Varvarini; the Assesiates, who are exempt from tribute; and upon the islands, the Fertinates and the Curicttæ1166.

Besides these, there are on the coast, after leaving Nesactium, Alvona1167, Flanona, Tarsatica, Senia, Lopsica, Ortopula, Vegium, Argyruntum, Corinium1168, Ænona, the city of Pasinum, and the river Tedanius, at which Iapydia terminates. The islands of this Gulf, with their towns, besides those above mentioned, are Absyrtium1169, Arba1170, Crexa, Gissa, and Portunata. Again, on the mainland there is the colony of Iadera1171, distant from Pola 160 miles; then, at a distance of thirty miles, the island of Colentum1172, and of eighteen, the mouth of the river Titus.

CHAP. 26. (22.)—DALMATIA.

Scardona, situate upon the river1173, at a distance of twelve miles from the sea, forms the boundary of Liburnia and the beginning of Dalmatia. Next to this place comes the ancient country of the Autariatares and the fortress of Tariona, the Promontory of Diomedes1174, or, as others call it, the peninsula of Hyllis, 100 miles1175 in circuit. Then comes Tragurium, a place with the rights of Roman citizens, and celebrated for its marble, Sicum, a place to which Claudius, the emperor lately deified, sent a colony of his veterans, and Salona1176, a colony, situate 112 miles from ladera. To this place resort for legal purposes, having the laws dispensed according to their divisions into decuries or tithings, the Dahmatæ, forming 342 decuries, the Deurici 22, the Ditiones 239, the Mazæi 269, and the Sardiates 52. In this region are Burnum1177, Andetrium1178, and Tribulium, fortresses ennobled by the battles of the Roman people. To the same jurisdiction also belong the Issæi1179, the Colentini, the Separi, and the Epetini, nations inhabiting the islands. After these come the fortresses of Peguntium1180 and of Rataneum, with the colony of Narona1181, the seat of the third jurisdiction, distant from Salona eighty-two miles, and situate upon a river of the same name, at a distance of twenty miles from the sea. M. Varro states that eighty-nine states used to resort thither, but now nearly the only ones that are known are the Cerauni1182 with 24 decuries, the Daorizi with 17, the Dæsitiates with 103, the Docleatæ with 33, the Deretini with 14, the Deremistæ with 30, the Dindari with 33, the Glinditiones with 44, the Melcomani with 24, the Naresii with 102, the Scirtarii with 72, the Siculotæ with 24, and the Vardæi, once the scourges of Italy, with no more than 20 decuries. In addition to these, this district was possessed by the Ozuæi, the Partheni, the Hemasini, the Arthitæ, and the Armistæ. The colony of Epidaurum1183 is distant from the river Naron 100 miles. After Epidaurum come the following towns, with the rights of Roman citizens:—Rhizinium1184, Acruvium1185, Butua, Olcinium, formerly called Colchinium, having been founded by the Colchians; the river Drilo1186, and, upon it, Scodra1187, a town with the rights of Roman citizens, situate at a distance of eighteen miles from the sea; besides in former times many Greek towns and once powerful states, of which all remem- brance is fast fading away. For in this region there were formerly the Labeatæ, the Enderini1188, the Sasæi, the Grabæi1189, properly called Illyrii, the Taulantii1190, and the Pyrei. The Promontory of Nymphæum on the sea-coast still retains its name1191; and there is Lissum, a town enjoying the rights of Roman citizens, at a distance from Epidaurum of 100 miles.

(23.) At Lissum begins the province of Macedonia1192, the nations of the Parthini1193, and behind them the Dassaretæ1194. The mountains of Candavia1195 are seventy-eight miles from Dyrrhachium. On the coast lies Denda, a town with the rights of Roman citizens, the colony of Epidamnum1196, which, on account of its inauspicious name, was by the Romans called Dyrrhachium, the river Aöus1197, by' some called Æas, and Apollonia1198, formerly a colony of the Corinthians, at a distance of four miles from the sea, in the vicinity of which the celebrated Nymphæum1199 is inhabited by the barbarous Amantes1200 and Buliones. Upon the coast too is the town of Oricum1201, founded by the Colchians. At this spot begins Epirus, with the Acroceraunian1202 mountains, by which we have previously mentioned1203 this Gulf of Europe as bounded. Oricum is distant from the Promontory of Salentinum in Italy eighty1204 miles.

CHAP. 27. (24.)—THE NORICI.

In the rear of the Carni and the Iapydes, along the course of the great river Ister1205, the Rhæti touch upon the Norici1206: their towns are Virunum1207, Celeia, Teurnia, Aguntum1208, Vianiomina1209, Claudia1210, and Flavium Solvense1211. Adjoining to the Norici is Lake Peiso1212, and the deserts of the Boii1213; they are however now inhabited by the people of Sabaria1214, a colony of the now deified emperor Claudius, and the town of Scarabantia Julia1215.

CHAP. 28. (25.)—PANNONIA.

Next to them comes acorn-bearing Pannonia1216, along which the chain of the Alps, gradually lessening as it runs through the middle of Illyricum from north to south, forms a gentle slope on the right hand and the left. The portion which looks towards the Adriatic Sea is called Dalmatia and Illyricum, above mentioned, while Pannonia stretches away towards the north, and has the Danube for its extreme boundary. In it are the colonies of Æmona1217 and Siscia. The following rivers, both known to fame and adapted for commerce, flow into the Danube; the Draus1218, which rushes from Noricum with great impetuosity, and the Savus1219, which flows with a more gentle current from the Carnic Alps, there being a space between them of 120 miles. The Draus runs through the Serretes, the Serrapilli1220, the Iasi, and the Andizetes; the Savus through the Colapiani1221 and the Breuci; these are the principal peoples. Besides them there are the Arivates, the Azali, the Amantini, the Belgites, the Catari, the Cornacates, the Eravisci, the Hercuniates1222, the Latovici, the Oseriates, the Varciani, and, in front of Mount Claudius, the Scordisci, behind it the Taurisci. In the Savus there is the island of Metubarris1223, the greatest of all the islands formed by rivers. Besides the above, there are these other rivers worthy of mention:—the Colapis1224, which flows into the Savus near Siscia, where, dividing its channel, it forms the island which is called Segestica1225 a; and the river Bacuntius1226, which flows into the Savus at the town of Sirmium, where we find the state of the Sirmienses and the Amantini. Forty-five miles thence is Taurunum1227, where the Savus flows into the Danube; above which spot the Valdanus1228 and the Urpanus, themselves far from ignoble rivers, join that stream.

CHAP. 29. (26.)—MŒSIA.

Joining up to Pannonia is the province called Mœsia1229, which runs, with the course of the Danube, as far as the Euxine. It commences at the confluence1230 previously mentioned. In it are the Dardani, the Celegeri, the Triballi, the Timachi, the Mœsi, the Thracians, and the Scythians who border on the Euxine. The more famous among its rivers are the Margis1231, which rises in the territory of the Dardani, the Pingus, the Timachus, the Œscus which rises in Mount Rhodope, and, rising in Mount Hæmus, the Utus1232, the Asamus, and the Ieterus.

The breadth of Illyricum1233 at its widest part is 325 miles, and its length from the river Arsia to the river Drinius 530; from the Drinius to the Promontory of Acroceraunia Agrippa states to be 175 miles, and he says that the entire circuit of the Italian and Illyrian Gulf is 1700 miles. In this Gulf, according to the limits which we have drawn, are two seas, the Ionian1234 in the first part, and the Adriatic, which runs more inland and is called the Upper Sea.


In the Ausonian Sea there are no islands worthy of notice beyond those which we have already mentioned, and only a few in the Ionian; those, for instance, upon the Calabrian coast, opposite Brundusium, by the projection of which a harbour is formed; and, over against the Apulian coast, Diomedia1235, remarkable for the monument of Diomedes, and another island called by the same name, but by some Teutria.

The coast of Illyricum is clustered with more than 1000 islands, the sea being of a shoaly nature, and numerous creeks and æstuaries running with their narrow channels between portions of the land. The more famous are those before the mouths of the Timavus, with warm springs1236 that rise with the tides of the sea, the island of Cissa near the territory of the Istri, and the Pullaria1237 and Absyrtides1238, so called by the Greeks from the circumstance of Absyrtus, the brother of Medea, having been slain there. Some islands near them have been called the Electrides1239, upon which amber, which they call "electrum," was said to be found; a most assured instance however of that untruthfulness1240 which is generally ascribed to the Greeks, seeing that it has never vet been ascertained which of the islands were meant by them under that name. Opposite to the Iader is Lissa, and other islands whose names have been already mentioned1241. Opposite to the Liburni are some islands called the Crateæ, and no smaller number styled Liburniecæ and Celadussæ1242. Opposite to Surium is Bavo, and Brattia1243, famous for its goats, Issa with the rights of Roman citizens, and Pharia with a town. At a distance of twenty-five miles from Issa is Corcyra1244, surnamed Melæna, with a town founded by the Cnidians; between which and Illyricum is Melite1245, from which, as we learn from Callimachus, a certain kind of little dogs were called Melitæi; fifteen miles from it we find the seven Elaphites1246. In the Ionian Sea, at a distance of twelve miles from Oricum, is Sasonis1247, notorious from having been a harbour of pirates.

Summary.—The towns and nations mentioned are in number****1248. The rivers of note are in number****. The mountains of note are in number****. The islands are in number****. The towns or nations which have disappeared are in number****. The facts, statements, and observations are in number 326.

Roman Authors quoted.—Turannius Gracilis1249, Cornelius Nepos1250, T. Livius1251, Cato the Censor1252, M. Agrip- pa1253, M. Varro1254, the Emperor Augustus1255 now deified, Varro Atacinus1256, Antias1257, Hyginus1258, L. Vetus1259, Pomponius Mela1260, Curio1261 the Elder, Cælius1262, Arruntius1263, Sebosus1264, Licinius Mucianus1265, Fabricius Tuscus1266, L. Ateius1267, Capito1268, Verrius Flaccus1269, L. Piso1270, Gellianus1271, and Valerianus1272.

Foreign Authors quoted.—Artemidorus1273, Alexander Polyhistor1274, Thucydides1275, Theophrastus1276, Isidorus1277, Theopompus1278, Metrodorus of Scepsis1279, Callicrates1280, Xenophon of Lampsacus1281, Diodorus of Syracuse1282, Nymphodorus1283, Calliphanes1284, and Timagenes1285.

1 Now the Straits of Gibraltar.

2 This is said more especially in reference to the western parts of Asia, the only portion which was perfectly known to the ancients. His meaning is, that Asia as a portion of the globe does not lie so far north as Europe, nor so far south as Africa.

3 Now the Don. It was usually looked upon as the boundary between Europe and Asia. Pliny's meaning seems to be, that the Tanais divides Asia from Europe, and the Nile, Asia from Africa, the more especially as the part to the west of the Nile was sometimes considered as belonging to Asia. It has been however suggested that he intends to assign these rivers as the extreme eastern boundaries of the internal or Mediterranean sea.

4 At no spot are the Straits less than ten miles in width; although D'Anville makes the width to be little less than five miles. This passage of our author is probably in a corrupt state.

5 This probably stood near the site of the town of Tarifa of the present day.

6 Probably the point called 'Punta del Sainar' at the present day.

7 Now called Ximiera, Jebel-el-Mina, or Monte del Hacho.

8 The Rock of Gibraltar.

9 The fable was that they originally formed one mountain, which was torn asunder by Hercules, or as Pliny says, "dug through."

10 This was the opinion of Herodotus, but it had been so strenuously combated by Polybius and other writers before the time of Pliny, that it is difficult to imagine how he should countenance it.

11 He probably alludes to Leucopetra, now called Capo dell' Armi. Locri Epizephyrii was a town of Bruttium, situate north of the promontory of Zephyrium, now called Capo di Bruzzano.

12 So called from the Bætis, now the Guadalquivir or Great River.

13 The situation of this town is not known, but it is supposed to have been about five leagues from the present city of Mujacar, or Moxacar. It was situate on the Sinus Urgitanus.

14 So called from the city of Tarraco, on the site of the present Tarragona.

15 Corresponding nearly in extent with the present kingdom of Portugal.

16 Now Gaudiana, a corruption of the Arabic Wadi Ana, "the river Ana."

17 According to Hardouin this place is the modern town of Montiel, but Pinet and D'Anville make it the same as Alhambra.

18 According to modern writers it conceals itself in this manner for a distance of fifteen miles.

19 From the Balearic Channel to the Gulf of Gascony or Bay of Biscay.

20 Probably the Sierra Nevada is meant by this name; Hardouin considers it the same as the Sierra de los Vertientes.

21 Probably the Sierra Morena.

22 The Monte de Toledo.

23 The Sierra de las Asturias.

24 The present Cadiz. It was originally a Phœnician colony.

25 Now Cordova.

26 Now Ecija.

27 Now Seville.

28 The Roman colonies or colonies "civium Romanorum" are those here meant. The colonists in such case enjoyed all the rights of Roman citizens, the town in which they lived being founded under the supervision of the Roman magistracy.

29 "Municipia." These were towns in conquered countries which were not founded by the Romans, but whose inhabitants retained their original institutions, at the same time receiving certain of the rights of Roman citizens; most frequently, immunity to a greater or less degree from payment of tribute.

30 "Latium ;" also called "Jus Latii" and "Latinitas." This was the name given to those circumscribed or limited rights as Roman citizens which were at first bestowed upon the conquered states of Italy, before the time of the Social War. Indeed the Latinus held a kind of intermediate state between the Civis Romanus with all his rights, and the peregrinus or foreigner with all his disabilities. These Latin rights were afterwards extended to the people of other countries, but retained their original name.

31 The free towns were those, the inhabitants of which were at liberty to enjoy their ancient institutions and modes of internal government, though at the same time they enjoyed none of the privileges of Roman citizens.

32 "Fœderati civitates ;" the inhabitants of which were called 'federati' or 'socii.' They were in alliance with the Romans, but in some cases paid them tribute in the same manner as the 'stipendiaria' next mentioned. In some instances they also enjoyed the Latin rights.

33 From the numerous creeks or estuaries with which the coast is here indented. Commentators are at a loss for the site of the town of Onoba (or Ossonoba according to some readings). D'Anville considers it to be the same with the present town of Moguer; other commentators have suggested Gibraleon, and the vicinity of Palos.

34 The Odiel and the Tinto; the Urium being supposed to be the same with the Tinto of the present day.

35 Some readings have "Hareni montes," and others "Arenæ montes," the "mountains of sand." There is no doubt that the sandy heights or downs on this coast are here meant, which are called at the present day "Dunes" by the French, and by the natives "Arenas gordas."

36 Probably the line of sea-shore between Roia and the city of Cadiz, skirting the Bay of Cadiz. Hardouin however thinks that the coast between the Guadalquivir and the Guadalete is meant, now occupied in part by the town of San Lucar de Barameda.

37 In the Fourth Book, c. 36.

38 The present Cape Trafalgar.

39 Hardouin says that the present Vejer is the place meant, while others have suggested Puerto de Santa Maria, or Cantillana. Others again identify it with Bejer de la Frontera, though that place probably lies too far inland. The Roman ruins near Porto Barbato were probably its site.

40 Hardouin and other commentators suggest that the site of the present Tarifa is here meant; it is more probable however that D'Anville is right in suggesting the now deserted town of Bolonia.

41 Probably the present Tarifa.

42 The exact site of Carteia is unknown; but it is generally supposed to have stood upon the bay which opens out of the straits on the west of the Rock of Gibraltar, now called the Bay of Algesiras or Gibraltar; and upon the hill at the head of the bay of El Rocadillo, about half-way between Algesiras and Gibraltar.

43 We learn also from Strabo, that Tartessus was the same place as Carteia; it is not improbable that the former was pretty nearly the Phoenician name of the place, and the latter a Roman corruption of it, and that in it originated the 'Tarshish' of Scripture, an appellation apparently given to the whole of the southern part of the Spanish peninsula. Probably the Greeks preserved the appellation of the place more in conformity with the original Phoenician name.

44 By the "inland sea" Pliny means the Mediterranean, in contradistinction to the Atlantic Ocean without the Straits of Cadiz.

45 The ruins of this place, probably, are still to be seen on the east bank of the river Guadiaro, here alluded to.

46 With its river flowing by it. This place is probably the present Marbella, situate on the Rio Verde.

47 Probably the present Castillo de Torremolinos, or else Castillo de Fuengirola.

48 The present city of Malaga. Hardouin thinks that the river Guadalquivirejo is here meant, but as that is some miles distant from the city, it is more probable that the Guadalmedina, which is much nearer to it, is the stream alluded to.

49 Not improbably Velez Malaga, upon a river of the same name. Hardouin thinks that the place is the modern Torrox on the Fiu Frio, and D'Anville the present city of Almunecar, on the Rio Verde.

50 Most probably the present Almunecar, but it is uncertain. D'Anville says the present Torre de Banas; others have suggested the town of Motril.

51 Now Salobrena.

52 Either the present Adra or Abdera: it is uncertain which.

53 Probably the present Mujacar. D'Anville suggests Almeria.

54 Also called Bastitani, a mixed race, partly Iberian and partly Phœnician.

55 The Greek λύσσα, "frantic rage" or "madness." The etymologies here suggested are puerile in the extreme.

56 Plutarch, quoting from the Twelfth Book of the Iberica of Sosthenes, tells us that, "After Bacchus had conquered Iberia [the present Spain], he left Pan to act as his deputy, and he changed its name and called the country Pania, after himself, which afterwards became corrupted into Spania."

57 He alludes to the expedition of Hercules into Spain, of which Diodorus Siculus makes mention; also his courtship of the nymph Pyrene, the daughter of Bebryx, who was buried by him on the Pyrenæan mountains, which thence derived their name.

58 It is unknown where this town was situate; Hardouin and D'Anville think it was on the site of the present village of San Thome, once an episcopal see, now removed to Jaen. The people of Mentisa, mentioned in c. 4, were probably inhabitants of a different place. D'Anville in his map has two Mentisas, one 'Oretana,' the other 'Bastitana.

59 According to D'Anville, the place now called Toia.

60 Now the Segura.

61 'Nova' or 'New' Carthage, so called from having been originally founded by a colony of Carthaginians B.C. 242. It was situate a little to the west of the Saturni Promontorium, or Promontory of Palos. It was taken by Scipio Africanus the elder B.C. 210.

62 The present Lorca.

63 This place is even now called by the inhabitants Sepulcro de Scipion. Cneius Cornelius Scipio Calvus, after the defeat of his brother P. Cornelius Scipio, in the year B.C. 211, by the forces of Asdrubal and Mago, fled to a tower at this spot, which was set fire to by the troops of Asdrubal, and he perished in the flames.

64 So called from the town of Ossigi afterwards mentioned.

65 It is unknown where this place stood; Medina Sidonia has been suggested.

66 Probably the present Fuentes del Rey, between Andujar and Jaen, according to Pinet.

67 D'Anville suggests that this is the present Arjona; but more probably it was the village of Arjonilla, two leagues south of Andujar. Gruter has an inscription found here, "MUNIC ALBENSE URGOANON."

68 There were five cities of this name in Spain. Hardouin thinks that this is the modern Alcala la Real, between Granada and Cordova.

69 Most probably the modern Sierra de Elvira, though some writers have suggested the city of Granada.

70 Probably near the modern Montilla. Hardouin takes it to be the present Granada.

71 Poinsinet thinks that this is the present Ecija, but other writers take it to be Alhama, between Granada and Malaga.

72 Perhaps the present Archidona. Some writers have suggested the modern Faventia and Velez.

73 Probably near the present Puente de Don Gonzalo, on the banks of the Rio Genil.

74 Probably near Aguilar on the river Cabra; or else the present Teba, between Osuna and Antequera.

75 Agla the Less.

76 Probably the present Cabra. The sites of the two preceding towns are not known.

77 "The Encampment in the Vineyards." Probably this was the same as the Castra Postumiana mentioned by Hirtius in his Book on the Spanish War as being four miles from Attegua. It appears to be the present Castro, or Castro el Rio, situate on the banks of the river Guadajoz.

78 In some readings "Episibrium." Probably the present Espeja.

79 Its present site is unknown.

80 According to D'Anville, the present Puente de Pinos, six leagues north of Granada. Others take it to be Illora, south of Alcala la Real.

81 The present Huesca, according to Hardouin; more probably, however, Huector, on the banks of the river Genil.

82 Perhaps Escusar, five leagues from Granada. But according to some it is the same as Truelo or Eruelo.

83 Called Ucubis by Hirtius. Morales suggests that it is Sierra la Ronda, but Pinet says Stoponda.

84 The sites of this and the preceding place are unknown.

85 In relation to the 'conventus juridicus,' we may here observe that under the Roman sway, in order to facilitate the administration of justice, a province was divided into a number of districts or circuits, each of which was so called, as also 'forum' or 'jurisdictio.' At certain times of the year fixed by the proconsul or chief magistrate, the people assembled in the chief town of the district (whence the name 'conventus'), upon which judges were selected to try the causes of litigant parties.

86 Probably near the town at the present day called Espelui. Strabo, in Book iii., tells us that Laconian institutions and customs were prevalent in some parts of Spain.

87 This place was ravaged by fire and levelled with the ground by the troops of Scipio, in consequence of the vigorous defence they had made, and the losses they had caused to the Roman army. It probably stood about four miles from the present city of Baeza.

88 The sites of this place and the next are unknown.

89 Most probably the present town of Porcuna. Ubeda or Ubedos has also been suggested.

90 The present town of Montoro.

91 Now Alcoorrucen, near Perabad.

92 Ansart suggests that the reading is not Sacili of the Martiales, but Onoba of the Martiales, to distinguish it from Onoba Æstuaria, previously mentioned. It is not improbable that the place was so called from the Martian or Martial legion having originally colonized it. The site of Onoba is unknown.

93 Cordova was so called from the great number of patricians, who were among the original colonists, when it was founded by Marcellus. To the present day it is noted for the pride of its nobles. The Great Captain Gonzalo de Cordova used to say, that "other towns might be better to live in, but there was none better to be born in." It was the birth-place of Lucan and the two Senecas.

94 The site of these two places is unknown at the present day.

95 Now called by the similar name of Genil or Xenil.

96 Perhaps the present Alcolea.

97 Perhaps the Cantillana of the present day: there is, however, the greatest uncertainty as to the sites of these places.

98 According to Hardouin, the modern city of Penaflor: D'Anville places it about two leagues thence, and near the city of Lora.

99 Now Sevilla la Vieja, or Old Seville; called by the lower classes Santi-pone.

100 Now Seville. This colony was founded by Julius Cæsar, and also bore the name of Julia Romula.

101 Or north side of the river.

102 Probably on the site of the present Alcala del Rio.

103 'The [good] genius of Julius,' probably meaning Cæsar. Nothing seems to be known of its site.

104 Caura may be the present Coria, a town three leagues from Seville.

105 Probably the Rio Guadalete.

106 Either the present Sebrija, or in the vicinity of the city of San Lucar.

107 Probably the present Bonania.

108 Probably between Trebujena and the city of Xeres. It was the usual place of meeting for the people of the territory of Gades; and its importance may be judged from its appellation 'Regia' or 'royal,' and its numerous coins. Its ruins are still to be seen on a hill there.

109 It is not improbable that this was the present city of Xeres. Some geographers however take it to be that of Medina Sidonia, and look upon Xeres as the site of the ancient Asta.

110 Now Ecija. It stood on the plain of the Bætis, some distance south of the river, on its tributary the Singulis or Xenil.

111 The site of this place is unknown. It probably obtained its name from being a colony of one of the legions, the 7th, 10th, 13th or 14th; which were called 'geminæ' or 'gemellæ,' from being composed of the men of two legions originally.

112 "The Valour of Julius." Sanson places it not far from Miragenil.

113 "The Fame of Julius." Perhaps the present Olivera, or else Teba, six leagues to the south of Estepa.

114 The present city of Ossuna. "Genua Urbanorum" would seem to mean "the knees of the citizens." Though all the MSS. agree in this reading, it probably is an error for "gemina Urbanorum," and it may have been a colony of one of the legions called 'geminæ' or 'gemellæ,' as previously mentioned. The other part of its appellation may possibly have originated in the fact of its first inhabitants being all natives of the city of Rome.

115 The use of the word fuit, 'was,' implies that the place had been destroyed. Cneius Pompeius, the eldest son of Pompey the Great, was defeated at Munda, in the year B.C. 45, and the town destroyed. Pompey escaped from the battle, but was taken a short time after and put to death. The site of the ancient town is very generally supposed to be the modern village of Monda, S.W. of Malaga, and about three leagues from the sea. It is more probable however that it was in the vicinity of Cordova, and there are ruins of ancient walls and towers between Martos, Alcandete, Espejo and Baena, which are supposed to denote its site.

116 Now Alameda; eight leagues from the other Astiji or Ecija.

117 Now Estepa, six leagues from Ecija.

118 Perhaps Mancloua, between the towns of Ecija and Carmona; the sites of all the other places here mentioned appear to be quite unknown.

119 Sanson supposes the Alostigi to have inhabited the territory near Almagia, between Malaga and Antiqueira.

120 The Celtici are supposed to have inhabited the country between the Guadiana and Guadalquivir, the eastern parts of Alentejo and the west of Estremadura, as far as the city of Badajoz.

121 Probably part of Estremadura, and the vicinity of Badajoz in an easterly direction.

122 The exact meaning of this passage is somewhat obscure, but he probably means to say that the Celtici have an identity of sacred rites, language, and names of towns with the Celtiberians; though it had become the usage in Bætica more generally to distinguish the towns by their Roman names.

123 "The Fame of Julius." Its site is not known.

124 "The Concord of Julius." Probably the same as the modern Valera la Vega, near Frejenal.

125 Probably meaning "Restored by Julius." Nothing is known of its site.

126 According to an authority quoted by Hardouin, this may possibly be Medina de las Torres.

127 Probably Constantina in Andalusia, to the north of Penaflor.

128 The tribe or nation of the Tereses are supposed to have dwelt in the vicinity of the modern San Nicolo del Puerto.

129 Calentum was their town; probably the present Cazalla near Alaniz. This place will be found mentioned by Pliny in B. xxxv. c. 14.

130 The ruins two leagues north of Ronda la Vieja are supposed to be those of this place. There are the remains of an aqueduct and theatre, and numerous coins are found here.

131 Probably the present Ronda la Vieja.

132 Identified by inscriptions with the present Aroche. The sites of several of the following places are unknown.

133 The Azuaga of modern times; but, according to Hardouin, Argallen.

134 According to Hardouin this was on the site of the modern Fuente de la Ovejuna, fourteen leagues from Cordova.

135 This has been identified by inscriptions with the modern Villa de Capilla.

136 According to Hardouin, the modern Almaden de la Plata.

137 Probably the same as the modern Monte Major.

138 The ruins of this place are probably those seen at Carixa, near Bornos, in the vicinity of Seville.

139 According to Hardouin, the same as the modern Las Cabezas, not far from Lebrija.

140 The sites of these two towns are unknown. Bæsippo, Barbesula and Callet have been already mentioned.

141 The ruins of Saguntia are to be seen between Arcos and Xeres della Frontera, on the river Guadalete; they bear their ancient name under the form of Cigonza. Mela, B. iii. c. 1, says that Oleastro was a grove near the Bay of Cadiz. Brana was probably the same place that is mentioned by Ptolemy under the name of Urbona.

142 We may here mention for the more correct information of the reader that the Roman mile consisted of 1000 paces, each pace being five English feet. Hence its length was 1618 English yards (taking the Roman foot at 11ċ6496 English inches), or 142 yards less than the English statute mile.

143 Nova Carthago, or New Carthage.

144 Now Cazlona, on the confines of New Castile and the kingdom of Granada. It was a place of great importance, and the chief town of the Oretani. Himilce, the rich wife of Hannibal, was a native of this place.

145 This was the 'porticus Octaviæ,' which, having been commenced by his sister Octavia, the wife of Marcellus and Antony, was completed by Augustus. It lay between the Circus Flaminius and the Theatre of Marcellus, occupying the site of the former portico, which had been built by Q. Cæcilius Metellus, and enclosing the two temples of Juno and of Jupiter Stator. It contained a public library, in which the Senate often met, and it was in this probably that the map or plan, mentioned by Pliny, was deposited. It also contained a great number of statues, paintings, and other works of art, which, with the library, were destroyed by fire in the reign of Titus.

146 Nova Carthago or New Carthage, now Carthagena.

147 Now Zaragoza or Saragossa, on the right bank of the river Ebro. Its original name was Salduba, but it was changed in honour of Augustus, who colonized it after the Cantabrian war, B.C. 25.

148 This was the most remote place of any consideration in Celtiberia, on the west. Its ruins are still to be seen on the summit of a hill surrounded with rocks, forming a natural wall between Corunna del Conde and Pennalda de Castro.

149 This was Asturica Augusta, the chief city of the nation of the Astures, and situate on one of the tributaries of the Astura, now Esta. On its site is situate the present Astorga: its ruins are very extensive.

150 Now Lugo.

151 Or Bracara Augusta, now Braga. Among the ruins of the ancient city there are the remains of an aqueduct and amphitheatre.

152 Probably the present town of Vera near Muxacra.

153 The "Promontory of Saturn," now Cabo de Palos.

154 D'Anville takes this place to be the port of Vacur; if so, the distance from Cape Palos is exactly 170 miles.

155 Now Segura.

156 The modern town of Elche was probably built from the ruins of this place.

157 Now called the Gulf of Alicant.

158 With the Arabian El prefixed, this has formed the name of the famous port of Alicant.

159 Now Denia, a thriving town.

160 Now called the Xucar.

161 Now called Albufera.

162 The present city of Valencia.

163 Or Turia, now the Guadalaviar.

164 Or Saguntus, famed for the fidelity of its inhabitants to the Roman cause: after a siege of nine months, rather than submit to the Carthaginians under Hannibal, they set fire to their town and perished in the flames, B.C. 219. It was rebuilt eight years afterwards and made a Roman colony. The ruins of the ancient town, which was said to have been originally founded by Greeks from Zacynthus, are still to be seen, and the ancient walls (muri veteres) give name to the present Murviedro, which is built on its site.

165 Now the Murviedro, which flows past the city of that name and the town of Segorbe.

166 Dertosa, the present Tortosa, is supposed to have been inhabited by them.

167 Now the Ebro.

168 Hardouin places this on the site of the modern Fuente de Ivero. The Ebro takes its rise in the Val de Vieso.

169 According to D'Anville, the present Logrono. At present the Ebro only becomes navigable at Tudela, 216 miles from the sea. Other writers, however, take Varia to be the present Valtierra, near Tudela.

170 Or the Subur, now the Francoli. It flows into the sea at the port of Tarraco, now Tarragona.

171 The more ancient commentators think that Carthago Vetus, or the colony of Old Carthage (now Carta la Vieja), is here alluded to, but more probably it is Carthago Nova that is meant.

172 On the Subi, previously mentioned; now called Villa Nova.

173 Now the Llobregat.

174 Their territory was situate around the present Gulf of Ampurias.

175 Their chief cities were Gerunda, the present Gerona, and Ausa or Vicus Ausæ, now Vic d'Osona.

176 In the country beyond Gerona.

177 Living in the upper valley of the river Sicoris or Segre, which still retains, from them, the name of Cerdague.

178 The people of the modem Navarre and Guipuzcoa.

179 In the later writers Barcelo, now Barcelona. It was said to have been originally founded by Hercules, and afterwards rebuilt by Hamilcar Barcas, who gave it the name of his family. Its name as a Roman colony was Colonia Faventia Julia Augusta Pia Barcino. The modern city stands somewhat to the east of the ancient one.

180 The modern Badalona, two leagues from Barcelona.

181 On the sea-shore,—the present Pineda.

182 Now the Tordera.

183 The modern city of Blanos stands on its site.

184 Probably the present Ter or Tet.

185 The modem Ampurias. We learn from Strabo that a wall divided the town of the Greeks from that of the old inhabitants. It was the usual landing-place for travellers from Gaul. It was originally colonized by the Phocæans from Massilia or Marseilles.

186 Hardouin says that the Ticher or Tichis is the same with the modern Ter, but in such case Pliny would have mentioned it before coming to Emporiæ. Its present name however does not appear to be accurately known.

187 A promontory extending from the Pyrenæan chain, on which a temple of Venus was situate. It is now called Cabo de Cruz. The distance mentioned by Pliny is probably too great.

188 The people of the present Tortosa.

189 Probably not the same people as the Edetani, in whose district Saguntum and Valencia were situate.

190 The people of Gerunda or Gerona.

191 They are nowhere else mentioned. Ukert supposes that their city stood in the district between the Sicoris and Nucaria.

192 Their city was Tiara Julia.

193 The people of Aquæ Calidæ or the 'Hot Springs,' called at the present day Caldes, four leagues from the city of Barcelona.

194 Ptolemy places Bæcula between Ausa and Gerunda.

195 The people of the present Belchite.

196 The people of the present Xelsa, on the Ebro.

197 The inhabitants of Calagurris, now Calahorra, a city of the Vascones, on the banks of the Ebro. They remained faithful to Sertorius to the last, and after slaughtering their wives and children and eating their flesh, their city was taken and destroyed; which event put an end to the Sertorian war. It was called" Nassica," in contradistinction to Calagurris Fibularia, which is afterwards mentioned by Pliny. The latter is mentioned by Cæsar as forming one community with Osca (now Huesca), and was probably the present Loarre, though some writers take the first-named Calagurris to be that place, and the latter one to be the present Calahorra.

198 The people of Ilerda, the present Lerida, on the Sicoris or Segre. It is memorable for its siege by Cæsar, when the Pompeian forces under Afranius and Petreius had retired thither. It was a most flourishing city, though in the times of the later Roman emperors it had fallen into decay.

199 The people of the present Huesca.

200 The inhabitants of Turiazo, the present Tarazona, five leagues south of Tudela.

201 The people of Cascantum, the present town of Cascante in Navarre.

202 The people of Ergavica. Its ruins, at the confluence of the Guadiela and Tagus, are still to be seen, and are called Santaver. By some writers this place is considered to be the same as the modern Fraga, on the river Cinca, five leagues from Lerida.

203 The people of Graccuris. Its former name of Ilurcis was changed in honour of Sempronius Gracchus, who placed new settlers there after the conquest of Celtiberia. It is supposed to be the same as the modern Agreda, four leagues from Tarazona.

204 The people of Leonica, probably the modern Alcaniz, on the river Guadalope, in Arragon.

205 The people of Tarraga, the present Tarrega, nine leagues east of Lerida, in Catalonia.

206 The people of Arcobriga, now Los Arcos, in Navarre, five leagues south of Estella.

207 Perhaps the same as the Andosini, a people mentioned by Polybius, B. iii. c. 35, as situate between the Iberus and the Pyrenees. There is a small town of Navarre called Androilla.

208 The people probably of the site now occupied by Huarte Araquil, six leagues to the west of Pampeluna.

209 Probably the same as the Bursaones of Livy, the Bursavolenses of Hirtius, and the Bursadenses of Ptolemy. Their exact locality is unknown.

210 Mention has been made of Calagurris Fibularensis or Fibulicensis under Calagurris Nassica: see p. 168.

211 The people of Complutum, the modern Alcala de Henares, on the river Henares, six leagues to the east of Madrid. It is not quite certain whether it stood on the exact site of Alcala, or on the hill of Zulema, on the other side of the Henares.

212 The town of Cares, adjoining the more modern one of Puente la Reyna, probably marks their site.

213 Probably so called from the river Cinga, the modern Cinca: or they may have given their name thereto.

214 The people probably of the present Mediana on the Ebro, six leagues below Zaragoza.

215 Their town was Larnum, situate on a river of the same name. It was probably the present Torderas, situate on the river of that name.

216 Of this people nothing appears to be known. In the old editions the next people mentioned are the "Ispalenses," but since the time of Hardouin, they have been generally omitted, as wrongly introduced, and as utterly unknown. Spanish coins have however been more recently discovered with the name 'Sblaie' or 'Splaie,' inscribed in Celliberian characters, and numismatists are of opinion that they indicate the name of the town of this people, which in Latin would be Ispala. This at all events is the opinion of M. de Saulcy.

217 The people of the present town of Lumbier in Navarre, called by its inhabitants Irumberri.

218 The people of the present city of Pampeluna.

219 Carthago Nova, or New Carthage.

220 The colony of Acci was called Colonia Julia Gemella Accitana. The town of Acci or Accis was on the site of the present Guadix el Viejo, between Granada and Baza. It was colonized by the third and sixth legions under Julius or Augustus, from which it obtained the name of' Gemella,' the origin of which name is previously mentioned, p. 161.

221 The ruins of this place are supposed to be those seen at Lebazuza or Lezuza, not far from the city of Cuença.

222 The "jus Italicum" or "Italiæ," "Italian rights" or "privileges," differed from the "jus Latinum." It was granted to provincial towns which were especially favoured by the magistracy of Rome, and consisted of exemption from taxes, a municipal constitution, after the manner of the Italian towns, and many other rights and exemptions.

223 According to Hardouin, the people of the town formerly called Saliotis, now Cazorla. They are called "Cæsari venales," from the circumstance of their territory having been purchased by Cæsar.—Castulo or Cazlona has been previously mentioned.

224 The people of Sætabis, now Xativa in Valencia. This town was famous for its manufacture of fine table-napkins, to which reference is made by Pliny at the beginning of his Introduction addressed to Titus, in his quotation from the lament of Catullus on the loss of his table-napkins which his friends had filched from him. See p. 1 of the present volume.

225 According to some writers, the present Cuença was the ancient Valeria; but perhaps it was situate at the present village of Valera la Vieja, or Old Valeria, eight leagues south of Cuença.

226 The people of Alaba, not far from the present town of Ergavica.

227 They were so called from their town of Basti, now Baza, on the river Guadalentin in Granada.

228 Their town was probably the present Consuegra, twelve leagues from the city of Toledo.

229 So called from the promontory Dianium or Artemisium, named from a temple of Diana there situate, and having in its vicinity a town of the same name. The present town of Denia still retains nearly the original name. Its lake, now called Albufera de Valencia, has been previously mentioned, p. 166.

230 The modern Yniesta marks the site of their town.

231 The people probably of Eliocroca, now Lorca, on the high road from Carthago Nova to Castulo.

232 There were two places of the name of Mentesa, one in the district of the Oritani, and the other in that of the Bastitani or Bastuli.

233 Ptolemy, B. ii., mentions a city of this nation, called 'Oretum Grermanorum.' It has been supposed that it was the present Calatrava, five leagues from Ciudad Real.

234 Supposed to be in the vicinity of the present Calatajud.

235 The present Toledo.

236 Their town is supposed to have stood on the site of the present Murcia.

237 Now Coruña del Conde.

238 The people of the present Alava on the Ebro.—A small town there still bears the name of Alvana.

239 This nation is not mentioned elsewhere. Possibly they are the Murbogi, mentioned by Ptolemy.

240 Their town Segisamon was either the present Veyzama in Guipuzcoa, or, more probably, Sasamon, eight leagues north-west of Burgos.

241 The people of Carissa, on the site of the present Carixa near Seville.

242 Strabo assigns the Numantini to the Arevacæ, and not the Pelendones. The ruins of the city of Numantia were still to be seen at Puente Garray near the city of Soria, in Hardouin's time, the 17th century.

243 D'Anville places their city, Intercatia, at the place called Villa nueva de Azuague, forty miles from the present Astorga; others again make it to have been sixty miles from that place.

244 Their town was on the site of the modern city of Palencia, on the river Carion.

245 The people of Cauca, the present Coca, situate between Segovia and Valladolid, on the river Eresma.

246 This was the chief city of the Cantabri. It has been already mentioned, but we may add that it stood near the sources of the Ebro, on the eminence of Retortillo, south of Reynosa. Five stones still mark the boundaries which divided the territory from that of the Fourth Legio.

247 Supposed to be the present Briviesca; the site of Tritium does not appear to be known, but it has been suggested that it was near Najara, in the vicinity of Logrono.

248 It does not appear to be certain whether the Areva was the present Ucero, or the Arlanzon, which flows near Valladolid.

249 The modern Siguenza.

250 Now El Burgo d'Osma, in the province of Soria.

251 This must not be mistaken for the modern Segovia, between Madrid and Valladolid: it was a small town in the vicinity of Numantia.

252 Probably the present Lerma, on the river Arlanza.

253 The people of Asturica Augusta, now Astorga, in the province of Leon. The ruins of this fine city are said still to give a perfect idea of a fortified Roman town.

254 Their chief city stood on the site of the present Cigarrosa, or San Estevan de Val de Orres. Its ruins are still to be seen, and a Roman bridge, the people preserving a tradition that an old town once stood there called Guigurra.

255 The people of Lance or Lancia, probably the present Lollanco or Mansilla; though Oviedo has been suggested. This however may be the Ovetum mentioned by Pliny in B. xxxiv. c. 17.

256 Mentioned by Pliny in B. xix. c. 2, as famous for their flax. Their locality near the coast does not appear to be exactly known. The Pæsici previously mentioned were situate on the peninsula of Cabo de Penas.

257 Now the city of Lugo in Gallicia.

258 The people of Bracara Augusta, now Braga. Among the ruins of the ancient city are the remains of an aqueduct and an amphitheatre. This people probably derived their name from their fashion of wearing braccæ, "breeches" or "trowsers," like their neighbours of Gallia Braccata. The exact localities of the various other tribes here mentioned do not appear to be exactly known.

259 Our author is mistaken here, even making allowance for the shortness of the Roman mile (1618 yards), as the length is only 470 miles. Coastwise it is 620.

260 Now Oyarzun. It is also mentioned in B. iv. c. 34.

261 He is also in error here; for, taken in a straight line, this distance is but 210 miles.

262 The distance is about 560 miles.

263 It may be worth while here to take some notice of the mineral productions of Spain in modern times, from which we shall be able to form a more accurate judgement as to the correctness of the statement here made by Pliny. Grains of gold are still to be found in the rivers Tagus and Douro; but there is not found sufficient of the precious metal to pay for the search. Silver is found in the mines of the Guadal canal. Copper and lead are to be found in abundance. There is a mine of plumbago four leagues from Ronda; and tin is found in Gallicia. In every province there are iron mines, those in Biscay being the most remarkable. Lodestone is found in Seville, cobalt on the Pyrenees, quicksilver and cinnabar at Almaden, arsenic in Asturias, and coal in Asturias and Arragon. There are salt-mines at Mingrilla and Cardona; alum is found in Arragon, antimony at Alcaraz. On the Sierra Morena, and in Gallicia, there is saltpetre in numerous localities; amber in Asturias and Valencia, and sulphur in Murcia, Arragon, and Seville. Pipe-clay of a peculiar quality is found in the vicinity of Andujar. Gypsum and marble are found in great abundance, and stone for building purposes, of the best quality. Amethysts, white cornelians, rubies, agates, garnets, and rock crystals, with other precious stones, are also found in abundance and of the finest quality.

264 Transparent stone. Further mention is made of it by Pliny in B. xxxv. c. 45.

265 Or Mediterranean.

266 From the chief city Narbo Martius, and later Narbona, now Narbonne, situate on the river Atax, now Aude. It was made a Roman colony by the Consul Q. Martius B.C. 118, and from him received its surname. It was the residence of the Roman governor of the province and a place of great commercial importance. There are scarcely any remains of the ancient city, but some vestiges of the canal, by which it was connected with the sea at twelve miles' distance.

267 From the linen breeches which the inhabitants wore, a fashion which was not adopted by the Romans till the time of the Emperors. Severus wore them, but the use of them was restricted by Honorius.

268 Still called the 'Var.' It divides France from Nice, a province of Sardinia.

269 Now the Cevennes. They lie as much to the west as the north of Gallia Narbonensis.

270 The range of the Jura, north of the Lake of Geneva.

271 Inhabiting the former Comte de Roussillon, or Département des Pyrénées Orientales. They were said to have been originally a Bebrycian or Thracian colony.

272 Probably the inhabitants of the present Conserans, on the west of the Département de l' Arriége.

273 Probably the Tech, and the Verdouble, which falls into the Gly.

274 Probably the present Elne, on the Tech.

275 The present Castel Roussillon.

276 The Aude of the present day.

277 The bodies of water now called Etangs de Bages et de Sigean.

278 Now the Herault.

279 Now called the Lez, near the city of Montpellier.

280 Now called Etangs de Leucate, de Sigean, de Gruissan, de Vendres, de Thau, de Maguelonne, de Perols, de Mauguio, du Repausset; Marais d'Escamandre, de Lermitane et de la Souteyrane, and numerous others.

281 Now the town of Agde. Strabo also informs us that this place was founded by the Massilians.

282 This people seems to have inhabited the eastern parts of the departments of l'Arriége and the Haute Garonne, that of Aude, the south of that of Tarn, and of that of Herault, except the arrondissement of Montpellier.

283 Dalechamp takes this to be Foz les Martigues; but the locality is doubtful. Most probably this is the same place that is mentioned by Strabo as Rhoë, in conjunction with the town of Agathe or Agde, and the Rodanusia of Stephen of Byzantium, who places it in the district of Massilia or Marseilles.

284 Now the Rhone.

285 Now the Lake of Geneva.

286 The modern Saone.

287 Now the rivers Isère and Durance.

288 Most probably from Libici, a town in the south of Gaul, of which there are coins in existence, but nothing else seems to be known. At the present day there are four mouths of the Rhone, the most westerly of which is called the "Dead" Rhone; the next the "Lesser" Rhone; the third the "Old" Rhone; and the fourth simply the Rhone. D'Anville considers the "Lesser" Rhone to have been the "Spanish" mouth of the ancients. In consequence of the overflowings of this river there is great confusion upon this subject.

289 This mouth of the Rhone was much used by the Massilians for the purposes of commerce with the interior of Gaul, and the carriage of the supplies of tin which they obtained thence.

290 The manner in which Pliny here expresses himself shows that he doubts the fact of such a place having even existed; it is mentioned by none of the preceding geographers, and of those who followed him Stephen of Byzantium is the only one who notices it. An inscription was found however in the reign of Charles V. of France, in which it was stated that Ataulphus, king of the Visigoths, selected Heraclea as his place of residence. On the faith of this inscription, Spon and Ducange have placed Heraclea at the modern Saint-Gilles, and other writers at Saint-Remy, where the inscription was found. Unfortunately, however, Messrs. Devic and Vaissette, in their "History of Languedoc," have proved that this inscription is of spurious origin.

291 The "Fossæ Marianæ" are also mentioned by Ptolemy and Solinus; though they differ in the situation which they have respectively assigned them. They were formed by Marius when advancing to dispute the passage of the Rhone with the Cimbri, who had quitted Spain for the purpose of passing the Pyrenees and invading Italy, in the year B.C. 102. There is considerable difficulty in determining their position, but they are supposed to have commenced at the place now called the Camp of Marius, and to have terminated at the eastern mouth of the Rhone near the present Arles.

292 Pliny is the first who mentions the name of this lake, though previous writers had indicated its existence. Strabo informs us that above the mouth of the Rhone there is a large lake that communicates with the sea, and abounds in fish and oysters. Brotier and D'Anville identify it with the present lake of Martigues or of Berre.

293 D'Anville takes this place to be the present town of Martigues; Brotier thinks that it was situate on the spot now called Le Cap d'Œil, near the town of Saint-Chamas; and Bouche, the historian of the Province, places it at Marignane, on the east side of the lake already mentioned.

294 "Campi Lapidei," called by the natives at the present day "LaCrau;" probably from the same Celtic root as our word "Crags;" though Bochart derives it from the Hebrew. Æschylus and Hyginus speak of this combat of Hercules, and Mela relates that being engaged in a mortal struggle with Albion and Geryon, the sons of Neptune, he invoked the aid of Jupiter, on which a shower of stones fell from the heavens and destroyed his antagonists. Those on this plain are said to be the remains of the stony shower. It is supposed by the scientific that many of these stones are aërolites, and that tradition has ingeniously adapted this story to their real origin. The vicinity of Tunbridge Wells presents a somewhat similar appearance.

295 The people probably of the site of the present isle of Camargue.

296 They probably inhabited the district south of the Durance, between it and the Rhone.

297 They inhabited the country in which the present Avignon, Orange, Cavaillon, and perhaps Carpentras are situate.

298 They are thought by Hardouin to have dwelt in the vicinity of the present town of Talard in the department of the Hautes Alpes.

299 They inhabited the eastern part of the departments of the Drôme and the Vaucluse.

300 Their territory comprehended the southern part of the department of the Ain, the department of the Isère, the canton of Geneva, and part of Savoy.

301 It was said to have been colonized from Phocæa, a town of Ionia in Asia Minor. Lucan in his Third Book more than once falls into the error of supposing that it was colonized from Phocis in Greece.

302 We learn from Justin, B. xliii., that this privilege, as well as others, and a seat at the public shows, were granted to the Massilians by the Roman Senate, in return for their sympathy and assistance after the city had been taken and plundered by the Gauls.

303 According to D'Anville the present Cap de l'Aigre, though Mannert takes it to be the Cap de la Croisette.

304 D'Anville takes this to be the same as the present Port de la Ciotat.

305 Probably occupying the south-east of the department of the Var. It is supposed by Hardouin that the village of Ramatuelle, near the coast, south of the Gulf of Grimaud, represents the ancient name; and D'Anville and other writers are of the same opinion.

306 Probably the country around the modern Brignole and Draguignan was inhabited by them.

307 They inhabited Verignon and Barjols in the southern part of the department of the Var.

308 D'Anville takes this to be the place called Agaï, between Frejus and La Napoule: but in so doing he disregards the order in which they are given by Pliny.

309 "The Forum of Julius." Now Frejus. As its name implies, it was a colony of the Eighth Legion. It was probably called 'Pacensis,' on some occasion when peace had happily been made with the original inhabitants, and 'Classica' from the fleet being stationed there by Augustus.

310 Still known as the Argens, from the silvery appearance of the water. It has choked up the harbour with sand, in which probably the ships of Augustus rode at anchor.

311 They inhabited the coast, in the vicinity of the modern Cannes.

312 They are supposed to have inhabited the country of Grasse, in the south-east of the department of the Var.

313 According to Ptolemy they had for their capital the town of Salinæ; which some take to be the modern Saluces, others Castellane, and others again Seillans, according to Holstein and D'Anville.

314 D'Anville thinks that they lived in the valley of Queyras, in the department of the Hautes Alpes, having a town of the same name.

315 The Adunicates are supposed by Hardouin to have inhabited the department of the Basses Alpes, between the towns of Senez and Digne.

316 The modem Antibes. Mount Cema is the present Monte-Cemelione.

317 "Arelate of the Sixth Legion," a military colony; now the city of Arles. It is first mentioned by Cæsar, who had some ships built there for the siege of Massilia or Marseilles. It was made a military colony in the time of Augustus.

318 "Beterræ of the Seventh Legion." The modern town of Beziers.

319 "Arausio of the Second Legion," now Orange, a town in the department of Vaucluse.

320 Now Valence, in the department of the Drôme.

321 Now Vienne, in the department of the Isère.

322 Aix, in the department of the Bouches du Rhône.

323 Avignon, in the Vaucluse.

324 Apt, in the department of Vaucluse.

325 Riez, in the department of the Basses Alpes.

326 The modern Alps, near Viviers, is probably built on the site of this town. The text shows that it was different from Augusta, probably the Alba Augusta mentioned by Ptolemy, though D'Anville supposes them to have been the same place.

327 Some writers take this place to be the present Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux, in the department of the Drôme.

328 Probably so called from its lofty position, and supposed by D'Anville to have been situate on the modern Mont Ventoux, or "Windy Mountain." Other writers place it at La Croix Haute, near the city of Avignon.

329 There is a village in the department of the Var, six leagues from Toulon, called Bormes, not improbably from these people.

330 The modern Cavaillon, in the department of the Vaucluse.

331 Now Carcassone, in the department of the Aude.

332 Probably Saint Tibéry, on the river Hérault.

333 Now Carpentras. Ptolemy also makes mention of the Memini.

334 Probably situate on the river Cœnus of Ptolemy, between the eastern mouth of the Rhone and Massilia. Probably the name in Pliny should be "Cœnienses."

335 Walckenaer places this people in the vicinity of Cambo, in the arrondissement of Bayonne, in the department of the Basses Pyrenees.

336 In names similar to this, as Festus remarks, "Forum" has the meaning of "Market;" much as that word is used as a compound in our names, such as Market Drayton, &c. Bouche thinks that by this place is meant the modern Le Canet: but D'Anville takes it to be Gonfaron, a corruption, he thinks, of Voconfaron from the Latin name.

337 The site of Glanum was about a mile to the south of the village of Saint Remi, between Cavaillon and Aries. On the spot there are the remains of a Roman mausoleum and a triumphal arch.

338 The people of Luteva, now Lodève, in the department of the Hérault.

339 "The people of Forum Neronis," which place has been supposed by some to have been the same with Carpentoracte: D'Anville supposes Forcalquier to have been Forum Neronis, while Walckenaer takes Momas to have been that place. From the text it would appear to have been identical with Luteva.

340 The modern Nismes, which in its ruins contains abundant marks of its ancient splendour. The family of the Antonines came from this place. The remains of its aqueduct still survive, containing three rows of arches, one above the other, and 180 feet in height.

341 The people of the present Pézenas, in the department of the Hérault.

342 Their chief town is supposed to have been Albiga, now Albi, in the department of Tarn.

343 The inhabitants of the present Senez in the Basses Alpes. De la Saussaye says that their coins read 'Samnagenses,' and not' Sanagenses,' and that they inhabited Senas, a town in the vicinity of Aix.

344 Their chief town was Tolosa, now Toulouse, in the department of the Haute-Garonne.

345 They probably lived in the vicinity of the present Montauban, in the department of the Tarn et Garonne.

346 Probably the inhabitants of the site of the modern town of Tarascon. There is, however, considerable doubt as to these two names.

347 Poinsinet thinks that they occupied Vabres, a place situate in the south of the department of Aveyron.

348 Now Vaison, in the department of Vaucluse.

349 "The Grove of Augustus." This town appears to have been overflowed by the river Druma, which formed a lake on its site. Its remains were still to be seen in the lake in modern times, and from it the town on the margin of the lake takes its name of Le Luc.

350 Under the name "formula" Pliny perhaps alludes to the official list of the Roman government, which he had consulted for the purposes of accuracy.

351 Bouche places the site of this people at the village of Avançon, between Chorges and Gap, in the department of the Hautes Alpes.

352 The present town of Digne, in the department of the Basses Alpes.

353 It is not known from what points these measurements of our author are taken.

354 The modern names of these localities will form the subject of consideration when we proceed, in c. 7, to a more minute description of Italy.

355 This passage is somewhat confused, and may possibly be in a corrupt state. He here speaks of the Apennine Alps. By the "lunata juga" he means the two promontories or capes, which extend east and west respectively.

356 This seems to be the meaning of "alumna," and not "nurse" or "foster-mother," as Ajasson's translation has it. Pliny probably implies by this antithesis that Rome has been "twice blessed," in receiving the bounties of all nations of the world, and in being able to bestow a commensurate return. Compared with this idea, "at once the nurse and mother of the world" would be tame indeed!

357 By adding its deified emperors to the number of its divinities. After what Pliny has said in his Second Book, this looks very much like pure adulation.

358 Or "Great Greece." This is a poor and frivolous argument used by Pliny in support of his laudations of Italy, seeing that in all probability it was not the people of Greece who gave this name to certain cities founded by Greek colonists on the Tarentine Gulf, in the south of Italy; but either the Italian tribes, who in their simplicity admired their splendour and magnificence, or else the colonists themselves, who, in using the name, showed that they clung with fondness to the remembrance of their mother-country; while at the same time the epithet betrayed some vanity and ostentation in wishing thus to show their superiority to the people of their mother-country.

359 The comparison of its shape to an oak leaf seems rather fanciful; more common-place observers have compared it to a boot: by the top (cacumen) he seems to mean the southern part of Calabria about Brundisium and Tarentum; which, to a person facing the south, would incline to the coast of Epirus on the left hand.

360 The 'Parma' or shield here alluded to, would be one shaped like a crescent, with the exception that the inner or concave side would be formed of two crescents, the extremities of which join at the central projection. He says that Cocinthos (now Capo di Stilo) would in such case form the central projection, while Lacinium (now Capo delle Colonne) would form the horn at the extreme right, and Leucopetra (now Capo dell' Armi) the horn on the extreme left.

361 The Tuscan or Etrurian sea, and the Adriatic.

362 The Varus, as already mentioned, was in Gallia Narbonensis, while the Arsia, now the Arsa, is a small river of Istria, which became the boundary between Italy and Illyricum, when Istria was annexed by order of Augustus to the former country. It flows into the Flanaticus Sinus, now Golfo di Quarnero, on the eastern coast of Istria, beyond the town of Castel Nuovo, formerly Nesactium.

363 Now the Pescara.

364 Now Palo, a city on the coast of Etruria, eighteen miles from Portus Augusti, at the mouth of the Tiber.

365 This distance is overstated: the circuit is in reality about 2500 miles.

366 For instance, from Pola to Ravenna, and from Iadera to Ancona.

367 Sardinia is in no part nearer to Italy than 140 miles.

368 Issa, now Lissa, is an island of the Adriatic, off the coast of Liburnia; it is not less than eighty miles distant from the nearest part of the coast of Italy.

369 That is to say, the south, which was so called by the Romans: the meaning being that Italy extends in a south-easterly direction.

370 Italy was divided by Augustus into eleven districts; the ninth of which nearly corresponded to the former republic of Genoa.

371 The modern Nizza of the Italians, or Nice of the French.

372 Now the Paglione.

373 Livy mentions four of these tribes, the Celelates, the Cerdiciates, the Apuani, and the Friniates.

374 Or "Long-haired." Lucan, B. i. 1. 442, 3, refers to this characteristic of the Alpine Ligurians:
Et nunc tonse Ligur, quondam per colla decora
Crinibus effusis toti prælate Comatæ.

375 It is probably the ruins of this place that are to be seen at the present day at Cimiez in the vicinity of Nice.

376 The modern Monaco.

377 These tribes have been already mentioned in c. 5, as belonging to the province of Gallia Narbonensis.

378 It is supposed that they dwelt near the present Vinadio in Piedmont.

379 It is supposed that they inhabited the vicinity of the present town of Chorges, between Embrun and Gap.

380 They probably dwelt near the modern town of Montserrat.

381 They probably dwelt near the modern Biela, eight leagues from Verceil in Piedmont.

382 Some writers place them near the modern city of Casale.

383 Their locality is supposed by some writers to be near the present Cortemiglia, five leagues from the town of Alba.

384 Now the Roya, flowing between very high banks.—Lucan, B. ii. 1. 422, speaks of the Rutuba as "Cavus," "flowing in deep cavities."

385 Probably the present Vintimiglia.

386 The modern Arozia.

387 The present town of Albenga.—Livy, B. xxix. c. 5, calls the inhabitants Albingauni.

388 Now called Vaï or Ve, and Savona.

389 The modern Bisagna, which waters Genua, the modern Genoa.

390 Now the Lavagna, which also washes Genoa.

391 "The Port of the Dolphin;" now Porto Fino.

392 Probably the ruins called those of Tregesa or Trigoso are those of Tigullia.

393 Now Sestri di Levante.

394 The modern Magra.

395 Of which they were considered as a chain, and called the Apennine Alps.

396 Now the Po.

397 According to D'Anville, now Castel Arqua.

398 Now Tortona. It was a city of importance, and there are considerable ruins still in existence.

399 The modern Voghera, upon the river Staffora.

400 Probably the present Verrua.

401 Called by the Ligurians Bodincomagus, by the Romans Industria. Its remains are to be found at Monteù di Po, a few miles below Chevasso, on the right bank of the river.

402 The modern Pollenza, a small town on the river Tenaro near Alba.

403 Its site has been placed at Chieri near Turin, and at Carrù on the Tanaro, a few miles south of Bene, which is perhaps the most probable.

404 The modern Valenza.

405 Placed by D'Anville at Vico near Mondovi, and by other writers at Carmagnole and Saluzzo: but Durandi has shown that the ruins still to be seen near Bene in Piedmont are those of Augusta Vagiennorum. Bene is supposed to be a corruption of Bagienna, the name of the town in the middle ages. The name of the Vagienni also probably survives in that of Viozenna, an obscure place in that vicinity.

406 Still called Alba; a town near the northern foot of the Apennines. It probably had its appellation from Cn. Pompeius Strabo, the father of Pompey the Great, who conferred many privileges on the Cisalpine Gauls. It was the birth-place of the Emperor Helvius Pertinax.

407 The modern Aste.

408 The modern Acqui, so called from its mineral springs. It is again mentioned by Pliny in B. XXXI. Numerous remains of the ancient town have been discovered.

409 Ansart observes that this measurement is nearly correct.

410 For an account of this see Herodotus, B. i. c. 94, Tacitus, Ann. B. iv. c. 55, and Velleius Paterculus, B. i. c. 1. These writers all agree as to the fact of the migration of a colony of Lydians under the conduct of Tyrrhenus to the part of Italy afterwards called Etruria. This subject however, as well as the migrations of the Pelasgi, is involved in the greatest obscurity.

411 From the Greek verb θύειν "to sacrifice," he implies:—from their custom of frequently sacrificing, says Servius, on the Xth Book of the Æneid. Dionysius of Halicarnassus says that they were from their frequent sacrifices called θυόσκοοι. These are probably fanciful derivations; but there is no doubt that the people of Etruria were for several centuries the instructors of the Romans in the arts of sacrifice, augury, and divination.

412 The ruins of Luna, which was destroyed by the Normans in the middle ages, are still visible on the banks of the Magra. The modern name of the port is Golfo della Spezzia.

413 The modern city of Lucca has its site and name.—Livy, B. xli. c. 13, informs us that this colony was founded in the year of the city 576, during the Consulship of Claudius Pulcher and Sempronius Gracchus.

414 The modern city of Pisa. See Virgil, B. x. 1. 179, as to the origin of this place.

415 The modern Serchio.

416 Now the Arno.

417 The people of Pisa or Pisæ, a city of Elis in the Peloponnesus.

418 Now Vadi, a small village on the sea-shore.

419 Still called the Cecina. It entered the Tyrrhenian sea, near the port of Vada Volaterrana just mentioned.

420 The present Piombino is supposed to have arisen from the ruins of this place.

421 Now the Bruno.

422 The modern Ombrone.

423 Now known as Telamone Vecchio.

424 There are ruins near lake Orbitello, which bear the name of Cosa: Ansedonia was said to have risen from its ruins, and in its turn fallen to decay.

425 Two localities have been mentioned as the site of Graviscæ, at both of which there are ancient remains: one on the right bank of the Marta, about a mile from its mouth, and the other on the sea-coast at a spot called Santo Clementino or Le Saline, a mile south of the mouth of the Marta. Probably the latter are the remains of Graviscæ, although Dennis (Etruria, i. pp. 387–395) inclines to be in favour of the former.

426 The modern Torre Chiaruccia, five miles south of Civita Vecchia.

427 The modern Torre di Santa Severa.

428 Now the Vaccina.

429 The remains of this once powerful city are marked by the village of Cervetri or Old Cære. According to Strabo it received its name from the Greek word χαῖρε "hail!" with which the inhabitants saluted the Tyrrhenian or Lydian invaders. It was to this place that the Romans sent their most precious sacred relics when their city was taken by the Gauls. Its most interesting remains are the sepulchres, of which an account is given in Dennis's Etruria.

430 Its remains are to be seen in the vicinity of the modern village of Palo.

431 Its site is supposed to have been at the spot now called the Torre di Maccarese, midway between Palo and Porto, and at the mouth of the river Arone. Its situation was marshy and unhealthy.

432 This exceeds the real distance, which is about 230 miles.

433 The site of the Etruscan Falerii or Falisci is probably occupied by the present Civita Castellana; while that of the Roman city of the same name, at a distance of four miles, is marked by a single house and the ruins of a church, called Santa Maria di Falleri. The ancient city was captured by the Romans under Camillus.

434 In his book of "Origines," which is now lost.

435 "The Grove of Feronia." The town was so called from the grove of that Sabine goddess there situate. In the early times of Rome there was a great resort to this spot not only for religious purposes, but for those of trade as well. Its traces are still to be seen at the village of Saint Orestes, near the south-east extremity of the hill there, which is still called Felonica. This is in southern Etruria, but Ptolemy mentions another place of the same name in the north-west extremity of Etruria, between the Arnus and the Macra.

436 The people of the spot now called Siena, in Tuscany.

437 Now Sutri, on the river Pozollo.

438 The people of Arretium, one of the most powerful cities of Etruria. The three tribes or peoples here mentioned probably did not occupy distinct towns, but constituted separate communities or municipal bodies, being distinct colonies or bodies of settlers. The Julienses were the colonists settled there by Augustus. The Fidentes had probably settled at an earlier period. The modern Arezzo has risen on the remains of the Roman city, while the remains of the Etruscan city are pointed out on an elevated spot called Poggio di San Cornellio, two or three miles southeast of Arezzo. Many valuable relics of antiquity have been discovered here. The family of Mæcenas sprang from this place.

439 The people of Aquæ Tauri, a watering-place of Etruria, situate about three miles north of the present Civita Vecchia, and now called Bagni di Ferrata. The baths are described by Rutilius in his Itinerary, who calls them Tauri Thermæ (the Bull's Baths), and ascribes their name to the fact of their having been accidentally discovered by a bull.

440 The people of Blera, on the site of the modern village of Bieda, about twelve miles south of Viterbo. Numerous remains of Etruscan antiquity have been found here.—See Dennis's Etruria, vol. i. pp. 260–272.

441 The people of Cortona, a powerful city of Etruria, which is still known by the same name. It was probably in the number of the cities of Etruria that were ravaged by Sylla, and then recolonized by him. Numerous remains of Etruscan antiquity have been discovered there.

442 The people of Capena, an ancient and important city of Etruria, which, after long opposing the inroads of the Romans, was reduced to submission shortly after the fall of Veii, B.C. 393. It existed and held municipal rank till the time of the Emperor Aurelian, after which all traces of its name or existence were lost, till 1750, when Galetti fixed its site with great accuracy at Civitucola or San Martino, about 24 miles from Rome. It was situate on the banks of a small river now called the Grammiccia, and in its territory was the celebrated 'Lucus Feroninæ' previously mentioned.

443 The new and old colonists of the city of Clusium, who probably enjoyed distinct municipal rights. The modern Chiusi stands on its site.

444 The modern Fiorenze or Florence occupies the site of their city.

445 The village of Fiesole stands on its site. Extensive remains of the ancient city are still to be found.

446 The site of Ferentinum is now uninhabited, but is still known by the name of Ferento. The rivers of the ancient city are very considerable; it was finally destroyed by the people of Viterbo in the 12th century.

447 An ancient town of Etruria near Falisci. Cluver thinks that it was situate at Gallese, a village nine miles north of Civita Castellana; but Dennis considers its site to have been between Borghetto on the Tiber and Corchiano, where there are considerable remains of an Etruscan city. The spot is named San Silvestro, from a ruined church there.

448 Or Horta; the spot now called Orte, where numerous Etruscan remains are found; it probably derived its name from the Etruscan goddess Horta. Hortanum, the name given to it by Pliny, is perhaps an adjective form of the name, "oppidun" being understood.

449 Possibly the same as 'Urbs Vetus,' on the side of which the present Orvieto stands.

450 Now Nepi, near the river Pozzolo.

451 According to Hardouin the site of the Novem Pagi, or nine Boroughs, is occupied by the modern Il Mignone, near Civita Vecchia.

452 Its site is generally supposed to have been at Oriuolo, about five miles north of Bracciano; but Dennis informs us that there are no ancient remains at that place. Being a præfecture it may have consisted of only a number of little villages, united in one jurisdiction.

453 The modern Pistoia stands on its site.

454 Now Perugia.

455 Supposed by Hardouin to have inhabited the site of the modern Sovretto.

456 Probably situate in the modern duchy of Castro.

457 The people of Tarquinii near Rome, the head of the Etruscan confederation. It was here that Demaratus the Corinthian, the father of Tarquinius Priscus, settled. It was deserted by its inhabitants in the eighth or ninth century, who founded the town of Corneto on a hill opposite to it. The ruins are known as Turchina, a corruption of the ancient name.

458 The site of their town is probably marked by the modern Toscanella.

459 The ruins of their town still retain somewhat of their ancient name in that of "Vetulia."

460 The people of the powerful city of Veii, subdued by Camillus. Its ruins have been discovered in the vicinity of the village of Isola Farnese.

461 Their town stood on the site of the present Bisontia.

462 The people of Volaterræ, the present Volterra, one of the twelve cities of the Etruscan Confederation. It was for a time the residence of the kings of Lombardy. The modern town covers only a small portion of the area of the ancient city, of which there are some interesting remains.

463 The people of Volci or Vulci, of which the ruins bear the same name. Its sepulchres have produced vast treasures of ancient art.

464 The people of Volsinii or Vulsinii, now called Bolsena. This was one of the most ancient and powerful of the twelve cities of the Etruscan confederation. On their subjugation by the Romans the Etruscan city was destroyed, and its inhabitants were compelled to settle on a less defensible site. The new city was the birth-place of Sejanus, the worthless favourite of Tiberius. Of the ancient city there are scarcely any remains.

465 Called also Crustumeria, Crustumium, and Crustuminium. It was a city of Latium on the borders of the Sabine country, and was subdued by Romulus, though it afterwards appears as independent in the time of Tarquinius Priscus. The territory was noted for its fertility. The exact site of the city is unknown; a place called Marcigliana Vecchia, about nine miles from Rome, seems the most probable.

466 The site of Caletra is quite unknown. It was situate at some point in the present valley of the Albegna.

467 The First Region extended from the Tiber to the Gulf of Salernum, being bounded in the interior by the Apennines. It consisted of ancient Latium and Campania, comprising the modern Campagna di Roma, and the provinces of the kingdom of Naples.

468 Livy, B. i. c. 3, and Ovid, Fasti, B. iii. 1. 389, inform us that the name of Albula was changed into Tiberis in consequence of king Tiberinus being accidentally drowned in it.

469 Still known by that name. The Glanis is called la Chiana.

470 According to D'Anville, now known as Citta di Castello.

471 A municipal town of Umbria, situate near the confluence of the rivers Nar and Tiber, and on the Flaminian Way. There are the ruins of an aqueduct, an amphitheatre, and some temples, now the modern Otricoli.

472 The territory of Umbria extended from the left bank of the Tiber, near its rise, to the Adriatic.

473 The Sabines occupied the left bank of the Tiber from the Umbri to the Anio. The Crustumini and the Fidenates probably occupied the southern part of the district about the river Alba.

474 The Nera and the Tevcrone. The exact situation of the district of Vaticanum has not been ascertained with exactness.

475 As not so much causing mischief by its inundations, as giving warning thereby of the wrath of the gods and of impending dangers; which might be arrested by sacrifices and expiatory rites.—See Horace, Odes, B. i. 2. 29.

476 The frontier of ancient Latium was at Circeii, but that of modern Latium extended to Sinuessa.

477 A town of Latium, situate at the foot of the Mons Circeius, now Monte Circello. It was used as a place of retirement, and Tiberius and Domitian had villas there. The Triumvir Lepidus was banished thither by Octavius after his deposition. It was also famous for its oysters, which were of the finest quality. Considerable remains of it are still to be seen on the hill called Monte di Citadella, about two miles from the sea.

478 Now the Garigliano, the same river which he previously calls the Glanis. It was the boundary between Latium and Campania.

479 Founded by Ancus Martius, as we learn from Livy. It was abandoned under the Emperor Claudius, who built the Portus Romanus or Portus Augusti in its vicinity; and it only continued famous for its salt-works, which had been established there by Ancus Martius. Its ruins, still called Ostia, are nearly three miles from the coast, in consequence of the receding of the sea.

480 Now San Lorenzo. It was between Ostia and Antium.

481 By some, Æneas was supposed to have been worshiped by that name.

482 Now the river Numico.

483 The ruins of this once great city may still be seen near the present village of the same name. Its situation was peculiarly unhealthy. Another tradition, besides the one mentioned by Pliny, was, that it was founded by a son of Ulysses and Circe. It was twenty-four miles distant from Rome.

484 A temple of Venus, of which the ruins are still to be seen.

485 Its few ruins are still known as Anzio Rovinato. It was famous for its temple of Fortune, addressed by Horace, Odes, i. 35. Near the site is the modern village of Porto d'Anzo.

486 This island was occupied by villas of the Roman nobility, and was the resort of Cicero, Augustus and Tiberius. There is still a fortified town called the Torre di Astura.

487 The modern Ninfa.

488 "The Roman Bulwarks." They were thrown up to protect the frontier of the ancient kingdom of Rome from the inroads of the Volscians

489 To our previous note we may add that this spot was supposed to have been once inhabited by the enchantress Circe, the daughter of the Sun, and from her to have taken its name.

490 This has been also translated "dedicated to Nicodorus, the Archon of Athens," but nothing appears to be known of such a fact as the dedication to Nicodorus of any of his works.

491 Now called the "Palude Pontine." They are again mentioned in B. xxvi. c. 9.

492 Now called Il Portatore.

493 It was situate fifty-eight miles from Rome; the modern town of Terracina stands on its site. The remains of the ancient citadel are visible on the slope of Montecchio.

494 The exact site of this place is unknown. Servius, in his Commentary on B. x. of the Æneid, l. 564, tells the same story of the serpents.

495 This was near Amyclæ. A villa was situate there called "Speluncæ," from the cavities in the rock, in one of which the Emperor Tiberius nearly lost his life by the falling in of the roof. The modern village of Sperlonga, eight miles west of Gaëta, marks its site.

496 Now Lago di Fondi.

497 Now Gaëta, said to have received its name from being the burial place of Caieta, the nurse of Æneas. The shore was studded with numerous villas of the Roman nobility. It is now a city of great opulence; in its vicinity extensive ruins are to be seen.

498 On the spot now called Mola di Gaëta. Many of the wealthy Romans, and among them Cicero, had villas here: and at this place he was put to death. It was destroyed by the Saracens in the year 856. The remains of antiquity to be seen on this spot are very extensive.

499 Homer places these Cannibals on the coast of Sicily, but the Romans in general transplanted them to the vicinity of Circeii, and suppose Formiæ to have been built by Lamus, one of their kings. It is more probable however that it was founded by the Laconians, from whom it may have received its name of Hormiæ (from the Greek ὅρμος), as being a good roadstead for shipping.

500 Its site is occupied by the present Trajetta. In its marshes, formed by the overflow of the Liris, Caius Marius was taken prisoner, concealed in the sedge.

501 The town of Minturnæ stood on both banks of the river.

502 Its ruins are probably those to be seen in the vicinity of Rocca di Mondragone. It was a place of considerable commercial importance. On its site Livy says there formerly stood the Greek city of Sinope.

503 "Felix illa Campania."

504 Now Sezza.

505 A marshy district of Latium, extending about eight miles along the coast from Terracina to Speluncæ, famous in the time of Horace for the first-rate qualities of its wines.

506 A district famous for its wines, extending from the Massican Hills to the north bank of the Volturnus.

507 According to Hardouin, the town of Calenum was on the site of the present Calvi near Capua.

508 Now called Monte Marsico, and as famous for its wine (called Museatella) as it was in the Roman times.

509 Now Monte Barbaro. The wines of most of these places will be found fully described by Pliny in B. xiv.

510 More fully mentioned, B. xviii. c. 29, where the 'alicæ' or fermenty made from the spelt grown here is again referred to.

511 Of Baiæ, Puteoli, and Stabiæ, for instance.

512 The modern Saove.

513 Now called the Volturno, with a small place on its banks called Castel Volturno.

514 The present village of Torre di Patria is supposed to occupy its site.

515 Strabo describes Cumæ as a joint colony of the Chalcidians of Eubœa and the Cymæans of Æolis. Its sea-shore was covered with villas of the Roman aristocracy, and here Sylla spent the last years of his life. Its site is now utterly desolate and its existing remains inconsiderable.

516 Now Capo or Punta di Miseno; a town built on a promontory of Campania, by Æneas, it was said, in honour of his trumpeter, Misenus, who was drowned there. It was made by Augustus the principal station of the Roman fleet. Here was the villa of Marius, which afterwards belonged to Lucullus and the Emperor Tiberius, who died here.

517 Famous for its warm springs, and the luxurious resort of the Roman patricians. Marius, Lucullus, Pompey, and Cæsar had villas here. In later times it became the seat of every kind of pleasure and dissipation. It is now rendered unwholesome by the Malaria, and the modern Castello di Baja, with numerous ruins, alone marks its site.

518 The modern village of Baolo stands near its site. It was here that Hortensius had his fish-ponds, mentioned by Pliny in B. ix. c. 55. It rivalled its neighbour Baiæ in ministering to the luxury of the wealthy Romans, and was occupied by numerous villas so late as the reign of Theodosius.

519 Probably the inner part of the Gulf of Cumæ or Puteoli, but separated from the remainder by an embankment eight stadia in length. It was famous for its oyster-beds. Behind it was the Lake Avernus, occupying the crater of an extinct volcano, and supposed by the Greeks to be the entrance to the Infernal Regions. Agrippa opened a communication with the Lucrine Lake to render Lake Avernus accessible to ships. The Lucrine Lake was filled up by a volcanic eruption in 1538, and a mountain rose in its place. The Lake Avernus is still called the Lago di Averno.

520 Or "the town Cimmerium." Nothing is known of it.

521 Now Pozzuolo. The Romans called it Puteoli, from the strong smell of its mineral springs. There are still many ruins of the ancient town, which was destroyed by Alaric, Genseric, and Totila, and as many times rebuilt.

522 Now called Salpatara. This was the name given to the volcanic plain extending from Cumæ to Capua, and supposed to have been once covered with fire; whence the name, from φλέγω, "to burn."

523 Now the Lago di Fusaro. It seems to have had its name from its vicinity to Avernus, the supposed entrance to the infernal regions. Its banks were, in the later times of the Roman republic, adorned with the villas of the wealthy.

524 Neapolis, or the "New City," was founded by the Chalcidians of Cumæ on the site of Parthenope, the supposed burial-place of the Siren of that name. It was so called as being only a 'new quarter' of the neighbouring city of Cumæ. The modern city of Naples stands nearly on its site.

525 Said to have been founded by Hercules. It was on the occasion of its destruction by an eruption of Vesuvius, A.D. 79, that our author unfortunately met his death, a martyr to his thirst for knowledge. Its closer proximity to Vesuvius caused it to be buried under a more solid body of materials ejected from the mountain than was the case with Pompeii; which seems to have been suffocated with ashes, while Herculaneum was covered with volcanic tufa most probably hardened by the agency of water. A few scattered inhabitants are supposed to have afterwards settled upon the site where it was buried, which for many centuries was utterly forgotten, till brought to light in 1738. Part of the site over the buried town is occupied by the villages of Resina and Portici. The works of art found here far exceed in value and interest those discovered at Pompeii.

526 This seems to have been a town of Oscan origin. The first traces of it were found in 1689, but excavations were not commenced till 1721. It perished in the same eruption of Vesuvius as Herculaneum.

527 Now the Sarno. Its course was changed by the great eruption of Vesuvius previously mentioned.

528 The modern Nocera stands on its site. Pompeii was used as its harbour.

529 Now Sorrento.

530 Now also called Capo della Minerva.

531 It probably had its name from Campania, of which it was the capital, and which was so called from its extensive campi or plains. The site of this luxurious and magnificent city is now occupied by the village of Santa Maria di Capoua, the modern city of Capua being on the site of ancient Casilinum. Of ancient Capua there are but few remains. It was made a Roman colony by Julius Cæsar.

532 Originally a city of the Volscians: Cicero had a villa there, and Juvenal and the emperor Pescennius Niger were natives of it. The present Aquino stands on its site, and there are considerable remains of it to be seen.

533 Or Suessa Aurunca, to distinguish it from the Volscian city of Suessa Pometia. The poet Lucilius was a native of it. The modern Sessa stands in its vicinity.

534 The modern Venafri stands near its site. It was famous for the excellence of its olives.

535 On the banks of the Suris, and the most northerly town of the Volsci. The modern Sora is in its vicinity, and the remains of its walls are still to be seen.

536 The modern Teano occupies its site. It was famous for the medicinal springs in its vicinity. There was another Teanum, in Apulia.

537 The town on its site still preserves the name. Bells were made here, whence in the later writers they are called "Nolæ." There is also an ecclesiastical tradition that church bells were first used by Saint Paulinus, bishop of this place, whence they were called 'Campanæ.' The emperor Augustus died here.

538 The remains of the ancient town, of which the ruins are very extensive, are called Avella Vecchia. It was famous for its fruit, especially its filberts, to which it gives name in the French "Avelines." It was first a Greek colony, and then a town of the Oscans.

539 A city of Latium, sixteen miles from Rome, and said to have been of Sicilian origin. The modern town of La Riccia occupies the site of its citadel. It was celebrated for the temple and grove of Diana, whose high priest was always a fugitive slave who had killed his predecessor, and was called "Rex nemorensis," or "king of the grove." See Ovid, Fasti, B. vi. 1. 59; Art of Love, B. i. 1. 260; and Lucan, B. vi. 1. 74.

540 The ancient city was destroyed by Tullus Hostilius, king of Rome. The Roman colony here was probably but small. The Roman patrician families, the Julii, Servilii, Tullii, and Quintii, are said to have migrated from Alba Longa, which, according to tradition, had given to Rome her first king.

541 The people of Acerra, still called by the same name; it was plundered and burnt by Hannibal, B.C. 216, but was rebuilt by order of the Roman senate.

542 The people of Allifæ, a former city of Samnium, on the borders of Campania. The modern city of A life, a decayed place, stands on its site. There are considerable remains.

543 The people of Atina, an ancient city of the Volscians. The modern city of Atina, noted for the bleakness of its situation, stands on its site. There are extensive ruins of the ancient city.

544 The people of Aletrium or Alatrium, an ancient city of the Hernici. The modern Alatri stands on its site; there are but few ancient remains.

545 The people of Anagnia in Latium, still called Anagni. There are scarcely any remains of the ancient place, which was of considerable importance.

546 The people of Atella, an ancient city of Campania. Some remains of its ruins are to be seen two miles east of the town of Aversa, near the villages of San Arpino and San Elpidio.

547 The people of Affilæ, an ancient Hernican town. It is still called Affile, and has many ancient remains.

548 The people of Arpinum, once a famous city of the Volscians. The present Arpino occupies its site; there are few Roman remains, but its ancient walls, of Cyclopean construction, still exist. It was the birthplace of Marius and Cicero. The villa of the latter was on the banks of the adjoining river Fibrenus. It was, and is still, famous for its woollen manufactures.

549 The people of Auximum, a city of Picenum. Its site is occupied by the modern Osimo; there are numerous remains of antiquity to be seen.

550 Or perhaps "Abellini," people of Abelliacum; which, if meant, ought not to be included in this division, being a city of the Hirpini. This city was finally destroyed in the wars of the Greeks and Lombards, and the modern Avellino rose on its site. There are considerable ruins in the vicinity. According to Hardouin, this place also claimed the honour of giving name to filberts, which grew abundantly in its vicinity. If such is the case, it seems probable that both it and Abella took their names from that fruit as called by the early inhabitants. See Note in p. 198.

551 An ancient city of Latium. Its ruins are to be seen in the vicinity of the Via Appia. See a curious story connected with it in Ovid's Fasti, B. iii. 1. 667 et seq.

552 There were two cities of this name on the confines of Samnium and Campania, one in the valley of the Volturnum, the modern Caiazzo, the other in Campania, between Capua and Beneventum, whose ruins are probably those to be seen at Le Galazzi, between Caserta and Maddaloni.

553 Once a considerable city of Latium. The modern city of San Germano has risen on its ruins, while the name of Monte Casino has been retained by the monastery founded near it by St. Bernard A.D. 529.

554 The present Calvi probably occupies its site.

555 It is not named in history. Its site was probably between Palestrina and Il Piglio.

556 The people of Cereatæ, a town of Latium. It is supposed that the ancient monastery of Casamari occupied its site.

557 The people of Cora, an ancient city of Latium. The present Cori stands on its site, and there are considerable remains of the ancient walls and other buildings.

558 The people of Castrimœnium, a colony of Sylla. It has been suggested that these were the same people whom Pliny speaks of at a subsequent place in this chapter as the Munienses, an extinct people of Latium. If so, the name was perhaps changed on the establishment here by Sylla of his colony. It probably stood near the modern city of Marino.

559 The people of Cingulum, a city of Picenum, the site of which is occupied by the modern Cingoli.

560 It is conjectured that Fabia was on the same site as the present village of Rocca di Papa.

561 The inhabitants of Forum Popilii in Campania; its site is unknown.

562 The people of Frusino, originally a Volscian city. The modern Frosinone occupies its site.

563 The people of Ferentinum, a city of the Hernici: the present city of Ferentino stands on its site. The ruins are very extensive.

564 Probably the people of Fregellæ, an ancient city of the Volscians. Its site is now unknown, but it was probably on the banks of the Liris, opposite to the modern Ceprano.

565 The people of Fabrateria or Frabateria, a Volscian city. A Roman colony was placed there B.C. 124, by C. Gracchus, and probably the old inhabitants for that reason styled themselves "Veteres." The ruins at San Giovanni in Cerico, about three miles from Falvaterra, are supposed to be those of this place, or at least of the new town or colony. In such case Falvaterra may occupy the site of the original city.

566 The people of Ficulnea or Ficulia, a city of ancient Latium, on the Via Nomentana. It is supposed to have decayed soon after the reign of M. Aurelius. Its site was probably on the modern domain of Cesarini, though some separate the ancient Latin city from the Roman town, and fix the locality of the former on the hill called Monte Gentile, or that of the Torre Lupara.

567 These are omitted in most editions, but if a correct reading, the word must signify the "people of Fregellæ," and the Freginates must be the people of Fregenæ in Etruria; although they do not appear properly to belong to this locality.

568 "The Market of Appius." It was distant forty-three miles from Rome, and we learn from Horace, that it was the usual resting-place for travellers at the end of one day's journey from Rome. It is also mentioned in the account of the journey of St. Paul (Acts xxviii. 15) as one of the usual resting-places on the Appian way. There are now no inhabitants on the spot, but considerable ruins still exist, as well as the forty-third milestone, which is still to be seen.

569 Probably the inhabitants of Ferentium or Ferentinum, now Ferento, five miles from Viterbo, a city of Etruria, of which very considerable remains exist.

570 The people of Gabii, formerly one of the most famous cities of Latium. On its site the ruins of a mediæval fortress now stand, known as Castiglione. Some remains of the walls still exist.

571 The people of Interamna Lirmas, a Roman colony on the banks of the Liris; and as there were several cities of the same name, it was generally distinguished by the epithet "Lirinas." Pliny no doubt calls it "Succasina," from its vicinity to Casinum. Its site, though uninhabited, is still called Terame, and there are numerous remains of antiquity.

572 Probably the people of Lavinium were thus called from their supposed Trojan descent. The town was said to have been founded by Æneas in honour of his wife Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus. In the times of the Antonines it was united with Laurentum; their ruins are to be seen at Casale di Copocotta.

573 The people of Norba, a town of Latium. It is now called Norma, and there are still some remains of the ancient walls.

574 Nomentum, now called La Mentana, was a Latin town, fourteen miles from Rome.

575 The people of Præneste, one of the most ancient towns of Latium. It was originally a Pelasgic city, but claimed a Greek origin, and was said to have been built by Telegonus, the son of Ulysses. During summer it was much frequented by the Romans for its delightful coolness. The remains of its ancient walls are still to be seen at Palestrina.

576 The people of Privernum, now Piperno, an ancient city of Latium.

577 The people of Setia, now Sesse or Sezza, an ancient town of Latium, to the east of the Pomptine marshes. It was famous for its wine.

578 The people of Signia, now Segni, a town of Latium founded by Tarquinius Priscus. There are still some remains of its walls.

579 The people of Suessula, now Castel di Sessola.

580 The people of Telesia, a town of Samnium seven leagues from Capua, now called Telese.

581 Trebula was distinguished probably by this surname from a town of that name in Samnium. There seem to have been two places of the name in the Sabine territory, but it is not known which is here meant. The ruins of one of them are supposed to be those not far from Maddaloni.

582 The people of Treba, now Trevi, a town of Latium.

583 The people of Tusculum, an ancient town of Latium, the ruins of which are to be seen on a hill about two miles distant from the modern Frascati. Cicero's favourite residence was his Tusculan villa, and Cato the censor was a native of this place.

584 The people of Verulæ, a town of the Hernici, in Latium, now Veroli.

585 The people of Velitræ, an ancient town of the Volsci, now Velletri. It was the birth-place of the emperor Augustus.

586 The people of Ulubræ, a small town of Latium, near the Pomptine Marshes; its site is unknown.

587 The people of Urbinum; there were two places of that name in Umbria, now called Urbeno and Urbania.

588 The name probably by which the city was called in the mystical language of the priesthood. It has been said that this mysterious name of Rome was Valentia; if so, it appears to be only a translation of her name Græcized—῾ρώμη, "strength." This subject will be found again mentioned in B. xxviii. c. 4.

589 Solinus says that he was put to death as a punishment for his rashness. M. Sichel has suggested that this mysterious name was no other than Angerona.

590 It is not known whether this mystical divinity was the goddess of anguish and fear, or of silence, or whether she was the guardian deity of Rome. Julius Modestus says that she relieved men and cattle when visited by the disease called "angina," or "quinsy," whence her name.

591 The Carmental, the Roman, and the Pandanian or Saturnian gates, according to Varro.

592 Titus was saluted Imperator after the siege of Jerusalem, and was associated with his father Vespasian in the government. They also acted together as Censors.

593 The Lares Compitales presided over the divisions of the city, which were marked by the compita or points where two or more streets crossed each other, and where 'ædiculæ' or small chapels were erected in their honour. Statues of these little divinities were erected at the corner of every street. It was probably this custom which first suggested the idea of setting up images of the Virgin and Saints at the corners of the streets, which are still to be seen in many Roman Catholic countries at the present day.

594 This was a gilded column erected by Augustus in the Forum, and called "milliarium aureum;" on it were inscribed the distances of the principal points to which the "viæ" or high-roads conducted.

595 Supposing the circuit of the city to have been as he says, 13 2/5 miles, he must either make a great miscalculation here, or the text must be very corrupt. The average diameter of the city would be in such case about 4 1/2 miles, the average length of each radius drawn from the mile-column 2 1/4 miles, and the total amount 83 1/4 miles, whereas he makes it but 20 3/4 miles, or little better than an average of half-a-mile for each radius. We may also remark that the camp of the Prætorian cohorts here mentioned was established by the emperor Tiberius, by the advice of Sejanus. Ajasson's translation makes the measurement to be made to twelve gates only, but the text as it stands will not admit of such a construction.

596 The Aventine, Cælian, and Quirinal hills.

597 Such as Ocriculum, Tibur, Aricia, &c.

598 Near Antium. Casale di Conca stands on its site.

599 Suæssa Pometia. It was destroyed by the consul Servilius, and its site was said, with that of twenty-two other towns, to have been covered by the Pomptine Marsh, to which it gave its name.

600 A town of Latium destroyed by Ancus Martius.

601 An ancient city of Latium, conquered by Romulus; on which occasion he slew its king Acron and gained the spolia opima. Nibby suggests that it stood on the Magugliano, two miles south-east of Monte Gentile. Holstein says that it stood where the present Sant' Angelo or Monticelli stands.

602 Also destroyed by Ancus Martius. A farm called Dragonello, eleven miles from Rome, is supposed to have stood upon its site. Tellene was also destroyed by the same king. Tifata was a town of Campania.

603 A city of Latium, which was conquered by Tarquinius Priscus. It has been suggested that its ruins are visible about a mile to the north of Monte Sant' Angelo.

604 A Sabine town, the people of which were incorporated by Tarquinius Priscus with the Roman citizens. It is supposed to have stood on the present Monte Sant' Angelo.

605 An ancient city of Latium, subdued by Tarquinius Priscus, on which occasion Ocrisia, the mother of Servius Tullius, fell into the hands of the Romans as a captive. It was probably situate on one of the isolated hills that rise from the plain of the Campagna.

606 Both Virgil and Ovid allude to this tradition.

607 Said to have been so called from being "opposite" to the ancient city of Saturnia. The Janiculus or Janiculum was a fortress on the opposite bank of the Tiber, and a suburb of Rome, connected with it by the Sublician bridge.

608 A very ancient city situate three miles from Rome, and said to have been so called from its position on the Tiber, ante amnem. In the time of Strabo it had become a mere village. It stood at the confluence of the Anio and the Tiber.

609 An ancient city of Latium reduced by Tarquinius Priscus. It has been suggested that the town of Palombara, near the foot of Monte Gennaro, stands on its site.

610 An ancient city of Latium. It probably gradually fell into decay. Lucius Tarquinius, the husband of Lucretia, is represented as dwelling here during the siege of Ardea. Its site is thought by some to have been at Castellaccio or Castel dell' Osa, and by others at Lunghezza, which is perhaps the most probable conjecture.

611 An ancient city of the Sabines. Its ruins are visible at San Vittorino, a village near Aquila.

612 An ancient town of the Volsci, five leagues from Velletri. Sermonata now stands on its site. It must not be confounded with the town of the Peligni, the birth-place of Ovid.

613 "Populi Albenses." It does not appear to be exactly known what is the force of this expression, but he probably means either colonies from Alba, or else nations who joined in the confederacy of which Alba was the principal. Niebuhr looks upon them as mere demi or boroughs of the territory of Alba.

614 "Accipere carnem." Literally, "to take the flesh." It appears that certain nations, of which Alba was the chief, were in early times accustomed to meet on the Alban Mount for the purposes of sacrifice. The subject is full of obscurity, but it has been suggested that this minor confederacy co-existed with a larger one including all the Latin cities, and there can be little doubt that the common sacrifice was typical of a bond of union among the states that partook therein. It does not necessarily appear from the context that more than the thirty-one states after mentioned took part therein, though the text may be so construed as to imply that the Latin nations previously mentioned also shared in the sacrifice; if so, it would seem to imply that Alba was the chief city of the whole Latin confederacy. See this subject ably discussed in Dr. Smith's Dictionary of Ancient Geography, under the article Latini.

615 The people of Æsulæ. Of this Latin city nothing is known. The territory is mentioned by Horace, and Gell places its site on the Monte Affiliano.

616 The people of Bubentum. Nothing is known of this Latin city or of the preceding ones.

617 Bola was an ancient city of Latium, taken successively by Coriolanus and M. Postumius. Its site is supposed to have been five miles from the modern Palestrina, at the modern village of Lugnano.

618 The people of Corioli. It was probably a Latian town, but fell into the possession of the Volsci, from whom it was taken by Cn. Marcius, who thence obtained the name of "Coriolanus." Monte Giove, nineteen miles from Rome, has been suggested as its site.

619 Pliny is supposed to be in error in representing Fidenæ, the early antagonist of Rome, as being extinct in his time, and he will be found in the sequel reckoning it in the Fourth Region. This ancient Latian town never lost its municipal rank, though it had no doubt in his time become a mere country town. The present Castel Giubileo is supposed to be situate on its site.

620 The people of Horta, a town of Etruria, now Horte. Many Etruscan remains have been discovered there.

621 The people of Longula, a Volscian town. Buon Riposo now occupies its site.

622 The people of Pedum; nothing is known of it. The rest of these nations are either almost or entirely unknown.

623 This was an ancient town between Pompeii and Surrentum. After its overthrow, as mentioned by Pliny, it was in some measure rebuilt, possibly after this passage was penned. It was finally destroyed by the great eruption of Vesuvius in the year A.D. 79, and it was here that our author breathed his last.

624 A town three miles west of Capua. It was of much importance as a military position, and played a considerable part in the second Punic war. The period of its final destruction is unknown; but modern Capua is built on its site.

625 This city took the lead in the war of the Latin cities against Tarquinius Priscus. Gell and Nibby think that it was situate about eleven miles from Rome, a mile to the south of the Appian way, where there are some remains that indicate the site of an ancient city, near the stream called the Fosso delle Fratocche. Livy tells us that with the spoils thence derived, Tarquinius celebrated the Ludi Magni for the first time.

626 Opposite Capreæ, and situate on the Promontory of Minerva. Sorrento now stands on its site.

627 The modern Silaro; it was the boundary between Lucania and Campania, and rises in the Apennines.

628 A town in the south of Campania, at the head of the Gulf of Pæstum. In consequence of the aid which they gave to Hannibal, the inhabitants were forced to abandon their town and live in the adjoining villages. The name of Picentini was given, as here stated, to the inhabitants of all the territory between the Promontory of Minerva and the river Silarus. They were a portion of the Sabine Picentes, who were transplanted thither after the conquest of Picenum, B.C. 268. The modern Vicenza stands on its site.

629 The Argonaut. Probably this was only a vague tradition.

630 By using the genitive 'Salerni,' he would seem to imply that the Roman colony of Salernum then gave name to the district of which Picentia was the chief town. Ajasson however has translated it merely "Salernum and Picentia." 'Intus' can hardly mean "inland," as Picentia was near the coast, and so was Salernum.

631 This was an ancient town of Campania, at the innermost corner of the Gulf of Pæstum, situate near the coast, on a height at the foot of which lay its harbour. It attained great prosperity, as Salerno, in the middle ages, and was noted for its School of Health established there; which issued periodically rules for the preservation of health in Latin Leonine verse.

632 "Græciæ maxime populi." This may also be rendered "a people who mostly emigrated from Greece," in reference to the Siculi or Sici- lans, but the other is probably the correct translation.

633 A town of Lucania, colonized by the Sybarites about B.C. 524. In the time of Augustus it seems to have been principally famous for the exquisite beauty of its roses. Its ruins are extremely magnificent.

634 Now the Golfo di Salerno.

635 A Greek town founded by the Phocæans. It was the birth-place of the philosophers Parmenides and Zeno, who founded a school of philosophy known as the Eleatic. Castell' a Mare della Brucca stands on its site.

636 Now Capo di Palinuro; said to have received its name from Palinurus, the pilot of Æneas, who fell into the sea there and was murdered by the natives. See Virgil, Æneid, B. vi. 1. 381 et seq.

637 Now the Golfo di Policastro.

638 This tower or column was erected in the vicinity of Rhegium on the Straits of Sicily. It was 100 stadia, or about eight miles, from the town, and at it passengers usually embarked for Sicily. The spot is now called Torre di Carallo.

639 Now the Faraone.

640 A Greek colony. The present Policastro occupies very nearly its site. It seems to have received its name from the cultivation of box trees in its vicinity.

641 Or more properly Laos, originally a Greek colony. In the vicinity is the modern town of Laino, and the river is called the Lao.

642 Ptolemy mentions it as an inland town, and Livy speaks of it as a Lucanian city. It probably stood near the modern Maratea, twelve miles south-east of Policastro.

643 The modern Bato.

644 The bay of Bivona, formerly Vibo, the Italian name for the Greek city of Hippo or Hippona. On its site stands the modern Bivona.

645 "Locus Clampetiæ." Clampetia or Lampetia stood in the vicinity of the modern Amantia. From other authors we find that it was still existing at this time. If such is the fact, the meaning will be "the place where the former municipal town of Clampetia stood," it being supposed to have lost in its latter years its municipal privileges.

646 One of the ancient Ausonian towns, and afterwards colonized by the Ætolians. Like its namesake in Cyprus it was famous for its copper. Its site is now occupied by Torre di Lupi.

647 A Greek city, almost totally destroyed by Hannibal; Santa Eufemia occupies its site.

648 One of the cities of the Bruttii; now Cosenza.

649 The part which now constitutes the Farther Calabria.

650 Supposed to be the same as the Arconte, which falls into the Crathis near Consentia. Nothing is known of the town here alluded to, but it must not be confounded with Acherontia, the modern Acerenza, in Apulia, which was a different place.

651 Supposed to have been the same as the modern port of Tropea.

652 The modern Marro.

653 Its ruins are supposed to be those seen near Palmi.

654 Probably the modern Melia stands on its site.

655 A town on the promontory of the same name, now called Scilla or Sciglio, where the monster Scylla was fabled to have dwelt.

656 Homer says (Odyssey, xii. 124), that it had its name from the nymph Cratæis, the mother of Scylla. It is probably the small stream now called Fiume di Solano or dei Pesci.

657 The modern Capo di Cavallo, according to the older commentators; but more recent geographers think that the Punta del Pezzo was the point so called.

658 Now called Capo di Faro, from the lighthouse there erected.

659 Originally a Greek colony; a Roman colony was settled there by Augustus. The modern city of Reggio occupies its site.

660 It extended south of Consentia to the Sicilian Straits, a distance of 700 stadia. It produced the pitch for which Bruttium was so celebrated. Its site still has the name of Sila.

661 Or White Rock, now Capo dell' Armi. It forms the extremity of the Apennine Chain.

662 The site of the city of Locri is supposed to have been that of the present Motta di Burzano.

663 He says that they were called Epizephyrii, from the promontory of Zephyrium, now the Capo di Burzano; but according to others, they had this name only because their colony lay to the west of their native Greece. Strabo says that it was founded by the Locri Ozolæ, and not the Opuntii, as most authors have stated.

664 This expression is explained by a reference to the end of the First Chapter of the present Book.

665 Called by some the Canal de Baleares.

666 Or Southern Sea.

667 The modern Iviza and Formentera.

668 The Greek for which is πίτυς.

669 Less than two leagues in width.

670 The real distance is 34 miles from the northern point of Iviza, called Punta de Serra, to the southern point of Formentera, namely—across Iviza 22 miles, across the sea 5, and across Formentera 7.

671 Now Denia.

672 This is not correct: the distance is but 45 miles.

673 This is incorrect: taken at the very greatest, the distance is only 522 stadia, eight to the mile.

674 The Xucar in Spain.

675 We more generally find it stated that the isle of Formentera, one of the Pityusse, was called Colubraria. He probably refers to the islands of the group about twenty leagues from the coast of Spain, now known by the name of Columbrete; but they are not near the Xucar, from which, as well as from the Pityusss, they are distant about seventy miles. The latter islands are now generally considered as part of the group of the Baleares.

676 Now Majorca and Minorca, with the ancient Pityussæ.

677 They served as mercenaries, first under the Carthaginians and afterwards under the Romans. The ancient writers generally derive the name of the people from their skill as archers—βαλεαρεῖς, from βάλλω, "to throw "; but Strabo assigns to the name a Phœnician origin, as being equivalent to the Greek γυμνῆται "light-armed soldiers." It is probably from their light equipment that the Greeks gave to the islands the name of γυμνησἱαι. Livy says that they used to go naked during the summer.

678 Seventy miles is the real length of Majorca, and the circumference is barely 250 miles.

679 Still called Palma. This and Pollentia were Roman colonies settled by Metellus.

680 Now Pollenza.

681 Now Sineu on the Borga.

682 The circumference is about 110 miles, the length 32.

683 Now Ciudadela.

684 Now Port Mahon. The site of Sanisera, which was probably more inland, is unknown.

685 Now Cabrera. The distance is not twelve, but nine miles.

686 Now called the Malgrates.

687 Now Dragonera.

688 Now El Torre.

689 As already mentioned he seems to confound Formentera, which was called Ophiusa, with the present group of Columbrete, which islands were probably called Colubraria.

690 The former editions mostly omit "nec"; and so make it that Ebusus does produce the rabbits. Certainly, it does seem more likely that he would mention that fact than the absence of it, which even to Pliny could not appear very remarkable.

691 D'Anville thinks that this is Metapina, but D'Astruc thinks that the flat islands, called Les Tignes, are meant.

692 Now called Brescon, near Agde, according to D'Anville.

693 Who were of Greek origin, and so called them, because they stood in a row, στοῖχος.

694 Now called Porqueroles. Prote signifies the first, Mese the middle one, and Hypæa the one below the others.

695 Now Port Croz. D'Anville considers that Pliny is mistaken in identifying this island with Pomponiana or Pompeiana, which he considers to be the same with the peninsula now called Calle de Giens, which lies opposite to Porqueroles.

696 Now called the Ile du Levant or du Titan. The group is called the Islands of Hières or Calypso.

697 These are probably the little islands now known as Ratoneau, Pomègue, and If. It has however been suggested that these names belong to the islands of Hières already mentioned in the text, and that Sturium is the present Porquerolles, Phœnice Port-Croz, and Phila, Levant or Titan.

698 Now Antibes, or Antiboul in the Provençal idiom.

699 Now Saint Honorat de Lérins. The island of Lero is the present Sainte Marguerite de Lérins, and is nearer to Antibes than Lerina. The Lerinian monastery was much resorted to in the early ages of Christianity.

700 In ancient Etruria, now Torre di Vada. The distance is, in reality, about ninety miles.

701 Mariana was situate in the northern part of the island, and the ruins of Aleria are still to be seen on the banks of the river Tavignano, near the coast.

702 Probably near the present Monte Cristo.

703 He probably means the group of islands called Formicole, which are situate only thirty-three miles from Corsica, and not near sixty.

704 Now La Gorgona.

705 Both of these names meaning "Goat island." It is now called Capraia.

706 The modern Giglio.

707 Now Gianuto, opposite Monte Argentaro on the main-land.

708 These are probably the small islands now called Formiete or Formicole di Grossetto, Troja, Palmajola, and Cervoli.

709 The modern Elba.

710 Now Pianosa.

711 Astura still retains its ancient name, Palmaria is the present Palmarola, Sinonia is now Senone, and Pontiæ is the modern Isola di Ponza.

712 Now Ventotiene.

713 Deriving its name from the Greek word προχυτὸς, meaning "poured forth."

714 The present island of Ischia, off the coasts of Campania. The name of Pithecusæ appears to have been given by the Greeks to the two islands of Ænaria and Prochyta collectively.

715 Ovid, like many other writers, mentions Inarime as though a different island from Pithecusæ. See Met. B. xiv. 1.89. As is here mentioned by Pliny, many persons derived the name "Pithecusæ" from πίθηκος "an ape," and, according to Strabo, "Aremus" was the Etrurian name for an ape. Ovid, in the Metamorphoses, loc. cit., confirms this tradition by relating the change of the natives into apes. The solution of its name given by Pliny appears however extremely probable, that it gained its name from its manufacture of πιθηκὰ, or earthen vessels. Virgil is supposed to have coined the name of "Inarime."

716 Now Posilippo. It is said to have derived its name from the Greek παυσἰλυπον, as tending to drive away care by the beauty of its situation. Virgil was buried in its vicinity.

717 The modern Castel del' Ovo.

718 Now Capri. Here Tiberius established his den of lustfulness and iniquity. He erected twelve villas in the island, the remains of several of which are still to be seen.

719 The distance between is hardly five miles.

720 These rocks appear at the present day to be nameless. The old name seems to mean, the "Rabbit Warrens."

721 Phintonis, according to Hardouin, is the modern Isola di Figo, according to Mannert, Caprera. Cluver makes Fossæ to be the present Isola Rossa, while Mannert considers it to be the same with Santa Maddalena.

722 ταφρὸς being the Greek for the Latin word "fossa," the ordinary meaning of which is an "excavation."

723 Probably the Cape of Carbonara, from which however Africa is distant only 121 miles, and the gulf of Gades or Cadiz 980.

724 Now Capo Falcone.

725 Now Asinara or Zavara, and Isola Piana.

726 Now called Santo Antiocho, off La Punta dell' Ulga.

727 According to Cluver, the modern Coltelalzo.

728 The "Baths of Juno." The identity of these islands does not appear to have been ascertained.

729 Said by Pausanias to have been descended from persons who escaped on the fall of Troy under the command of Iolaüs.

730 Of the town of Sulcis. Its ruins are probably those seen at the village of Sulci, near the port Palma di Solo.

731 Their town was probably on the site of the present Iglesias.

732 Their town was probably either the present Napoli or Acqua di Corsari.

733 Their town is probably indicated by the ruins on the river Gavino.

734 Their town was Caralis, the present Cagliari.

735 Their town was probably Nora, the present Torre Forcadizo.

736 "At Libyso's Tower."

737 From the Greek ἴχνος, "a footstep."

738 Now La Licosa, a small rocky island.

739 Now Torricella, Praca, and Brace, with other rocks.

740 Posidonius, quoted by Strabo, says 550.

741 Meaning that it comes from the Greek verb ῥηλνυμι, "to break." This is probably only a fanciful origin of the name.

742 The present Garofalo. At the present day small boats approach it without danger.

743 In Chap. x. Pelorus is the modern Capo di Faro.

744 Now Capo di Passaro.

745 The present Capo di Boco Marsala.

746 Now Cape Bon. The real distance is but seventy-eight miles.

747 The following are more probably the correct distances: 150, 210, and 230 miles.

748 Now Messina.

749 The modern Capo di Santo Alessio.

750 Now called Taormini; the remains of the ancient town are very considerable.

751 Probably the present Alcantara.

752 The present Madonia and Monte di Mele.

753 Now called I Fariglioni.

754 In modern times called "Lognina Statione," according to Hardouin.

755 The modern city of Catania stands on its site.

756 The Fiume di Santo Leonardo, according to Hardouin, but Mannert says the river Lentini. Ansart suggests the Guarna Lunga.

757 Now Lentini. The ruins of Megaris are still to be seen, according to Mannert.

758 Now the Porcaro.

759 The modern city of Siracosa.

760 See B. xxxi. c. 30, for particulars of this fountain.

761 According to Mirabella, these springs are in modern times called Fonte di Canali, Cefalino, Fontana della Maddalena, Fonte Ciane, and Lampismotta.

762 The modern Fonte Bianche. The Elorus, according to Hardouin, is the modern Acellaro, according to Mannert, the Abisso.

763 The southern side.

764 Now the Maulo, or Fiume di Ragusa.

765 Still called Camarina. Scarcely any vestiges of the ancient city now remain.

766 According to Hardouin the Fiume Salso; but according to D'Anville and Mannert, the Fiume Ghiozzo.

767 Now Girgenti. Gigantic remains of the ancient city are still to be seen.

768 See note 15 in this page.

769 The Achates is the modern Belice, the Mazara retains its name, and the Hypsa is now the Marsala.

770 So called by the Greeks from its abundant growth of parsley, called by them σέλινον. Its remains are still to be seen at the spot called Selenti.

771 Now Trapani. Some vestiges of its ancient mole are to be seen.

772 The present Monte San Juliano.

773 The great city of Palermo stands on its site. It was founded by the Phœnicians.

774 The modern Solunto.

775 Himera was destroyed by the Carthaginians, B.C. 408, upon which its inhabitants founded Thermæ, so called from its hot springs. This was probably the colony of Thermæ mentioned above by Pliny, though wrongly placed by him on the southern coast between Selinus and Agrigentum. The modern town of Termini stands on the site of Thermæ; remains of its baths and aqueduct are still to be seen. Himera stood on a river of the same name, most probably the present Fiume Grande, and Fazello is of opinion that the town was situate on the site now occupied by the Torre di Bonfornello. Himera was the birthplace of the poet Stesichorus.

776 Or Cæphalœdium. Some remains of it are to be seen at the spot called Cefalu.

777 Probably on the site now occupied by the town of San Marco. Fazello and Cluver however place Aluntium near San Filadelfo, where some ruins were formerly visible, and regard San Marco as the site of Agathyrna or Agathyrnum.

778 Probably situate near the church of Santa Maria at Tindari, now the Capo di Mongioio.

779 Now called Melazzo.

780 Their city was Centuripa, on a hill S.W. of Ætna. The modern Centorbi occupies its site, and some of its ruins may still be seen.

781 Netum probably stood on the spot now known as Noto Anticho.

782 The ruins of Segesta are supposed to be those near the river San Bartolomeo, twelve miles south of Alcamo.

783 Asaro occupies its site.

784 A people dwelling at the foot of Mount Ætna, according to D'Anville, at a place now called Nicolosi.

785 The people of Agyrium; the site of which is now called San Filippo d'Argiro. Diodorus Siculus was a native of this place.

786 Acræ occupied a bleak hill in the vicinity of the modern Pallazolo, where its ruins are still to be seen.

787 Their town was Bidis near Syracuse. The modern Bibino or San Giovanni di Bidini is supposed to stand on its site.

788 The people of Cetaria, between Panormus and Drepanum. Its site is unknown.

789 The people of Cacyrum, supposed to have stood on the site of the modern Cassaro. The Drepanitani were so called from living on the promontory of Drepanum.

790 The ruins near La Cittadella are probably those of Ergetium.

791 The people of Echetla. According to Faziello and Cluver its ruins were those to be seen at the place called Occhiala or Occhula, two miles from the town of Gran Michele.

792 The inhabitants of the city of Eryx, on the mountain of that name, now San Giuliano. The ancient city stood probably half-way down the mountain.

793 The town of Entella survived till the thirteenth century, when it was destroyed by the Emperor Frederic II. The ruins were formerly to be seen near Poggio la Reale.

794 Perhaps the people of Enna, once a famous city. According to the story as related by Ovid and Claudian, it was from this spot that Proserpine was carried off by Pluto. It stood on the same site as the town of Castro Giovanni. This note may however be more applicable to the Hennenses, mentioned below.

795 The ruins of Enguinum are probably those in the vicinity of the modern town of Gangi.

796 The people of Gela, one of the most important cities of Sicily. Its site was probably the modern Terranova, near the river Fiume di Terranova.

797 The people probably of Galata or Galaria; on the site of which the modern village of Galata is supposed to stand.

798 The people probably, of Halesa; its ruins are supposed to be those near the village of Tysa, near the river Pettineo.

799 The people of Hybla. There were three cities of this name in Sicily, the Greater, the Less, and Hybla Megara. The name was probably derived from the local divinity mentioned by Pausanias as being so called.

800 The people of Herbita; the site of which was probably at Nicosia, or else at Sperlinga, two miles south of it.

801 There were two places in Sicily known as Herbessus or Erbessusone near Agrigentum, the other about sixteen miles from Syracuse, on the site, it is supposed, of the present Pantalica.

802 The people of Halicyæ, in the west of Sicily. The modern town of Salemi is supposed to occupy its site.

803 The people of Adranum or Hadranum, a town famous for its temple of the Sicilian deity Adranus. Its site is occupied by the modern town of Aderno. The ruins are very considerable.

804 The people of Ietæ; the site of which town is said by Fazello to be the modern Iato. The sites of the places previously mentioned cannot be identified.

805 The site of their town is situate at the modern Mistretta, where some ruins are still to be seen.

806 The site of their town was probably the present village of Mandri Bianchi on the river Dittaino.

807 Probably the people of Motuca, mentioned by Ptolemy, now Modica.

808 Their town probably stood on the site of the present Mineo.

809 It has been suggested that these are the same as the people of Tauromenium, said to have been a Naxian colony.

810 They are supposed to have dwelt on the site of the present Noara.

811 The ruins of the town of Petra are supposed to have been those to be seen near Castro Novo, according to Mannert.

812 Fazello is of opinion that the present Colisano occupies the site of the ancient Paropus.

813 The city of Phthinthias was peopled by the inhabitants of Gela, by command of Phthinthias the despot of Agrigentum. Its ruins are probably those seen in the vicinity of the modern Alicata.

814 The people of Selinus previously mentioned in p. 218.

815 Randazzo, at the foot of Ætna, is supposed to occupy the site of the ancient Tissa.

816 The people of Triocala, now Troccoli, near Calata Bellota.

817 Zancle was the ancient Greek name of Messina, which was so called from its similarity in shape to a sickle. The Messenian colony of the Zanclæi probably dwelt in its vicinity.

818 Gaulos is the present Gozo, and Melita the important island of Malta. The distance here mentioned is in reality only sixty-one miles from Camerina.

819 Now Pantellaria.

820 The modern island of Maretimo.

821 Probably the present island of Limosa.

822 Galata still has the name of Calata, Lopadusa is the present Lam- pedosa, and Æthusa, according to Mannert, is called Favignana.

823 Now Levanzo.

824 According to Mannert, this is the island Alicur, to the west of the Æolian or Liparian islands. Ustica still retains its ancient name.

825 The least distance between these localities is forty-five miles.

826 There are now eleven, some of which are supposed to have risen from the sea since the time of Pliny.

827 From Vulcan the god of fire, the Greek Hephaestus.

828 Now called the Great Lipara.

829 According to Solinus, c. vi., Æolus succeeded him. Its name Me- logonis was by some ascribed to its great produce of honey.

830 The shortest distance between these localities is forty-six miles.

831 Now called Volcano.

832 Now Strongoli and Stromboli. It is the only one of these mountains that is continually burning. Notwithstanding the dangers of their locality, this island is inhabited by about fifty families.

833 Strabo makes the same mistake; the distance is twenty miles.

834 According to Hardouin and D'Anville this is the modern Saline, but Mannert says Panaria. The geographers differ in assigning their ancient names to the other three, except that Euonymos, from its name, the "lefthand" island, is clearly the modern Lisca Bianca.

835 These are the Gulf of Locri, the Gulf of Scyllacium, and the Gulf of Tarentum.

836 Now called the Sagriano, though some make it to be the modern Alaro. The site of the town of Caulon does not appear to be known:, it is by some placed at Castel Vetere on the Alaro.

837 Said by Hardouin to be the modern Monasteraci or Monte Araci.

838 Supposed to have been situate on a hill near the modern Padula.

839 The modern Punta di Stilo, or "Point of the Column."

840 The modern Gulf of Squillace.

841 Now Squillace.

842 Now the Gulf of Saint Eufemia.

843 Hannibal's Camp." This was the seaport of Scyllacium, and its site was probably near the mouth of the river Corace.

844 According to Strabo, B. vi., he intended to erect a high wall across, and so divide it from the rest of Italy; but if we may judge, from the use by Pliny of the word "intercisam," it would seem that it was his design to cut a canal across this neck of land.

845 According to Hardouin, the Carcines is the present river Corace, the Crotalus the Alli, the Semirus the Simari, the Arocas the Crocchio, and the Targines the Tacina.

846 The present Strongolo, according to D'Anville and Mannert.

847 The present Monte Monacello and Monte Fuscaldo are supposed to form part of the range called Clibanus.

848 Meaning that it was sacred to Castor and Pollux. Such are the changes effected by lapse of time that these two islands are now only bleak rocks. The present locality of the other islands does not appear to be known.

849 Now Capo di Colonne.

850 The real distance from Acroceraunimn, now Capo Linguetta, is 153 miles, according to Ansart.

851 Or Crotona, one of the most famous Greek cities in the south of Italy. No ruins of the ancient city, said by Livy to have been twelve miles in circumference, are now remaining. The modern Cotrone occupies a part of its site. Pythagoras taught at this place.

852 The modern Neto.

853 Now called Turi, between the rivers Crati and Sibari or Roscile.

854 A Greek town, famous for the inordinate love of luxury displayed by its inhabitants, whence a voluptuary obtained the name of a "Sybarite." It was destroyed by the people of Crotona, who turned the waters of the Crathis upon the town. Its site is now occupied by a pestilential swamp.

855 A famous Greek city founded on the territory of the former Ionian colony of Siris. The foundations of it may still be seen, it is supposed, near a spot called Policoro, three miles from the sea. The rivers are now called the Sinno and the Agri.

856 The modern Salandra or Salandrella, and the Basiento.

857 So called from its lying between the two seas. It was once a celebrated Greek city, but was in ruins in the time of Pausanias. The place called Torre di Mare now occupies its site.

858 The site of Aprustum is supposed to be marked by the village of Argusto, near Chiaravalle, about five miles from the Gulf of Squillace. Atina was situate in the valley of the Tanager, now the Valle di Diano. The ruins of Atina, which are very extensive, are to be seen near the village of Atena. Livy and Acron speak of Bantia as in Apulia, and not in Lucania. An ancient abbey, Santa Maria di Vanze, still marks its site.

859 The ruins of Eburi are supposed to be those between the modern Eboli and the right bank of the Silarus. The remains of Grumentum, a place of some importance, are still to be seen on the river Agri, half a mile from the modern Saponara. Potenza occupies the site of ancient Potentia.

860 The Sontini were probably situate on the river Sontia, now the Sanza, near Policastro. The Sirini probably had their name from the river Siris.

861 Volcentum was situate near the Silarus, probably on the spot now called Bulcino or Bucino. The site of Numistro appears to be unknown.

862 In his work "De Originibus."

863 Livy, B. viii., and Justin mention how that Alexander I. (in the year B.C. 326) was obliged to engage under unfavourable circumstances near Pandosia, on the Acheron, and fell as he was crossing the river; thus accomplishing a prophecy of Dodona which had warned him to beware of Pandosia and the Acheron. He was uncle to Alexander the Great, being the brother of Olympias. The site of Pandosia is supposed to have been the modern Castro Franco.

864 This word is understood in the text, and Ansart would have it to mean that the "Gulf of Tarentum is distant," &c., but, as he says, such an assertion would be very indefinite, it not being stated what part of the Gulf is meant. He therefore suggests that the most distant point from Lacinium is meant; which however, according to him, would make but 117 miles straight across, and 160 by land. The city of Tarentum would be the most distant point.

865 Messapus, a Beotian, mentioned by Strabo, B. ix.

866 A son of Lycaon.

867 Of Lacinium and Acra Iapygia. About seventy miles seems to be the real distance; certainly not, as Pliny says, 100.

868 The modern Taranto to Brindisi.

869 Probably situate at the further extremity of the bay on which Tarentum stood.

870 According to D'Anville and Mannert, the modern Oria. Messapia is the modern Mesagna.

871 The modern Santa Maria dell' Alizza, according to D'Anville.

872 The modern Gallipoli, in the Terra di Otranto. The real distance from Tarentum is between fifty and sixty miles.

873 The "Iapygian Point," the present Capo di Santa Maria di Leuca.

874 Its site is occupied by the little village of Vaste near Poggiordo, ten miles S.W. of Otranto. In the sixteenth century considerable remains of Basta were still to be seen.

875 The modern Otranto stands on its site. In the fourth century it became the usual place of passage from Italy to Greece, Apollonia, and Dyrrhachium. Few vestiges of the ancient city are now to be seen.

876 Anciently Apollonia, in Illyria, now called Pallina or Pollona.

877 This was M. Terentius Varro, called "the most learned of the Romans." His design, here mentioned, seems however to have evinced neither learning nor discretion.

878 Now called Soleto. The ruins of the ancient city, described by Galateo as existing at Muro, are not improbably those of Fratuertium, or, perhaps more rightly, Fratuentum.

879 The modern Lecce is supposed to occupy its site.

880 Called Valetium by Mela. Its ruins are still to be seen near San Pietro Vernotico, on the road from Brindisi to Lecce. The site is still called Baleso or Valesio.

881 Ansart takes this to be the modern village of Cavallo, on the promontory of that name; but it is more probably the modern Ceglie, situate on a hill about twelve miles from the Adriatic, and twenty-seven miles west of Brindisi. Extensive ruins still exist there. There was another town of the same name in the south of Apulia.

882 Now Brindisi. Virgil died here. The modern city, which is an impoverished place, presents but few vestiges of antiquity. The distance to Dyrrhachium is in reality only about 100 miles.

883 They occupied probably a portion of the modern Terra di Bari.

884 Said by Hardouin to be the modern Carouigna or Carovigni; but Mannert asserts it to be the same as the modern Ruvo.

885 Or Gnatia, called by Strabo and Ptolemy a city of Apulia. It was probably the last town of the Peucetians towards the frontiers of Calabria. Horace, in the account of his journey to Brundusium (I. Sat. i. 97–100), makes it his last halting-place, and ridicules a pretended miracle shown by the inhabitants, who asserted that incense placed on a certain altar was consumed without fire being applied. The same story is referred to by Pliny, B. ii. c. 111, where he incorrectly makes Egnatia a town of the Salentini. Its ruins are visible on the sea-coast, about six miles S.E. of Monopali, and an old town still bears the name of Torre d'Agnazzo.

886 Now Bari, a considerable city. In the time of Horace it was only a fishing town. It probably had a considerable intercourse with Greece, if we may judge from the remains of art found here.

887 It is difficult to identify these rivers, from the number of small torrents between Brindisi and the Ofanto or Aufidus. According to Mannert, the Pactius is the present Canale di Terzo.

888 An important city of Apulia, said to have been founded by Diomedes. Horace alludes to its deficiency of water. The modern Canosa is built on probably the site of the citadel of the ancient city, the ruins of which are very extensive.

889 The ruins of this place are still to be seen at some little distance from the coast, near the village of Salpi. The story about Hannibal was very probably of Roman invention, for Justin .and Frontinus speak in praise of his continence and temperance. Appian however gives some further particulars of this alleged amour.

890 The present Manfredonia has arisen from the decay of this town, in consequence of the unhealthiness of the locality. Ancient Uria is supposed to have occupied the site of Manfredonia, and the village of Santa Maria di Siponto stands where Siponti stood.

891 Probably the Cervaro. Hardouin says the Candelaro.

892 The present Porto Greco occupies its site.

893 Still known as Gargano.

894 Probably the present Varano.

895 Now Lago di Lesina. The Frento is now called the Fortore.

896 To distinguish it from Teanum of the Sidicini, previously mentioned.

897 Between the Tifernus and the Frento. Its remains are said to be still visible at Licchiano, five miles from San Martino. The Tifernus is now called the Biferno.

898 A people of Central Italy, occupying the tract on the east coast of the peninsula, from the Apennines to the Adriatic, and from the frontiers of Apulia to those of the Marrucini.

899 Strabo (B. vi.) refers to this tradition, where he mentions the oracle of Calchas, the soothsayer, in Daunia in Southern Italy. Here answers were given in dreams, for those who consulted the oracle had to sacrifice a black ram, and slept a night in the temple, lying on the skin of the victim.

900 The modern Lucera in the Capitanata.

901 The birth-place of Horace; now Verosa in the Basilicata.

902 The modern Canosa stands on the site of the citadel of ancient Canusium, an Apulian city of great importance. The remains of the ancient city are very considerable.

903 So called, it was said, in remembrance of Argos, the native city of Diomedes. It was an Apulian city of considerable importance. Some slight traces of it are still to be seen at a spot which retains the name of Arpa, five miles from the city of Foggia.

904 The names of these two defunct cities were used by the Romans to signify anything frivolous and unsubstantial; just as we speak of "castles in the air," which the French call "chatêaux en Espagne."

905 Livy and Ptolemy assign this place to Samnium Proper, as distinguished from the Hirpini. It was a very ancient city of the Sanmites, but in the year B.C. 268, a Roman colony was settled there, on which occasion, prompted by superstitious feelings, the Romans changed its name Maleventum, which in their language would mean "badly come," to Beneventun or "well come." The modern city of Benevento still retains numerous traces of its ancient grandeur, among others a triumphal arch, erected A.D. 114 in honour of the emperor Trajan.

906 The remains of Æculanum are to be seen at Le Grotte, one mile from Mirabella. The ruins are very extensive.

907 There were probably two places called Aquilonia in Italy; the remains of the present one are those probably to be seen at La Cedogna. That mentioned by Livy, B. x. c. 38–43, was probably a different place.

908 These are supposed by some to be the people of Abellinum mentioned in the first region of Italy. Nothing however is known of these or of the Abellinates Marsi, mentioned below.

909 AEcæ is supposed to have been situate about nineteen miles from Herdonia, and to have been on the site of the modern city of Troja, an episcopal see. The Compsani were the people of Compsa, the modern Conza; and the Caudini were the inhabitants of Caudium, near which were the Fauces Caudinæ or "Caudine Forks," where the Roman army was captured by the Samnites. The site of this city was probably between the modern Arpaja and Monte Sarchio; and the defeat is thought to have taken place in the narrow valley between Santa Agata and Moirano, on the road from the former place to Benevento, and traversed by the little river Iselero. The enumeration here beginning with the Æclani is thought by Hardouin to be of nations belonging to Apulia, and not to the Hirpini. The Æclani, here mentioned, were probably the people of the place now called Ascoli di Satriano, not far from the river Carapella. Of the Aletrini and Atrani nothing appears to be known.

910 Probably the people of Afiilæ, still called Affile, and seven miles from Subiaco. Inscriptions and fragments of columns are still found there.

911 The people of Atinum, a town of Lucania, situate in the upper valley of the Tanager, now the Valle di Diano. Its site is ascertained by the ruins near the village of Atena, five miles north of La Sala. Collatia was situate on the Anio, now called the Teverone.

912 The ruins of the town of Canuæ are still visible at a place called Canne, about eight miles from Canosa. The Romans were defeated by Hannibal, on the banks of the Aufidus in its vicinity, but there is considerable question as to the exact locality. The ruins of the town are still considerable.

913 Forentum was the site of the present Forenza in the Basilicate. It is called by Horace and Diodorus Siculus, Ferentum. The ancient town probably stood on a plain below the modern one. Some remains of it are still to be seen.

914 On the site of Genusium stands the modern Ginosa. The ruins of the ancient city of Herdonea are still to be seen in the vicinity of the modern Ordona, on the high road from Naples to Otranto. This place witnessed the defeat by Hannibal of the Romans twice in two years.

915 The mention of the Hyrini, or people of Hyrium or Hyria, is probably an error, as he has already mentioned Uria, the same place, among the Daunian Apulians, and as on the sea-shore. See p. 228. It is not improbably a corrupted form of some other name.

916 From the Frento, on the banks of which they dwelt.

917 Viesta, on the promontory of Gargano, is said to occupy the site of the ancient Merinum.

918 According to Mannert, the modern town of Noja stands on the site of ancient Netium.

919 They inhabited Ruvo, in the territory of Bari, according to Hardouin.

920 Their town was Silvium; probably on the site of the modern Savigliano.

921 According to D'Anville their town was Strabellum, now called Rapolla.

922 Their town is supposed to have been on the site of the modern Bovino, in the Capitanata.

923 The people of Apamestæ; probably on the site of the modern San Vito, two miles west of Polignano.

924 The people of Butuntum, now Bitonto, an inland city of Apulia, twelve miles from Barium, and five from the sea. No particulars of it are known. All particulars too of most of the following tribes have perished.

925 D'Anville places their city, Sturni, at the present Ostuni, not far from the Adriatic, and fourteen leagues from Otranto.

926 The people of Aletium already mentioned.

927 Their town possibly stood on the site of the present village of Veste, to the west of Castro. The Neretini were probably the people of the present Nardo.

928 Probably the people of the town which stood on the site of the present San Verato.

929 They occupied what is now called the Abruzzo Inferiore.

930 Now the Trigno.

931 On the site of the present Vasto d'Ammone, five miles south of the Punta della Penna. There are numerous remains of the ancient city.

932 According to Strabo Buca bordered on the territory of Teanum, which would place its site at Termoli, a seaport three miles from the mouth of the Biferno or Tifernus. Other writers, however, following Pliny, have placed it on the Punta della Penna, where considerable remains were visible in the 17th century. Ortona still retains its ancient name.

933 Now the Pescara.

934 The sites of their towns are unknown; but D'Anville supposes the Higher or Upper Carentum to have occupied the site of the modern Civita Burella, and the Lower one the Civita del Conte.

935 Teate is supposed to be the present Chieti.

936 The people of Corfinium, the chief city of the Peligni. It is supposed to have remained in existence up to the tenth century. Its ruins are seen near Pentima, about the church of San Pelino.

937 The site of Superæquum is occupied by the present Castel Vecchio Subequo.

938 The people of Sulmo, a town ninety miles from Rome. It was the birth-place of Ovid, and was famous for the coldness of its waters, a circumstance mentioned by Ovid in his Tristia, B. iv. ch. x. 1. 4. It is now called Sulmona.

939 The people of Anxanum or Anxa, on the Sangro, now known as the city of Lanciano; in the part of which, known as Lanciano Vecchio, remains of the ancient town are to be seen.

940 The people probably of Atina in Samnium, which still retains the same name.

941 They probably took their name from the Lake Fucinus, the modern Lago Fucino, or Lago di Celano.

942 They dwelt in a town on the verge of Lake Fucinus, known as Lucus.

943 The ruins of Marruvium may still be seen at Muria, on the eastern side of Lake Fucinus.

944 It has been suggested, from the discovery of a sepulchral inscription there, that Capradosso, about nine miles from Rieti in the upper valley of the Salto, is the site of ancient Cliternia. The small village of Alba retains the name and site of the former city of Alba Fucensis, of which there are considerable remains.

945 The modern town of Carsoli is situate three miles from the site of ancient Carseoli, the remains of which are still visible at Civita near the Ostoria del Cavaliere. Ovid tells us that its climate was cold and bleak, and that it would not grow olives, though fruitful in corn. He also gives some other curious particulars of the place.—Fasti, B. iv. 1. 683 et seq.

946 The modern Civita Sant Angelo retains nearly its ancient name as that of its patron saint. It is situate on a hill, four miles from the Adriatic, and south of the river Matrinus, which separated the Vestini from the territories of Adria and Picenum.

947 The village of Ofena, twelve miles north of Popoli, is supposed to retain the site of ancient Aufina. Numerous antiquities have been found here.

948 Cato in his 'Origines' stated that they were so called from the fact of their being descended from the Sabines.

949 The site of the town of Bovianum is occupied by the modern city of Bojano; the remains of the walls are visible. Mommsen however considers Bojano to be the site of only Bovianum Undecumanorum, or "of the Eleventh Legion," and considers that the site of the ancient Samnite city of Bovianum Vetus is the place called Piettrabondante, near Agnone, twenty miles to the north, where there appear to be the remains of an ancient city.

950 The people of Aufidena, a city of northern Samnium, in the upper valley of the Sagrus or Sagro. Its remains, which show it to have been a place of very great strength, are to be seen near the modern village of Alfidena, on a hill on the left bank of the modern Sangro.

951 The people of Esernia, now Isernia.

952 The people of Ficulia or Ficolea, a city of ancient Latium on the Via Nomentana. It is supposed that it was situate within the confines of the domain of Cesarini, and upon either the hill now called Monte Gentile, or that marked by the Torre Lupara.

953 Sæpinum is supposed to be the same with the modern Supino or Sipicciano.

954 The ruins of the ancient Sabine city of Amiternum are still visible at San Vittorino, a village about five miles north of Aquila. Considerable remains of antiquity are still to be seen there.

955 The people of Cures, an ancient city of the Sabines, to the left of the Via Salaria, about three miles from the left bank of the Tiber, and twenty-four from Rome. It was the birth-place of Numa Pompilius. Its site is occupied by the present villages of Correse and Arci, and considerable remains of the ancient city are still to be seen.

956 Nothing is known of this place; but it has been suggested that it stood in the neighbourhood of Forum Novum (or 'New Market'), next mentioned, the present Vescovio.

957 This Interamna must not be confounded with Interamna Lirinas, mentioned in C. 9, nor Interamna Nartis, mentioned in C. 19. It was a city of Picenum in the territory of the Prætutii. The city of Teramo stands on its site; and extensive remains of the ancient city are still in existence.

958 From their town, Norsia in the duchy of Spoleto is said to derive its name.

959 The people of Nomentum, now La Mentana.

960 The people of Reate, now Rieti, below Mursia.

961 The people of Trebule Mutuscæ, said to have stood on the site of the present Monte Leone della Sabina, below Rieti. This place is mentioned in the seventh Æneid of Virgil, as the "Olive-bearing Mutusca."

962 Their town was Trebula Suffena, on the site of the present Montorio di Romagna. The Tiburtes were the people of Tibur, the modern Tivoli; and the Tarinates were the inhabitants of Tarinum, now Tarano.

963 The people of Cominium, the site of which is uncertain. It is supposed that there were three places of this name. One Cominiun is mentioned in the Samnite wars as being about twenty miles from Aquilonia, while Cominium Ceritum, probably another place, is spoken of by Livy in his account of the second Punic War. The latter, it is suggested, was about sixteen miles north-west of Beneventum, and on the site of the modern Cerreto. The Comini here mentioned by Pliny, it is thought, dwelt in neither of the above places. The sites of the towns of many of the peoples here mentioned are also equally unknown.

964 Solinus, B. ii., also states, that this place was founded by Marsyas, king of the Lydians. Hardouin mentions that in his time the remains of this town were said to be seen on the verge of the lake near Transaco.

965 From the Greek τέβεσθαι "to worship."

966 The river Velinus, now Velino, rising in the Apennines, in the vicinity of Reate, overflowed its banks and formed several small lakes, the largest of which was called Lake Velinus, now Pie di Lugo or Lago, while a smaller one was called Lacus Reatinus, now Lago di Santa Susanna. In order to carry off these waters, a channel was cut through the rocks by Curius Dentatus, the conqueror of the Sabines, by means of which the waters of the Velinus were carried through a narrow gorge to a spot where they fall from a height of several hundred feet into the river Nar. This fall is now known as the Fall of Terni or the Cascade Delle Marmore.

967 Still called Monte Fiscello, near the town of Civita Reale. Virgil calls the Nar (now the Nera), "Sulphureâ Nar albus aquâ," "The white Nar with its sulphureous waters."—Æneid, vii. 517.

968 A Sabine divinity said to have been identical with Victory. The Romans however made her the goddess of leisure and repose, and represented her as being worshiped by the husbandmen at harvest home, when they were "vacui," or at leisure. She is mentioned by Ovid in the Fasti, B. vi. 1. 307. The grove here alluded to was one of her sanctuaries.

969 The modern Teverone, which rises near Tervi or Trevi.

970 A town of the Æqui, now known as Subiaco. In its vicinity was the celebrated villa of Claudius and Nero, called the Villa Sublacencis.

971 This was a town of the Sabines between Reate and Interocrea, in the vicinity of a small lake of the same name. It was a mere pool, according to Dionysius, being but 400 feet in diameter. It is supposed that the floating island was formed from the incrustations of carbonate of lime on the banks, which, becoming detached, probably collected in the middle. The lake still exists, but the floating island has disappeared. There are some fine ruins of Roman baths in the vicinity of the lake.

972 It was a custom with the early Italian nations, especially the Sabines, in times of danger and distress, to vow to the deity the sacrifice of all the produce of the ensuing spring, that is, of the period from the first day of March till the last day of April. It is probable that in early times human sacrifices were the consequence; but at a later period the following custom was adopted instead. The children were allowed to grow up, and in the spring of their twentieth or twenty-first year were with covered faces driven across the frontier of their native country, to go whithersoever chance or the guidance of the deity might lead them. The Mamertini in Sicily were said to have had this origin.

973 Now the Aterno, which falls into the sea at Atri or Ortona.

974 A famous city of Etruscan origin, which still retains its name of Adria or Atri. It had very considerable intercourse with Greece, and there are extensive remains of antiquity in its vicinity, towards Ravegnano. The river is still called the Vomano.

975 These places are again mentioned in B. xiv. c. 8.

976 Or "New Castle." It probably occupied the site of the now deserted town of Santo Flaviano, near the banks of the river Tordino, the Batinus of Pliny, and below the modern town of Giulia Nova.

977 The river still has the name of Tronto; Porto di Martin Scuro occupies the site of the town.

978 Who had crossed over as colonists from the opposite coast of Illyricum.

979 According to Mannert the river Tesino is the same as the Albula, and Tervium is the modern town of Grotte a Mare; but D'Anville makes the latter to be the town of Cupra next mentioned.

980 This was called Cupra Maritima, to distinguish it from the town of the Cuprenses Montani, afterwards mentioned. It is said by Strabo to have had its name from the Tyrrhenian name of Juno. From the discovery of an inscription belonging to her temple here, there is little doubt that D'Anville is right in his suggestion that the site of Cupra is at Grotte a Mare, eight miles from the mouth of the Truentus or Tronto.

981 The Fortress of the Firmani," five miles from Firmum, an important city of Picenum. The Fortress was situate at the mouth of the Leta, and was the port of the city. It is still called Porto di Fermo.

982 Often called "Asculum Picenum" to distinguish it from Asculum in Apulia. It was a place of considerable strength, and played a great part in the Social War. It is unknown at what period it became a Roman colony. The modern city of Ascoli stands on its site.

983 Now called Monte Novano, according to D'Anville and Brotier.

984 Its site is supposed to have been that of the small town called Santo Elpidio a Mare, four miles from the sea, and the same distance north of Fermo. The remains of Potentia are supposed to be those in the vicinity of the modern Porto di Recanati. Numana is supposed to be the modern Umana, near the Cuscione, where, in the seventeenth century, extensive ruins were to be seen.

985 It still retains its ancient name, which was derived from the Greek ἀγκὼν "the elbow," it being situate on a promontory which forms a curve, and almost encloses the port. The promontory is still called Monte Comero. A triumphal arch, erected in honour of Trajan, who constructed a new mole for the port, is still in fine preservation, and there are remains of an amphitheatre.

986 The modern city of Osimo stands on the site of Auximum, about twelve miles south-west of Ancona. Numerous inscriptions, statues, and other remains have been found there.

987 Cluver conjectures that Beregra stood at Civitella di Tronto, ten miles north of Teramo; but nothing further relative to it is known. Cingulum was situate on a lofty mountain; the modern town of Cingoli occupies its site.

988 The mountaineers." They inhabited Cupra Montana, which is supposed to have stood on the same site as the modern Ripa Transone.

989 The people of Falaria or Faleria. There are considerable remains of this town about a mile from the village of Falerona, among which a theatre and amphitheatre are most conspicuous. The remains of Pausula are supposed to be those seen on the Monte dell' Olmo. The town of the Ricinenses is supposed to have been on the banks of the Potenza, two miles from Macerata, where some remains were to be seen in the seventeenth century.

990 Septempeda is supposed to have occupied the site of the modern San Severino, on the river Potenza. Tollentinum or Tollentum was probably on the site of the modern Tolentino. The town of the Treienses is supposed to have occupied a site near the modern San Severino, in the vicinity of Montecchio.

991 A colony of the people of Pollentia was established at Urbs Salvia, occupying the site of the modern Urbisaglia on the bank of the Chiento.

992 Cisalpine Gaul was so called because the inhabitants adopted the use of the Roman toga.

993 This fanciful derivation would make their name to come from the Greek ὄμβρος "a shower."

994 Now the Esino.

995 So called from the Galli Senones. The modern city of Sinigaglia occupies its site. The river Metaurus is still called the Metauro.

996 The Temple of Fortune." At this spot the Flaminian Way joined the road from Ancona and Picenum to Ariminum. The modern city of Fano occupies the site, but there are few remains of antiquity.

997 The modern Pesaro occupies the site of the town; the river is called the Foglia.

998 This was a flourishing town of Umbria. Augustus showed it especial favour and bestowed on it the Grove and Temple of Clitumnus, though at twelve miles' distance from the town. The modern town of Spello occupies its site, and very extensive remains of antiquity are still to be seen. It probably received two Roman colonies, as inscriptions mention the "Colonia Julia Hispelli" and the "Colonia Urbana Flavia." It is considered probable that Hispellum, rather than Mevania, was the birth-place of the poet Propertius. Tuder is supposed to have occupied the site of the modern Todi, on the Tiber.

999 The people of Ameria, an important and flourishing city of Umbria. There are still remains of the ancient walls; the modern town of Amelia occupies its site.

1000 The site of Attidium is marked by the modern village of Attigio, two miles south of the city of Fabriano, to which the inhabitants of Attidium are supposed to have migrated in the middle ages.

1001 The people of Asisium. The modern city of Assisi (the birth-place of St. Francis) occupies its site. There are considerable remains of the ancient town.

1002 The people of Arna, the site of which is now occupied by the town of Civitella d'Arno, five miles east of Perugia. Some inscriptions and other objects of antiquity have been found here.

1003 The people of Æsis, situate on the river of the same name. It is still called Iesi. Pliny, in B. xi. c. 97, mentions it as famous for the excellence of its cheeses.

1004 The people of Camerinum, a city of Umbria. The present Camerino occupies its site. Its people were among the most considerable of Umbria. The site of the Casuentillani does not appear to be known.

1005 The people of Carsulæ, an Umbrian town of some importance. Its ruins are still visible about half way between San Germino and Acqua Sparta, ten miles north of Narni. Holsten states that the site was still called Carsoli in his time, and there existed remains of an amphitheatre and a triumphal arch in honour of Trajan. Nothing seems to be known of the Dolates.

1006 The people of Fulginium. From Cicero we learn that it was a municipal town. The modern city of Foligno has risen on its site. An inscription discovered here has preserved the name of Fulginia, probably a local divinity.

1007 The people of Forum Flaminii, situated on the Flaminian Way, where it first entered the Apennines, three miles from Fulginium. It was here that the Emperors Gallus and Volusianus were defeated and slain by Æmilianus, A.D. 256. The ruins at the spot called Giovanni pro Fiamma mark its site. The site of Forum Julii appears to be unknown, as also that of Forum Brentani.

1008 The people of Forum Sempronii, the only town in the valley of the Metaurus. The modern city of Fossombrone, two miles distant, has thence taken its name. Considerable vestiges of the ancient town are still to be seen. The battle in which Hasdrubal was defeated by the Roman consuls Livius and Nero, B.C. 207, was probably fought in its vicinity.

1009 The people of Iguvium, an ancient and important town of Umbria. Its site is occupied by the modern city of Gubbio. Interamna on the Nar has been previously mentioned.

1010 The people of the town of Mevania, now called Bevagna, in the duchy of Spoleto. The Mevanionenses were the people of Mevanio, or Mevaniolæ, in the vicinity of Mevania, and thought by Cluver to be the modern Galeata.

1011 Their town was Matilica, which still retains that name. It is situate in the Marches of Ancona.

1012 Their town still retains the name of Narni.

1013 Their town was surnamed Favonia and Camellaria, to distinguish it from several others of the same name. The present Nocera stands on its site.

1014 The people of Ocriculum, now Otricoli, previously mentioned.

1015 According to Hardouin, the ruins of Ostra are those near Monte Nuovo, now Sinigaglia, but D'Anville thinks that the modern Corinaldo marks its site.

1016 Nothing is known of the Plestini, nor yet of the Pitulani, who seem to have been a different people to those mentioned in the First Region.

1017 The town of Sentis, according to D'Anville and Mannert, was in the vicinity of the modern town of Sasso Ferrato.

1018 The people of Sarsina, an important town of Umbria, famous as being the birth-place of the comic poet Plautus. It is now called Sassina, on the Savio.

1019 The people of Spoletum, now Spoleto. It was a city of Umbria on the Via Flaminia, colonized by the Romans B.C. 242. In the later days of the Empire it was taken by Totilas, and its walls destroyed. They were however restored by Narses.

1020 The people of Suasa; the remains of which, according to D'Anville and Mannert, are those seen to the east of the town of San Lorenzo, at a place called Castel Leone.

1021 The monastery of Sestino is supposed to stand on the site of Sestinum, their town, at the source of the river Pesaro.

1022 The site of their town is denoted by the modern Sigello in the Marches of Ancona.

1023 Their town is supposed to have been also situate within the present Marches of Ancona, where they join the Duchy of Spoleto.

1024 Their town was Trebia. The modern Trevi stands on its site.

1025 The people of Tuficum, which Holsten thinks was situate between Matelica and Fabrianum, on the river called the Cesena.

1026 The site of Tifernum Tiberinum is occupied by the present Citta di Castello, and that of Tifernum Metaurense, or "on the Metaurus," by Sant Angelo in Vado in the Duchy of Urbino. The first-named place was in the vicinity of the estates of the Younger Pliny.

1027 D'Anville and Mannert are of opinion that Urbania on the Metaurus, two leagues south-east of Urbino, marks the site of their town. The Hortenses probably dwelt on the site of the present Urbino.

1028 The site of their town was probably the present Bettona. The site of the towns of the peoples next mentioned is unknown.

1029 Nothing is known of its position. There were cities in Campania and Cisalpine Gaul also called Acerræ. The first has been mentioned under the First Region. Of the other places and peoples mentioned in this Chapter no particulars seem to have come down to us.

1030 Now the Conca. It is called "rapax Crustumium" by Lucan, B. ii. l. 406.

1031 One of the most important cities of Umbria. It played a conspicuous part in most of the internal wars of the Romans. The modern city of Rimini which stands on its site, still retains two striking monuments of its grandeur; the Roman bridge of marble, which crosses the river Ariminus, erected by Augustus and Tiberius, and a triumphal arch of marble, erected in honour of Augustus. The river Ariminus is now called the Marocchia, and the Aprusa is the Ausa.

1032 A papal decree, issued in 1756, declared the river Lusa to have been the ancient Rubicon, but the more general opinion is that the Pisatello, a little to the north of it, has better claims to that honour. On the north bank of the Rubicon a pillar was placed by a decree of the Senate, with an inscription giving notice that whoever should pass in arms into the Roman territory would be deemed an enemy to the state. It is especially celebrated in history by Cæsar's passage across it at the head of his army, by which act he declared war against the republic. See Lucan, B. i. 1. 200–230.

1033 The Sapis is the modern Savio, or Rio di Cesena; the Vitis is the Bevano, and the Anemo is the Roncone.

1034 Strabo and Zosimus however state that it was first founded by the Thessalians. Ravenna first came into notice on being made one of the two chief stations of the Roman fleet. The harbour which was made for it was called "Classes," and between it and Ravenna sprang up the town of Cæsarea. Though not deemed unhealthy, it lay in a swampy district. Theodoric made it the capital of the kingdom of the Goths. The modern city stands on the site of the ancient town. The river Bedesis is now called the Montone.

1035 No remains of it are extant; but it is supposed that it stood near the entrance of the Lagunes of Comacchio.

1036 The modern Bologna stands on its site, and there are but few remains of antiquity to be seen.

1037 He probably means only the Etruscan cities north of the Apennines.

1038 The modern town of Brescello occupies its site. Here the Emperor Otho put an end to his life on learning the defeat of his troops by Vitellius. It appears to have been a strong fortress in the time of the Lombard kings.

1039 The modern Modena stands on its site. It was famous in the history of the civil wars after Cæsar's death. Decimus Brutus was besieged here by M. Antonius, in the years B.C. 44 and 43, and under its walls the consuls Hirtius and Pansa were slain. Its vicinity, like that of Parma, was famous for the excellence of its wool.

1040 This was a Roman colony, which was enlarged by Augustus, and from him received the name of Colonia Julia Augusta. It was called, after the fall of the Western Empire, Chrysopolis or the "Golden City." The modern city of Parma occupies its site.

1041 A Roman colony. The present city of Piacenza stands on its site.

1042 It still retains the name of Cesena, and is a considerable place. After the fall of the Western Empire it was used as a fortress of great strength. We shall find Pliny again mentioning it in B. xiv. c. 6, as famous for the goodness of its wines, a reputation which it still maintains. The name of Claterna, once a municipal town of importance, is still retained in part by a small stream which crosses the road nine miles from Bologna, and is called the Quaderna. An old church and a few houses, called Santa Maria di Quaderna, probably mark the site of the vicinity of the town, which was situate on the high road.

1043 This Forum Clodii is said by D'Anville to be the modern Fornocchia. Forum Livii is supposed to have occupied the site of the present city of Forli. Forum Popili or Forli Piccolo occupies the site of Forum or Foro Popili.

1044 This place is supposed to have stood on the spot where the episcopal town of Bertinoro now stands. In inscriptions it is called Forodruentinorum. Forum Cornelii, said to have been so called from the Dictator Sylla, occupied the site of the modern town of Imola. The poet Martial is said to have resided for some time in this town.

1045 The people of Faventia, now Faenza. Pliny, B. xix. c. i., speaks of the whiteness of its linen, for the manufacture of which it was celebrated. At this place Carbo and Norbanus were defeated with great loss by Metellus, the partisan of Sylla, in B.C. 82.

1046 The people of Fidentia. The present Borga di San Donnino stands on its site, which is between Parma and Placentia, fifteen miles from the former city.

1047 Cluver thinks that their town was on the site of the modern Castel Bondino.

1048 So named after Æmilius Lepidus. The people of Regium Lepidum, the site of whose town is occupied by the modern Reggio.

1049 Solonatium is supposed to have had the site of the modern Citta di Sole or Torre di Sole.

1050 Nothing certain is known of this people or their town, but it is thought by Rezzonico that by this name were meant those who occupied the wood-clad heights of the Apennines, above Modena and Parma. Cicero mentions a Saltus Gallicanus as being a mountain of Campania, but that is clearly not the spot meant here.

1051 Their town is thought to have stood on the same site as the modern Tenedo.

1052 Their town was perhaps on the same site as the modern Villac, on the river Nura.

1053 The modern city of Ombria probably stands on the site of Urbana, their town, of which considerable remains are still to be seen.

1054 These and the Senones were nations of Cisalpine Gaul. The Boii emigrated originally from Transalpine Gaul, by the Penine Alps, or the Pass of Great St. Bernard. They were completely subdued by Scipio Nasica in B.C. 191, when he destroyed half of their population, and deprived them of nearly half of their lands. They were ultimately driven from their settlements, and established themselves in the modern Bohemia, which from them takes its name. The Senones, who had taken the city of Rome in B.C. 390, were conquered and the greater part of them destroyed by the Consul Dolabella in B.C. 283.

1055 The Po, which rises in Monte Viso in Savoy.

1056 Already mentioned in C. 7 of the present Book.

1057 Ovid in his account of the adventure of Phaëton (Met. B. ii.) states that he fell into the river Padus.

1058 The Tanarus is still called the Tanaro. The Trebia, now the Trebbia, is memorable for the defeat on its banks of the Romans by Hannibal, B.C. 218. The Incia is the modern Enza or Lenza, the Tarus the Taro, the Gabellus the Secchia, the Scultenna the Panaro, and the Rhenus the Reno.

1059 The Stura still has the same name; the Orgus is the modern Orco. The streams called Duriæ are known as the Dora Baltea and the Dora Riparia; the Sessites is the Sesia, the Ticinus the Tessino, the Lambrus the Lambro, the Addua the Adda, the Ollius the Oglio, and the Mincius the Menzo.

1060 This seems to be the meaning of "gravis terræ," unless it signifies "pressing heavily upon the land," and so cutting out channels for its course. He has previously stated that, though rapid, it is not in the habit of carrying away its banks. See a very able article on the question whether the name Eridanus belonged originally to this river or to some other in the north of Europe, in Dr. Smith's Dictionary of Ancient Geography under the word "Eridanus."

1061 That is to say, the canal made by Augustus was so called.

1062 It was on this occasion that, after a stay of only a few days in Britain, he quitted the island, returned to Rome, and celebrated a splendid triumph. This outlet of the Po has now the name of Po di Primero.

1063 Now the Santerno, noted for the sluggishness of its waters.

1064 The Ostium Caprasiæ is now called the Porto Interito di Bell' Ochio, the Ostium Sagis the Porto di Magnavacca; Volane, or Volana, is the south main branch of the river. The Ostia Carbonaria, mentioned below, was the north main branch, subdivided into several small branches; and the Fossæ or Fossiones Philistinæ connected the river, by means of the Tartarus, with the Athesis.

1065 The reading is doubtful here, and even this, which is perhaps the best, appears to be corrupt; for it is difficult to conceive how all the mouths previously mentioned could have been upon one canal, and besides it would seem that Olane was one of the natural mouths of the river.

1066 More generally Adria, from which, as Pliny says, the Adriatic takes its name. Either a Greek, or, what is more probable, as Pliny states, an Etruscan colony, it became the principal emporium of trade with the Adriatic, in consequence of which it was surrounded with canals and other works to facilitate its communications with other rivers. It is still called Adria, and in its vicinity to the south, considerable remains of the ancient city are still to be seen.

1067 So called from the Philistæi, said to have been the ancient inhabitants of the spot. They are now called the Bocca della Gnoca, the Bocca della Scovetta, the Busa delle Tole, the Sbocco dell'Asinino, &c. The Ostia Carbonaria and the Fosse Philistinæ were to the north of the ones previously mentioned.

1068 He seems to confound the Fosses of Philistina with the Tartarus (now Tartaro). That river however connected the Fosses of Philistina with the Athesis, now the Adige.

1069 Now the Bacchiglione.

1070 The modern Brondolo.

1071 Now Chioggia, formed by the rivers Brenta and Brentella. Hardouin thinks the Clodian Canal to be the same as the modern Fossa Paltana.

1072 Now Monteu di Po, below Chevasso, mentioned in the 7th Chapter.

1073 This place is supposed to have been situate in the vicinity of the modern Saluzzo, on the north bank of the Po. Segusio occupied the site of the modern Susa.

1074 Augusta of the Taurini. The present city of Turin stands on its site. It was made a Roman colony by Augustus. With the exception of some inscriptions, Turin retains no vestiges of antiquity.

1075 The present city of Aosta occupies its site. This was also a Roman colony founded by Augustus, after he had subdued the Salassi. It was, as Pliny says in C. 5, the extreme point of Italy to the north. The remains of the ancient city are of extreme magnificence.

1076 The Grecian pass of the Alps was that now known as the Little St. Bernard; while the Penine pass was the present Great St. Bernard. Livy in his History, B. xxi. c. 38, points out the error of taking these mountains to have derived their name from the Pœni or Carthaginians. There is no doubt that they took their name from the Celtic word signi fying a mountain, which now forms the "Pen" of the Welsh and the "Ben" of the Scotch.

1077 Now called Ivrea or Lamporeggio, at the entrance of the valley of the Salassi, the present Val d'Aosta. There are some remains of the ancient town to be seen.

1078 The present town of Vercelli stands on its site.

1079 Now called Novara, in the Duchy of Milan.

1080 It became a Roman municipal town, but owes its greatness to the Lombard kings who made it their capital, and altered the name to Papia, now Pavia.

1081 Pompey's Praises." The present Lodi Vecchio marks its site.

1082 It was the capital of the Insubres, a Gallic nation, and was taken by the Romans in B.C. 222, on which it became a municipium and Roman colony. On the division of the empire by Diocletian, it became the residence of his colleague Maximianus, and continued to be the abode of the Emperors of the West till it was plundered by Attila, who transferred the seat of government to Ravenna. It afterwards became the capital of the kingdom of the Ostro-Goths, and was again sacked by the Goths in A.D. 539, and its inhabitants put to the sword. The present city, known to us as Milan, contains no remains of antiquity.

1083 The modern Como and Bergamo stand on their sites.

1084 From its name, signifying the "market of Licinius," it would appear to be of Roman origin. Its site is supposed to have been at a place called Incino, near the town of Erba, between Como and Lecco, where inscriptions and other antiquities have been found.

1085 Deriving it from the Greek ὄρος, "a mountain," and βίος, "life."

1086 Etiamnum prodente se altius quam fortunatius situm." Hardouin seems to think that "se" refers to Cato, and that he informs us to that effect; but to all appearance, it relates rather to the town, which even yet, by its ruins, showed that it was perched too high among the mountains to be a fertile spot.

1087 The district of the Veneti. These people, taking refuge in the adjoining islands in the fifth century to escape the Huns under Attila, founded the modern city of Venice.

1088 Now called the Sile, which flows past Trevigio or Treviso.

1089 The mountainous district in the vicinity of Tarvisium, the modern Treviso.

1090 Situate in a marsh or lagune on the river Sile. It became a Roman colony after Pliny's time, under the Emperor Trajan. Its villas are described by Martial as rivalling those of Baiæ. The Emperor Verus died here A.D. 169. The modern village of Altino is a very impoverished place. The Liquentia is now called the Livenza.

1091 Now called Oderzo, on the river Montegano, which flows into the Liquenza. The conduct of the people of this place, in the wars between Pompey and Cæsar, is mentioned by Lucan, in his Pharsalia, B. iv. 1. 462.

1092 From inscriptions we find that this place was called Colonia Julia Concordia, from which it seems probable that it was one of the colonies founded by Augustus to celebrate the restoration of peace. It rapidly rose into importance, and is often mentioned during the later ages of the Roman Empire, as one of the most important cities in this part of Italy. It is now a poor village, with the same name, and no remains of antiquity beyond a few inscriptions.

1093 The Romatinum is the modern Lemene. Pliny seems to imply, (though from the uncertainty of the punctuation it is not clear,) that on the Romatinum there was a port of that name. If so, it would probably occupy the site of the present Santa Margherita, at the mouth of the Lemene.

1094 The greater Tiliaventum is the modern Tagliamento; and Hardouin suggests that the smaller river of that name is the Lugugnana.

1095 This river is supposed to be the same with the modern Stella, and the Varamus the Revonchi, which joins the Stella.

1096 Now called the Ansa. The Natiso is the modern Natisone, and the Turrus the Torre; the former flowed past Aquileia on the west, the latter on the east, in former times, but their course is probably now changed, and they fall into the Isonzo, four miles from the city.

1097 The capital of Venetia, and one of the most important cities of Northern Italy. In the year A.D. 452 it was besieged by Attila, king of the Huns, taken by storm, and plundered and burnt to the ground. On its site, which is very unhealthy, is the modern village of Aquileia, with about 1400 inhabitants. No ruins of any buildings are visible, but the site abounds with coins, shafts of columns, inscriptions, and other remains of antiquity.

1098 Ptolemy states that Concordia and Aquileia were situate in the district of the Carni.

1099 Still called the Timavo.

1100 Castel Duino stands on its site. It will be found again mentioned in B. xiv. C. 8, for the excellence of its wines.

1101 Now the Gulf of Trieste. Tergeste was previously an insignificant place, but made a Roman colony by Vespasian. The modern city of Trieste occupies its site.

1102 Most probably the modern Risano. Cluver and D'Anville are of that opinion, but Walckenaer thinks that it was a small stream near Muja Vecchia; which seems however to be too near Trieste.

1103 In the time of Augustus, and before Istria was added as a province to Italy.

1104 He alludes to an old tradition that the Argonauts sailed into the Ister or Danube, and then into the Save, till they came to the spot where the modern town of Upper Laybach stands, and that here they built Nauportus, after which they carried their ship across the mountains on men's shoulders into the Adriatic. He intends to suggest therefore that the place had its name from the Greek ναῦς "a ship" and πορψμὸς "a passage."

1105 The modem town of Laybach stands on its site. It is situate on the Save, and on the road from Aquileia to Celeia. The Roman remains prove that the ancient city exceeded the modern one in magnitude. According to tradition it was founded by the Argonauts. It subsequently became a Roman colony, with the title of Julia Augusta. It is again mentioned in C. 28.

1106 Now the Golfo di Quarnaro. Liburnia was separated from Istria on the north-west by the river Arsia, and from Dalnatia on the south by the river Titus or Kerka, corresponding to the western part of modern Croatia, and the northern part of modern Dalmatia. Iapydia was situate to the north of Dalmatia and east of Liburnia, or the present military frontier of Croatia, between the rivers Kulpa and Korana to the north and east, and the Velebich mountains to the south. Istria consisted of the peninsula which still bears the same appellation.

1107 This passage, "while others make it 225," is omitted in many of the MSS. and most of the editions. If it is retained, it is not improbable that his meaning is, "and the circumference of Liburnia which joins it, with the Flanatic Gulf, some make 225, while others make the compass of Liburnia to be 180 miles." It depends on the punctuation and the force of "item," and the question whether the passage is not in a corrupt state; and it is not at all clear what his meaning really is.

1108 He alludes to C. Sempronius Tuditanus, Consul B.C. 129. He gained his victory over the lapydes chiefly through the skill of his legatus, D. Junius Brutus. He was a distinguished orator and historian. He was the maternal grandfather of the orator Hortensius.

1109 This place is only mentioned by Pliny, but from an inscription found, it appears that the emperor Justin II. conferred on it the title of Justinopolis. It is thought that it occupied the site of the present town of Capo d'Istria.—Parentium stood on the site of the present Parenzo.

1110 It still retains its name.

1111 Supposed to have occupied the site of the modern Castel Nuovo, past which the Arsia, now the Arsa, flows.

1112 Since Istria had been added to it by Augustus.

1113 Livy seems to imply that Cremona was originally included in the territory of the Insubres. A Roman colony being established there it became a powerful city. It was destroyed by Antonius the general of Vespasian, and again by the Lombard king Agilulfus in A.D. 605. No remains of antiquity, except a few inscriptions, are to be seen in the modern city.

1114 The modern city of Este stands on the site of Ateste. Beyond inscriptions there are no remains of this Roman colony.

1115 Asolo stands on its site.

1116 It was said to have been founded by the Trojan Antenor. Under the Romans it was the most important city in the north of Italy, and by its commerce and manufactures attained great opulence. It was plundered by Attila, and, by Agilulfus, king of the Lombards, was razed to the ground. It was celebrated as being the birth-place of Livy. Modern Padua stands on its site, but has no remains of antiquity.

1117 Now called Belluno. Vicetia has been succeeded by the modem Vicenza.

1118 Mantua was not a place of importance, but was famous as being the birth-place of Virgil; at least, the poet, who was born at the village of Andes, in its vicinity, regarded it as such. It was said to have had its name from Manto, the daughter of Tiresias. Virgil, in the Æneid, B. x., alludes to its supposed Tuscan origin.

1119 Led by Antenor, as Livy says, B. i.

1120 The Cenomanni, a tribe of the Cisalpine Gauls, seem to have occupied the country north of the Padus, between the Insubres on the west and the Veneti on the east. From Polybius and Livy we learn that they had crossed the Alps within historical memory, and had expelled the Etruscans and occupied their territory. They were signalized for their amicable feelings towards the Roman state.

1121 Their town was Fertria or Feltria, the modern Feltre.

1122 The modern city of Trento or Trent occupies the site of Tridentum, their town. It is situate on the Athesis or Adige. It became famous in the middle ages, and the great ecclesiastical council met here in 1545.

1123 It was a Roman colony under the name of Colonia Augusta, having originally been the capital of the Euganei, and then of the Cenomanni. It was the birth-place of Catullus, and according to some accounts, of our author, Pliny. Modern Verona exhibits many remains of antiquity.

1124 D'Anville says that the ruins of this town are to be seen at the modern Zuglio.

1125 Hardouin thinks that their town, Flamonia, stood on the site of the modern Flagogna.

1126 Their town, Forum Julii, a Roman colony, stood on the site of the modern Friuli. Paulus Diaconus ascribes its foundation to Julius Cæsar.

1127 Supposed by Miller to have inhabited the town now called Nadin or Susied.

1128 Their town was probably on the site of the modern Quero, on the river Piave, below Feltre.

1129 Probably the same as the Tarvisani, whose town was Tarvisium, now Treviso.

1130 The conqueror of Syracuse. The fact here related probably took place in the Gallic war.

1131 This must be the meaning; and we must not, as Holland does, employ the number as signifying that of the lakes and rivers; for the Ticinus is in the eleventh region.

1132 Now the Adda, running through Lago di Como, the Tesino through Lago Maggiore, the Mincio through Lago di Garda, the Seo through Lago di Seo, and the Lambro now communicating with the two small lakes called Lago di Pusiano and Lago d'Alserio, which in Pliny's time probably formed one large lake.

1133 Now Vado in Liguria, the harbour of Sabbata or Savo. Using the modern names, the line thus drawn runs past Vado, Turin, Como, Brescia, Verona, Vicenza, Oderzo, Aquileia, Trieste, Pola, and the Arsa.

1134 It is from this people that the group of volcanic hills between Padua and Verona derive their present name of Colli Euganei or the "Euganean Hills." From the Triumpilini and the Camuni, the present Val Camonica and Val Trompia derive their names.

1135 Probably meaning, that for a sum of money they originally acknowledged their subjection to the Roman power.

1136 The Lepontii probably dwelt in the modern Val Leventina and the Val d'Osula, near Lago Maggiore; the Salassi in the Val d'Aosta.

1137 Making it to come from the Greek verb λείπω, "to leave behind."

1138 As though being evyevetot or εὐγένειοι or εὐγενεῖς, "of honourable descent," or "parentage."

1139 Strabo mentions the Stoni or Stœni among the minor Alpine tribes. Mannert thinks that they dwelt near the sources of the river Chiese, about the site of the modern village of Storo.

1140 It has been suggested that from them the modern Valtelline takes its name.

1141 Hardouin suggests that the Suanetes, who are again mentioned, are the people here meant.

1142 They are supposed to have dwelt in the present canton of Martignac in the Valais, and the Vaudois.

1143 They dwelt in the Tarantaise, in the duchy of Savoy. The village called Centron still retains their name.

1144 The states subject to Cottius, an Alpine chief, who having gained the favour of Augustus, was left by him in possession of this portion of the Alps, with the title of Præfect. These states, in the vicinity of the modern Mount Cenis, seem to have extended from Ebrodunum or Embrun in Gaul, to Segusio, the modern Susa, in Italy, including the Pass of Mont Grenèvre. The territory of Cottius was united by Nero to the Roman empire, as a separate province called the "Alpes Cottiæ."

1145 They dwelt in the vicinity of Ebrodunum or Embrun already mentioned.

1146 The "mountaineers." Some editions read here "Appuani," so called from the town of Appua, now Pontremoli.

1147 The Vagienni, and the Capillati Ligures, or "Long-haired Ligurians," have been previously mentioned in Chap. 7.

1148 The trophy or triumphal arch which bore this inscription is that which was still to be seen at Torbia near Nicæa in Illyria, in the time of Gruter, who has given that portion of the inscription which remained unobliterated, down to "gentes Alpinæ," "the Alpine nations." Hardouin speaks of another triumphal arch in honour of Augustus at Segusio or Susa in Piedmont, which appears to have commenced in a somewhat similar manner, but only the first twelve words were remaining in 1671.

1149 Adopted son of his great uncle Julius Cæsar.

1150 Most of the MSS. omit the figures XVII here, but it is evidently an accident; if indeed they were omitted in the original.

1151 They are supposed to have occupied the Val Venosco, at the sources of the Adige. The Isarci dwelt in the Val de Sarra or Sarcha, near Val Camonica; and the Breuni in the Val Brounia or Bregna, at the source of the Tessino.

1152 D'Anville thinks that they inhabited the Val d'Agno, near Trento, between Lake Como and the Adige. He also detects the name of the Focunates in the village of Vogogna.

1153 They inhabited the banks of the river Lech, their town being, according to Strabo, Damasia, afterwards Augusta Vindelicorum, now Augsburg.

1154 Probably the Sarunetes, already mentioned. The Brixentes inhabited the modern Brixen in the Tyrol. The Lepontii have been previously mentioned. The Seduni occupied the present Sion, the capital of the Valais. The Salassi have been already mentioned. According to Bouche, the Medulli occupied the modern Maurienne in Savoy. The Varagri dwelt in Le Chablais.

1155 The Uceni, according to Hardouin, occupied Le Bourg d'Oysans in the modern Graisivaudan; the Caturiges, the modern Chorges according to Ansart; the Brigiani, probably Briançon, and the Nemaloni, as Hardouin thinks, the place called Miolans.

1156 They probably dwelt in the Ville de Seyne, in Embrun; the Esubiani near the river Hubaye, in the Vallée de Barcelone in Savoy; the Veamini in Senez, the Triulatti at the village of Alloz, the Ecdini near the river Tinea, and the Vergunni in the vicinity of the district of Vergons.

1157 The Eguituri probably dwelt near the modern town of Guillaumes, the Oratelli at the place now called Le Puget de Théniers, and the Velauni near the modern Bueil.

1158 Or subjects of Cottius, previously mentioned.

1159 A mistake for L. Æmilus Papus. He and C. Regulus were Consuls in B.C. 225. They successfully opposed the Cisalpine Gauls, who invaded Italy; but Regulus was slain in the engagement.

1160 It is difficult to say what is the exact force of "parci" here; whether in fact it