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An almost innumerable multitude of artists have been rendered famous by their statues and figures of smaller size. Before all others is Phidias,1 the Athenian, who executed the Jupiter at Olympia, in ivory and gold,2 but who also made figures in brass as well. He flourished in the eighty-third Olympiad, about the year of our City, 300. To the same age belong also his rivals Alcamenes,3 Critias,4 Nesiotes,5 and Hegias.6 Afterwards, in the eighty-seventh Olympiad, there were Agelades,7 Callon,8 and Gorgias the Laconian. In the ninetieth Olympiad there were Polycletus,9 Phradmon,10 Myron,11 Pythagoras,12 Scopas,13 and Perellus.14 Of these, Polycletus had for pupils, Argius,15 Asopodorus, Alexis, Aristides,16 Phrynon, Dinon, Athenodorus,17 and Demeas18 the Clitorian: Lycius,19 too, was the pupil of Myron. In the ninety-fifth Olympiad flourished Naucsydes,20 Dinomenes,21 Canachus,22 and Patroclus.23 In the hundred and second Olympiad there were Polycles,24 Cephisodotus,25 Leochares,26 and Hypatodorus.27 In the hundred and fourth Olympiad, flourished Praxiteles28 and Euphranor;29 in the hundred and seventh, Aëtion30 and Therimachus;31 in the hundred and thirteenth, Lysippus,32 who was the contemporary of Alexander the Great, his brother Lysistratus,33 Sthennis,34 Euphron, Eucles, Sostratus,35 Ion, and Silanion,36 who was remarkable for having acquired great celebrity without any instructor: Zeuxis37 was his pupil. In the hundred and twenty-first Olympiad were Eutychides,38 Euthycrates,39 Laïppus,40 Cephisodotus,41 Timarchus,42 and Pyromachus.43

The practice of this art then ceased for some time, but revived in the hundred and fifty-sixth Olympiad, when there were some artists, who, though far inferior to those already mentioned, were still highly esteemed; Antæus, Callistratus,44 Polycles,45 Athenæus,46 Callixenus, Pythocles, Pythias, and Timocles.47

The ages of the most celebrated artists being thus distinguished, I shall cursorily review the more eminent of them, the greater part being mentioned in a desultory manner. The most celebrated of these artists, though born at different epochs, have joined in a trial of skill in the Amazons which they have respectively made. When these statues were dedicated in the Temple of Diana at Ephesus, it was agreed, in order to ascertain which was the best, that it should be left to the judgment of the artists themselves who were then present: upon which, it was evident that that was the best, which all the artists agreed in considering as the next best to his own. Accordingly, the first rank was assigned to Polycletus, the second to Phidias, the third to Cresilas, the fourth to Cydon, and the fifth to Phradmon.48

Phidias, besides the Olympian Jupiter, which no one has ever equalled, also executed in ivory the erect statue of Minerva, which is in the Parthenon at Athens.49 He also made in brass, beside the Amazon above mentioned,50 a Minerva, of such exquisite beauty, that it received its name from its fine proportions.51 He also made the Cliduchus,52 and another Minerva, which Paulus Æmilius dedicated at Rome in the Temple of Fortune53 of the passing day. Also the two statues, draped with the pallium, which Catulus erected in the same temple; and a nude colossal statue. Phidias is deservedly considered to have discovered and developed the toreutic art.54

Polycletus of Sicyon,55 the pupil of Agelades, executed the Diadumenos,56 the statue of an effeminate youth, and remarkable for having cost one hundred talents; as also the statue of a youth full of manly vigour, and called the Doryphoros.57 He also made what the artists have called the Model statue,58 and from which, as from a sort of standard, they study the lineaments: so that he, of all men, is thought in one work of art to have exhausted all the resources of art. He also made statues of a man using the body-scraper,59 and of a naked man challenging to play at dice;60 as also of two naked boys playing at dice, and known as the Astragalizontes;61 they are now in the atrium of the Emperor Titus, and it is generally considered, that there can be no work more perfect than this. He also executed a Mercury, which was formerly at Lysimachia; a Hercules Ageter,62 seizing his arms, which is now at Rome; and an Artemon, which has received the name of Periphoretos.63 Polycletus is generally considered as having attained the highest excellence in statuary, and as having perfected the toreutic64 art, which Phidias invented. A discovery which was entirely his own, was the art of placing statues on one leg. It is remarked, however, by Varro, that his statues are all square-built,65 and made very much after the same model.66

Myron of Eleutheræ,67 who was also the pupil of Agelades, was rendered more particularly famous by his statue of a heifer,68 celebrated in many well-known lines: so true is it, that most men owe their renown more to the genius of others, than to their own. He also made the figure of a dog,69 a Discobolus,70 a Perseus,71 the Pristæ,72 a Satyr73 admiring a flute, and a Minerva, the Delphic Pentathletes,74 the Pancratiastæ,75 and a Hercules,76 which is at the Circus Maximus, in the house of Pompeius Magnus. Erinna,77 in her poems,78 makes allusion to a monument which he erected to a cricket and a locust. He also executed the Apollo, which, after being taken from the Ephesians by the Triumvir Antonius, was restored by the Emperor Augustus, he having been admonished to do so in a dream. Myron appears to have been the first to give a varied development to the art,79 having made a greater number of designs than Polycletus, and shewn more attention to symmetry. And yet, though he was very accurate in the proportions of his figures, he has neglected to give expression; besides which, he has not treated the hair and the pubes with any greater attention than is observed in the rude figures of more ancient times.

Pythagoras of Rhegium, in Italy, excelled him in the figure of the Pancratiast80 which is now at Delphi, and in which he also surpassed Leontiscus.81 Pythagoras also executed the statue of Astylos,82 the runner, which is exhibited at Olympia; that of a Libyan boy holding a tablet, also in the same place; and a nude male figure holding fruit. There is at Syracuse a figure of a lame man by him: persons, when looking at it, seem to feel the very pain of his wound. He also made an Apollo, with the serpent83 pierced by his arrows; and a Player on the Lyre, known as the Dicæus,84 from the fact that, when Thebes was taken by Alexander the Great, a fugitive successfully concealed in its bosom a sum of gold. He was the first artist who gave expression to the sinews and the veins, and paid more attention to the hair.

There was also another Pythagoras, a Samian,85 who was originally a painter, seven of whose nude figures, in the Temple of Fortune of the passing day,86 and one of an aged man, are very much admired. He is said to have resembled the last-mentioned artist so much in his features, that they could not be distinguished. Sostratus, it is said, was the pupil of Pythagoras of Rhegium, and his sister's son.

According to Duris,87 Lysippus the Sicyonian was not the pupil88 of any one, but was originally a worker in brass, and was first prompted to venture upon statuary by an answer that was given by Eupompus the painter; who, upon being asked which of his predecessors he proposed to take for his model, pointed to a crowd of men, and replied that it was Nature herself, and no artist, that he proposed to imitate. As already mentioned,89 Lysippus was most prolific in his works, and made more statues than any other artist. Among these, is the Man using the Body-scraper, which Marcus Agrippa had erected in front of his Warm Baths,90 and which wonderfully pleased the Emperor Tiberius. This prince, although in the beginning of his reign he imposed some restraint upon himself, could not resist the temptation, and had this statue removed to his bed-chamber, having substituted another for it at the baths: the people, however, were so resolutely opposed to this, that at the theatre they clamourously demanded the Apoxyomenos91 to be replaced; and the prince, notwithstanding his attachment to it, was obliged to restore it.

Lysippus is also celebrated for his statue of the intoxicated Female Flute-player, his dogs and huntsmen, and, more particularly, for his Chariot with the Sun, as represented by the Rhodians.92 He also executed a numerous series of statues of Alexander the Great, commencing from his childhood.93 The Emperor Nero was so delighted with his statue of the infant Alexander, that he had it gilt: this addition, however, to its value, so detracted from its artistic beauty that the gold was removed, and in this state it was looked upon as still more precious, though disfigured by the scratches and seams which remained upon it, and in which the gold was still to be seen.94 He also made the statue of Hephæstion, the friend of Alexander the Great, which some persons attribute to Polycletus, whereas that artist lived nearly a century before his time.95 Also, the statue of Alexander at the chase, now consecrated at Delphi, the figure of a Satyr, now at Athens, and the Squadron 96 of Alexander,97 all of whom he represented with the greatest accuracy. This last work of art, after his conquest of Macedonia,98 Metellus conveyed to Rome. Lysippus also executed chariots of various kinds. He is considered to have contributed very greatly to the art of statuary by expressing the details of the hair,99 and by making the head smaller than had been done by the ancients, and the body more graceful and less bulky, a method by which his statues were made to appear taller. The Latin language has no appropriate name for that "symmetry,"100 which he so attentively observed in his new and hitherto untried method of modifying the squareness observable in the ancient statues. Indeed, it was a common saying of his, that other artists made men as they actually were, while he made them as they appeared to be. One peculiar characteristic of his work, is the finish and minuteness which are observed in even the smallest details. Lysippus left three sons, who were also his pupils, and became celebrated as artists, Laippus, Bœdas, and, more particularly, Euthycrates; though this last-named artist rivalled his father in precision rather than in elegance, and preferred scrupulous correctness to gracefulness. Nothing can be more expressive than his Hercules at Delphi, his Alexander, his Hunter at Thespiæ, and his Equestrian Combat. Equally good, too, are his statue of Trophonius, erected in the oracular cave101 of that divinity, his numerous chariots, his Horse with the Panniers,102 and his hounds.

Tisicrates, also a native of Sicyon, was a pupil of Euthycrates, but more nearly approaching the style of Lysippus; so much so, that several of his statues can scarcely be distinguished from those of Lysippus; his aged Theban, for example, his King Demetrius, and his Peucestes, who saved the life of Alexander the Great, and so rendered himself deserving of this honour.103

Artists, who have transmitted these details in their works, bestow wonderful encomiums upon Telephanes, the Phocæan, a statuary but little known, they say, because he lived in Thessaly, where his works remained concealed; according to their account, however, he is quite equal to Polycletus, Myron, and Pythagoras. They more particularly commend his Larissa, his Spintharus, the pentathlete,104 and his Apollo. Others, however, assign another reason for his being so little known; it being owing, they think, to his having devoted himself to the studios established by Kings Xerxes and Darius.

Praxiteles, who excelled more particularly in marble, and thence acquired his chief celebrity, also executed some very beautiful works in brass, the Rape of Proserpine, the Catagusa,105 a Father Liber,106 a figure of Drunkenness, and the celebrated Satyr,107 to the Greeks known as "Periboetos."108 He also executed the statues, which were formerly before the Temple109 of Good Fortune, and the Venus, which was destroyed by fire, with the Temple of that goddess, in the reign of Claudius, and was considered equal to his marble statue of Venus,110 so celebrated throughout the world. He also executed a Stephanusa,111 a Spilumene,112 an Œnophorus,113 and two figures of Harmodius and Aristogiton, who slew the tyrants; which last, having been taken away from Greece by Xerxes, were restored to the Athenians on the conquest of Persia by Alexander the Great.114 He also made the youthful Apollo, known as the "Sauroctonos,"115 because he is aiming an arrow at a lizard which is stealing towards him. There are greatly admired, also, two statues of his, expressive of contrary emotions—a Matron in tears, and a Courtesan full of gaiety: this last is supposed to be a likeness of Phryne, and it is said that we can detect in her figure the love of the artist, and in the countenance of the courtesan the promised reward.116

His kindness of heart, too, is witnessed by another figure; for in a chariot and horses which had been executed by Calamis,117 he himself made the charioteer, in order that the artist, who excelled in the representation of horses, might not be considered deficient in the human figure. This last-mentioned artist has executed other chariots also, some with four horses, and some with two; and in his horses he is always unrivalled. But that it may not be supposed that he was so greatly inferior in his human figures, it is as well to remark that his Alcmena118 is equal to any that was ever produced.

Alcamenes,119 who was a pupil of Phidias, worked in marble and executed a Pentathlete in brass, known as the "Encrinomenos."120 Aristides, too, who was the scholar of Polycletus, executed chariots in metal with four and two horses. The Leæna121 of Amphicrates122 is highly commended. The courtesan123 Leæna, who was a skilful performer on the lyre, and had so become acquainted with Harmodius and Aristogiton, submitted to be tortured till she expired, rather than betray their plot for the extermination of the tyrants.124 The Athenians, being desirous of honouring her memory, without at the same time rendering homage to a courtesan, had her represented under the figure of the animal whose name she bore;125 and, in order to indicate the cause of the honour thus paid her, ordered the artist to represent the animal without a tongue.126

Bryaxis executed in brass statues of Æsculapius and Seleucus;127 Bœdas128 a figure in adoration; Baton, an Apollo and a Juno, which are in the Temple of Concord129 at Rome.

Ctesilaüs130 executed a statue of a man fainting from his wounds, in the expression of which may be seen how little life remains;131 as also the Olympian Pericles,132 well worthy of its title: indeed, it is one of the marvellous adjuncts of this art, that it renders men who are already celebrated even more so.

Cephisodotus133 is the artist of an admirable Minerva, now erected in the port of Athens; as also of the altar before the Temple of Jupiter Servator,134 at the same place, to which, indeed, few works are comparable.

Canachus135 executed a nude Apollo, which is known as the "Philesian:"136 it is at Didymi,137 and is composed of bronze that was fused at Ægina. He also made a stag with it, so nicely poised on its hoofs, as to admit of a thread being passed beneath. One138 fore-foots, too, and the alternate hind-foot are so made as firmly to grip the base, the socket being139 so indented on either side, as to admit of the figure being thrown at pleasure upon alternate feet. Another work of his was the boys known as the "Celetizontes."140

Chæreas made statues of Alexander the Great and of his father Philip. Desilaüs141 made a Doryphoros142 and a wounded Amazon; and Demetrius143 a statue of Lysimache, who was priestess of Minerva sixty-four years. This statuary also made the Minerva, which has the name of Musica,144 and so called because the dragons on its Gorgon's head vibrate at the sound of the lyre; also an equestrian statue of Simon, the first writer on the art of equitation.145 Dædalus,146 who is highly esteemed as a modeller in clay, made two brazen figures of youths using the body-scraper;147 and Dinomenes executed figures of Protesilaüs148 and Pythodemus the wrestler.

The statue of Alexander Paris is the work of Euphranor:149 it is much admired, because we recognize in it, at the same moment, all these characteristics; we see him as the umpire between the goddesses, the paramour of Helen, and yet the slayer of Achilles. We have a Minerva, too, by Euphranor, at Rome, known as the "Catulina," and dedicated below the Capitol, by Q. Lutatius;150 also a figure of Good Success,151 holding in the right hand a patera, and in the left an ear of corn and a poppy. There is also a Latona by him, in the Temple of Concord,152 with the new-born infants Apollo and Diana in her arms. He also executed some brazen chariots with four and two horses, and a Cliduchus153 of beautiful proportions; as also two colossal statues, one representing Virtue, the other Greece;154 and a figure of a female lost in wonder and adoration: with statues of Alexander and Philip in chariots with four horses. Eutychides executed an emblematic figure of the Eurotas,155 of which it has been frequently remarked, that the work of the artist appears more flowing than the waters even of the river.156

Hegias157 is celebrated for his Minerva and his King Pyrrhus, his youthful Celetizontes,158 and his statues of Castor and Pollux, before the Temple of Jupiter Tonans:159 Hegesias,160 for his Hercules, which is at our colony of Parium.161 Of Isidotus we have the Buthytes.162

Lycius was the pupil163 of Myron: he made a figure representing a boy blowing a nearly extinguished fire, well worthy of his master, as also figures of the Argonauts. Leochares made a bronze representing the eagle carrying off Ganymede: the eagle has all the appearance of being sensible of the importance of his burden, and for whom he is carrying it, being careful not to injure the youth with his talons, even through the garments.164 He executed a figure, also, of Autolycus,165 who had been victorious in the contests of the Pancratium, and for whom Xenophon wrote his Symposium;166 the figure, also, of Jupiter Tonans in the Capitol, the most admired of all his works; and a statue of Apollo crowned with a diadem. He executed, also, a figure of Lyciscus, and one of the boy Lagon,167 full of the archness and low-bred cunning of the slave. Lycius also made a figure of a boy burning perfumes.

We have a young bull by Menæchmus,168 pressed down beneath a man's knee, with its neck bent back:169 this Menæch- mus has also written a treatise on his art. Naucydes170 is admired for a Mercury, a Discobolus,171 and a Man sacrificing a Ram. Naucerus made a figure of a wrestler panting for breath; Niceratus, an Æsculapius and Hygeia,172 which are in the Temple of Concord at Rome. Pyromachus represented Alcibiades, managing a chariot with four horses: Polycles made a splendid statue of Hermaphroditus; Pyrrhus, statues of Hygeia and Minerva; and Phanis, who was a pupil of Lysippus, an Epithyusa.173

Stypax of Cyprus acquired his celebrity by a single work, the statue of the Splanchnoptes;174 which represents a slave of the Olympian Pericles, roasting entrails and kindling the fire with his breath. Silanion made a statue in metal of Apollodorus, who was himself a modeller, and not only the most diligent of all in the study of this art, but a most severe criticizer of his own works, frequently breaking his statues to pieces when he had finished them, and never able to satisfy his intense passion for the art—a circumstance which procured him the surname of "the Madman." Indeed, it is this expression which he has given to his works, which represent in metal embodied anger rather than the lineaments of a human being. The Achilles, also, of Silanion is very excellent, and his Epistates175 exercising the Athletes. Strongylion176 made a figure of an Amazon, which, from the beauty of the legs, was known as the "Eucnemos,"177 and which Nero used to have carried about with him in his travels. Strongylion was the artist, also, of a youthful figure, which was so much admired by Brutus of Philippi, that it received from him its surname.178

Theodorus of Samos,179 who constructed the Labyrinth,180 cast his own statue in brass; which was greatly admired, not only for its resemblance, but for the extreme delicacy of the work. In the right hand he holds a file, and with three fingers of the left, a little model of a four-horse chariot, which has since been transferred to Præneste:181 it is so extremely minute, that the whole piece, both chariot and charioteer, may be covered by the wings of a fly, which he also made with it.

Xenocrates182 was the pupil of Ticrates, or, as some say, of Euthycrates: he surpassed them both, however, in the number of his statues, and was the author of some treatises on his art.

Several artists have represented the battles fought by Attalus and Eumenes with the Galli;183 Isigonus, for instance, Pyromachus, Stratonicus, and Antigonus,184 who also wrote some works in reference to his art. Boëthus,185 although more celebrated for his works in silver, has executed a beautiful figure of a child strangling a goose. The most celebrated of all the works, of which I have here spoken, have been dedicated, for some time past, by the Emperor Vespasianus in the Temple of Peace,186 and other public buildings of his. They had before been forcibly carried off by Nero,187 and brought to Rome, and arranged by him in the reception-rooms of his Golden Palace.188

In addition to these, there are several other artists, of about equal celebrity, but none of whom have produced any first-rate works; Ariston,189 who was principally employed in chasing silver, Callides, Ctesias, Cantharus of Sicyon,190 Diodorus, a pupil of Critias, Deliades, Euphorion, Eunicus,191 and Hecatæus,192 all of them chasers in silver; Lesbocles, also, Prodorus, Pythodicus, and Polygnotus,193 one of the most celebrated painters; also two other chasers in silver, Stratonicus,194 and Scymnus, a pupil of Critias.

I shall now enumerate those artists who have executed works of the same class:—Apollodorus,195 for example, Antrobulus, Asclepiodorus, and Aleuas, who have executed statues of philosophers. Apellas196 has left us some figures of females in the act of adoration; Antignotus, a Perixyomenos,197 and figures of the Tyrannicides, already mentioned. Antimachus and Athenodorus made some statues of females of noble birth; Aristodemus198 executed figures of wrestlers, two-horse chariots with the charioteers, philosophers, aged women, and a statue of King Seleucus:199 his Doryphoros,200 too, possesses his characteristic gracefulness.

There were two artists of the name of Cephisodotus:201 the earlier of them made a figure of Mercury nursing Father Liber202 when an infant; also of a man haranguing, with the hand elevated, the original of which is now unknown. The younger Cephisodotus executed statues of philosophers. Colotes,203 who assisted Phidias in the Olympian Jupiter, also executed statues of philosophers; the same, too, with Cleon,204 Cenchramis, Callicles,205 and Cepis. Chalcosthenes made statues of comedians and athletes. Daïppus206 executed a Perixyomenos.207 Daïphron, Democritus,208 and Dæmon made statues of philosophers.

Epigonus, who has attempted nearly all the above-named classes of works, has distinguished himself more particularly by his Trumpeter, and his Child in Tears, caressing its murdered mother. The Woman in Admiration, of Eubulus, is highly praised; and so is the Man, by Eubulides,209 reckoning on his Fingers. Micon210 is admired for his athletes; Menogenes, for his four-horse chariots. Niceratus,211 too, who attempted every kind of work that had been executed by any other artist, made statues of Aleibiades and of his mother Demarate,212 who is represented sacrificing by the light of torches.

Tisicrates213 executed a two-horse chariot in brass, in which Piston afterwards placed the figure of a female. Piston also made the statues of Mars and Mercury, which are in the Temple of Concord at Rome. No one can commend Perillus;214 more cruel even than the tyrant Phalaris215 himself, he made for him a brazen bull, asserting that when a man was enclosed in it, and fire applied beneath, the cries of the man would resemble the roaring of a bull: however, with a cruelty in this instance marked by justice, the experiment of this torture was first tried upon himself. To such a degree did this man degrade the art of representing gods and men, an art more adapted than any other to refine the feelings! Surely so many persons had not toiled to perfect it in order to make it an instrument of torture! Hence it is that the works of Perillus are only preserved, in order that whoever sees them, may detest the hands that made them.

Sthennis216 made the statues of Ceres, Jupiter, and Minerva, which are now in the Temple of Concord; also figures of matrons weeping, adoring, and offering sacrifice; Simon217 executed figures of a dog and an archer. Stratonicus,218 the chaser in silver, made some figures of philosophers; and so did both of the artists named Scopas.219

The following artists have made statues of athletes, armed men, hunters, and sacrificers—Baton,220 Euchir,221 Glaucides,222 Heliodorus,223 Hicanus, Leophon, Lyson,224 Leon, Menodorus,225 Myagrus,226 Polycrates, Polyidus,227 Pythocritus, Protogenes, a famous painter, whom we shall have occasion to mention hereafter;228 Patrocles, Pollis, Posidonius229 the Ephesian, who was also a celebrated chaser in silver; Periclymenus,230 Philon,231 Symenus, Timotheus,232 Theomnestus,233 Timarchides,234 Timon, Tisias, and Thrason.235

But of all these, Callimachus is the most remarkable, on account of his surname. Being always dissatisfied with himself, and continually correcting his works, he obtained the name of "Catatexitechnos;"236 thus affording a memorable example of the necessity of observing moderation even in carefulness. His Laconian Female Dancers, for instance, is a most correct performance, but one in which, by extreme correctness, he has effaced all gracefulness. It has been said, too, that Callimachus was a painter also. Cato, in his expedition against Cyprus,237 sold all the statues that he found there, with the exception of one of Zeno; in which case he was influenced, neither by the value of the metal nor by its excellence as a work of art, but by the fact that it was the statue of a philosopher. I only mention this circumstance casually, that an example238 so little followed, may be known.

While speaking of statues, there is one other that should not be omitted, although its author is unknown, that of Her- cules clothed in a tunic,239 the only one represented in that costume in Rome: it stands near the Rostra, and the countenance is stern and expressive of his last agonies, caused by that dress. There are three inscriptions on it; the first of which states that it had formed part of the spoil obtained by L. Lucullus240 the general; the second, that his son, while still a minor, dedicated in accordance with a decree of the Senate; the third, that T. Septimius Sabinus, the curule ædile, had it restored to the public from the hands of a private individual. So vast has been the rivalry caused by this statue, and so high the value set upon it.

1 See B. vii. c. 39, B. xxxv. c. 34, and B. xxxvi. c. 4.

2 We have an account of this statue, and of the temple in which it was placed, by Pausanias, B. v. There is no work of Phidias now in existence; the sculptures in the Parthenon were, however, executed by his pupils and under his immediate directions, so that we may form some judgment of his genius and taste.—B. There is a foot in the British Museum, said to be the work of Phidias.

3 An Athenian; see B. xxxvi. c. 5. He is spoken of in high terms by Pausanias and Valerius Maximus.

4 Tutor of Ptolichus of Corcyra, and highly distinguished for his statues of the slayers of the tyrants at Athens. He is mentioned also by Lucian and Pausanias.

5 The reading is uncertain here, the old editions giving "Nestocles." We shall only devote a Note to such artists as are mentioned by other authors besides Pliny.

6 An Athenian; mentioned also by Pausanias.

7 There were probably two artists of this name; one an Argive, tutor of Phidias, and the other a Sicyonian, the person here referred to.

8 A native of Ægina, mentioned by Pausanias. There is also a statuary of Elis of the same name, mentioned by Pausanias, and to whom Thiersch is of opinion reference is here made.

9 See Chapter 5 of this Book.

10 An Argive, mentioned by Pausanias.

11 See Chapter 5 of this Book.

12 Again mentioned by Pliny, as a native of Rhegium in Italy.

13 A native of Paros, mentioned also by Pausanias and Strabo.

14 Probably "Perillus," the artist who made the brazen bull for Phalaris, the tyrant of Agrigentum. The old reading is "Parelius."

15 This and the following word probably mean one person—"Asopodorus the Argive."

16 Perhaps the same person that is mentioned by Pausanias, B. vi. c. 20, as having improved the form of the starting-place at the Olympic Games.

17 Mentioned by Pausanias as an Arcadian, and son of Clitor.

18 A native of Clitorium in Arcadia, and mentioned also by Pausanias.

19 He is said by Pausanias and Athenæus to have been the son, also, of Myron.

20 Son of Motho, and a native of Argos. He was brother and instructor of the younger Polycletus, of Argos. He is mentioned also by Pausanias and Tatian.

21 He is once mentioned by Pausanias, and there is still extant the basis of one of his works, with his name inscribed.

22 It is supposed that there were two artists of this name, both natives of Sicyon, the one grandson of the other. They are both named by Pausanias.

23 Probably a Sicyonian; he is mentioned also by Pausanias.

24 As Pliny mentions two artists of this name, it is impossible to say to which of them Pausanias refers as being an Athenian, in B. vi. c. 4.

25 The elder artist of this name. He was an Athenian, and his sister was the wife of Phocion. He is also mentioned by Plutarch and Pausanias.

26 An Athenian; he is mentioned also by Vitruvius, Pausanias, and Tatian. Winckelmann mentions an inscription relative to him, which, however, appears to be spurious.

27 He is mentioned also by Pausanias, and is supposed by Sillig to have been a Theban.

28 Praxiteles held a high rank among the ancient sculptors, and may be considered as second to Phidias alone; he is frequently mentioned by Pausanias and various other classical writers. Pliny gives a further account of the works of Praxiteles in the two following Books.—B.

29 He was also an eminent painter, and is also mentioned by Quintilian, Dio Chrysostom, and Plutarch.

30 Another reading is "Echion."

31 See B. xxxv. cc. 32, 36.

32 This great artist, a native of Sicyon, has been already mentioned in B. vii. c. 39, and in the two preceding Chapters of the present Book; he is again mentioned in B. xxxv. c. 39.—B. See note 28 above.

33 Also a native of Sicyon. He is mentioned by Tatian.

34 Mentioned also by Pausanias, Plutarch, Strabo, and Appian. The next two names in former editions stand as one, "Euphronides."

35 Supposed to have been an architect, and builder of the Pharos near Alexandria: see B. xxxvi. c. 18. The same person is mentioned also by Strabo, Lucian, and Suidas.

36 An Athenian. He is mentioned also by Pausanias, Plutarch, Diogenes Laertius, and Tatian.

37 See B. xxxv. c. 36.

38 A Sicyonian, pupil of Lysippus. He is also mentioned by Pausanias; see also B. xxxvi. c. 4.

39 Son and pupil of Lysippus. He is mentioned also by Tatian, and by some writers as the instructor of Xenocrates.

40 Sillig thinks that this is a mistake made by Pliny for "Daïppus," a statuary mentioned by Pausanias.

41 Son of Praxiteles, and mentioned by Tatian in conjunction with Euthycrates. The elder Cephisodotus has been already mentioned. See Note 52.

42 Another son of Praxiteles. He is also alluded to by Pausanias, though not by name.

43 His country is uncertain, but he was preceptor of Mygdon of Soli. See B. xxxv. c. 40.

44 Mentioned also by Tatian; his country is unknown.

45 It is doubtful whether Pausanias alludes, in B. vi. c. 4, to this artist, or to the one of the same name mentioned under Olymp. 102. See Note 51.

46 Sillig suggests that this word is an adjective, denoting the country of Polycles, in order to distinguish him from the elder Polycles.

47 We learn from Pausanias that he worked in conjunction with Timarchides. The other artists here mentioned are quite unknown.

48 Sillig, in his "Dictionary of Ancient Artists," observes that "this passage contains many foolish statements." Also that there is "an obvious intermixture in it of truth and falsehood."

49 This is universally admitted to have been one of the most splendid works of art. It is celebrated by various writers; Pausanias speaks of it in B. i. See also B. xxxvi. c. 4.—B.

50 As being made for the Temple of Diana at Ephesus.

51 Probably "Callimorphos," or "Calliste." We learn from Pausanias that it was placed in the Citadel of Athens. Lucian prefers it to every other work of Phidias.

52 A figure of a female "holding keys." The key was one of the attributes of Proserpina, as also of Janus; but the latter was an Italian divinity.

53 "Ædem Fortunæ hujusce diei." This reading, about which there has been some doubt, is supported by an ancient inscription in Orellius.

54 "Artem toreuticen." See Note at the end of B. xxxiii.

55 Pliny has here confounded two artists of the same name; the Polycletus who was the successor of Phidias, and was not much inferior to him in merit, and Polycletus of Argos, who lived 160 years later, and who also executed many capital works, some of which are here mentioned. It appears that Cicero, Vitruvius, Strabo, Quintilian, Plutarch, and Lucian have also confounded these two artists; but Pausanias, who is very correct in the account which he gives us of all subjects connected with works of art, was aware of the distinction; and it is from his observations that we have been enabled to correct the error into which so many eminent writers had fallen.—B.

56 Derived from the head-dress of the statue, which had the "head ornamented with a fillet" Lucian mentions it.

57 The "Spear-bearer."

58 "Canon." This no doubt was the same statue as the Doryphoros. See Cicero, Brut. 86, 296.

59 Or "strigil." Visconti says that this was a statue of Tydeus purifying himself from the murder of his brother. It is represented on gems still in existence.

60 "Talo incessentem." "Gesner (Chrestom. Plin.) has strangely explained these words as intimating a person in the act of kicking another. He seems to confound the words talus and calx."—Sillig, Dict. Ancient Artists.

61 "The players at dice." This is the subject of a painting found at Herculaneum.—B.

62 The "Leader." A name given also to Mercury, in Pausanias, B. viii. c. 31. See Sillig, Dict. Ancient Artists.

63 "Carried about." It has been supposed by some commentators, that Artemon acquired this surname from his being carried about in a litter, in consequence of his lameness; a very different derivation has been assigned by others to the word, on the authority of Anacreon, as quoted by Heraclides Ponticus, that it was applied to Artemon in consequence of his excessively luxurious and effeminate habits of life.—B. It was evidently a recumbent figure. Ajasson compares this voluptuous person to "le gentleman Anglais aux Indes"—"The English Gentleman in India!"

64 See Note 80 above.

65 "Quadrata." Brotero quotes a passage from Celsus, B. ii. c. 1, which serves to explain the use of this term as applied to the form of a statue; "Corpus autem habilissimum quadratum est, neque gracile, neque obesum."—B. "The body best adapted for activity is square-built, and neither slender nor obese."

66 "Ad unum exemplum." Having a sort of family likeness, similarly to our pictures by Francia the Goldsmith, and Angelica Kaufmann.

67 Myron was born at Eleutheræ, in Bœotia; but having been presented by the Athenians with the freedom of their city, he afterwards resided there, and was always designated an Athenian.—B.

68 This figure is referred to by Ovid, De Ponto, B. iv. Ep. 1, l. 34, as also by a host of Epigrammatic writers in the Greek Anthology.

69 See the Greek Anthology, B. vi. Ep. 2.

70 "Player with the Discus." It is mentioned by Quintilian and Lucian. There is a copy of it in marble in the British Museum, and one in the Palazzo Massimi at Rome. The Heifer of Myron is mentioned by Procopius, as being at Rome in the sixth century. No copy of it is known to exist.

71 Seen by Pausanias in the Acropolis at Athens.

72 Or "Sawyers."

73 In reference to the story of the Satyr Marsyas and Minerva; told by Ovid, Fasti, B. vi. l. 697, et seq.

74 Persons engaged in the five contests of quoiting, running, leaping, wrestling, and hurling the javelin.

75 Competitors in boxing and wrestling.

76 Mentioned by Cicero In Verrem, Or. 4. This Circus was in the Eleventh Region of the city.

77 See the Anthology, B. iii. Ep. 14, where an epigram on this subject is ascribed to Anytes or Leonides; but the Myro mentioned is a female. See Sillig, Dict. Ancient Artists.

78 She was a poetess of Teios or Lesbos, and a contemporary of Sappho.

79 "Multiplicasse veritatem." Sillig has commented at some length on this passage, Dict. Ancient Artists.

80 See Note 2 above.

81 There is a painter of this name mentioned in B. xxxv. c. 43. The reading is extremely doubtful.

82 Mentioned by Plato, De Legibus, B. viii. and by Pausanias, B. vi. c. 13. He was thrice victorious at the Olympic Games.

83 Python.

84 From the Greek word δικαιὸς, "just," or "trustworthy."—B.

85 Diogenes Laertius mentions a Pythagoras, a statuary, in his life of his celebrated namesake, the founder of the great school of philosophy.—B. Pausanias, B. ix. c. 35, speaks of a Parian statuary of this name.

86 See Note 79 above.

87 See end of B. vii.

88 Cicero remarks, Brut. 86, 296, "that Lysippus used to say that the Doryphoros of Polycletus was his master," implying that he considered himself indebted for his skill to having studied the above-mentioned work of Polycletus.—B.

89 In Chapter 17 of this Book.—B.

90 The same subject, which, as mentioned above, had been treated by Polycletus.—B.

91 ᾿αποξυομενος, the Greek name of the statue, signifying one "scraping himself."

92 The head encircled with rays.

93 The lines of Horace are well known, in which he says, that Alexander would allow his portrait to be painted by no one except Apelles, nor his statue to be made by any one except Lysippus, Epist. B. ii. Ep. 1, l. 237.—B.

94 This story is adopted by Apuleius, in the "Florida," B. i., who says that Polycletus was the only artist who made a statue of Alexander.

95 This expression would seem to indicate that the gold was attached to the bronze by some mechanical process, and not that the statue was covered with thin leaves of the metal.—B.

96 In the Eighth Region of the City.

97 A large group of equestrian statues, representing those of Alexander's body-guard, who had fallen at the battle of the Granicus.

98 A.U.C. 606.

99 See the Greek Anthology, B. iv. Ep. 14, where this subject is treated of in the epigram upon his statue of Opportunity, represented with the forelock.

100 Which is a word of Greek origin, somewhat similar to our word "proportion."

101 At Lebadæa in Bœotia.

102 Hardouin seems to think that "fiscina" here means a "muzzle." The Epigram in the Greek Anthology, B. iv. c. 7, attributed to King Philip, is supposed by Hardouin to bear reference to this figure.

103 The circumstance here referred to is related by Q. Curtius, B. ix. c. 5, as having occurred at the siege of the city of the Oxydracæ; according to other historians, however, it is said to have taken place at a city of the Malli.—B.

104 See Note 1, above.

105 κατάγουσα; a figure of Ceres, probably, "leading back" Proserpine from the domains of Pluto. Sillig, however, dissents from this interpretation; Dict. Ancient Artists.

106 Or Bacchus.

107 See Pausanias, B. i. c. 20. Sillig says, "Pliny seems to have confounded two Satyrs made by Praxiteles, for that here named stood alone in the 'Via Tripodum' at Athens, and was quite different from the one which was associated with the figure of Intoxication, and that of Bacchus." —Dict. Ancient Artists.

108 "Much-famed." Visconti is of opinion that the Reposing Satyr, formerly in the Napoleon Museum at Paris, was a copy of this statue. Winckelmann is also of the same opinion.

109 In the Second Region of the city. According to Cicero, in Verrem. vi., they were brought from Achaia by L. Mummius, who took them from Thespiæ, A.U.C. 608.

110 See B. xxxvi. c. 4.

111 A woman plaiting garlands.

112 A soubriquet for an old hag, it is thought.

113 A female carrying wine.

114 According to Valerius Maximus, B. ii. s. 10, these statues were restored, not by Alexander, but by his successor Seleucus.—B. Sillig makes the following remark upon this passage—" Pliny here strangely confounds the statues of Harmodius and Aristogiton, made by Praxiteles, with other figures of those heroes of a much more ancient date, made by Antenor."

115 From σαυρὸς, a "lizard," and κτἐλνω, "to kill." This statue is described by Martial, B. xiv. Ep. 172, entitled "Sauroctonos Corinthius."—B. Many fine copies of it are still in existence, and Winckelmann is of opinion that the bronze at the Villa Albani is the original. There are others at the Villa Borghese and in the Vatican.

116 In her worthless favours, probably. Praxiteles was a great admirer of Phryne, and inscribed on the base of this statue an Epigram of Simonides, preserved in the Greek Anthology, B. iv. Ep. 12. She was also said to have been the model of his Cnidian Venus.

117 This artist is mentioned also by Cicero, Pausanias, Propertius, and Ovid, the two latter especially remarking the excellence of his horses.—B. See B. xxxiii. c. 55.

118 The mother of Hercules.—B.

119 See B. xxxvi. c. 4. Having now given an account of the artists most distinguished for their genius, Pliny proceeds to make some remarks upon those who were less famous, in alphabetical order.—B.

120 The "highly approved."

121 Or "Lioness." See B. vii. c. 23.

122 The reading is doubtful here. "Iphicrates" and "Tisicrates" are other readings.

123 The same story is related by Athenæus, B. xiii., and by Pausanias.—B.

124 Pisistratus and his sons, Hippias and Hipparchus.

125 A lioness.

126 She having bitten off her tongue, that she might not confess.

127 Hardouin has offered a plausible conjecture, that for the word "Seleucum," we should read "Salutem," as implying that the two statues executed by Bryaxis were those of Æsculapius and the Goddess of Health.—B.

128 Already mentioned as a son of Lysippus.

129 In the Eighth Region of the City.

130 This reading appears preferable to "Cresilas," though the latter is supported by the Bamberg MS.

131 Ajasson quotes here the beautiful words of Virgil—"Et dulces moriens reminiscitur Argos"—"Remembers his lov'd Argos, as he dies."

132 Dalechamps supposes that Pericles was here represented in the act of addressing the people; Hardouin conceives that this statue received its title from the thunder of his eloquence in debate, or else from the mighty power which he wielded both in peace and war, or some of the other reasons which Plutarch mentions in the Life of Pericles.—B.

133 It is doubtful to which of the artists of this name he alludes, the elder or the younger Cephisodotus, the son of Praxiteles. Sillig inclines to think the former—Dict. Ancient Artists.

134 The "Deliverer."

135 The elder Canachus, probably.

136 The "Lovely." Brotero says that this is believed to be the Florentine Apollo of the present day. It stood in the Temple at Didymi, near Miletus, until the return of Xerxes from his expedition against Greece, when it was removed to Ecbatana, but was afterwards restored by Seleucus Nicator.

137 See B. v. c. 31.

138 "Alterno morsu calce digitisque retinentibus solum, ita vertebrato dente utrisque in partibus ut a repulsu per vices resiliat." He seems to mean that the statue is so made as to be capable of standing either on the right fore foot and the left hind foot, or on the left fore foot and the right hind foot, the conformation of the under part of the foot being such as to fit into the base.

139 The following are the words of the original: "Ita vertebrato dente utrisque in partibus." I confess myself unable to comprehend them, nor do I think that they are satisfactorily explained by Hardouin's comment.—B.

140 The "Riders on horseback."

141 It is supposed by Sillig, Dict. Ancient Artists, that this is the same person as the Cresilas, Ctesilas, or Ctesilaüs, before mentioned in this Chapter, and that Pliny himself has committed a mistake in the name.

142 A figure of a man "brandishing a spear." See Note 83 above.

143 He is mentioned by Quintilian as being more attentive to exactness than to beauty; also by Diogenes Laertius, B. v. c. 85. Sillig supposes that he flourished in the time of Pericles. Pausanias, B. i., speaks of his Lysimache.

144 The Athenians in their flattery, as we learn from Seneca, expressed a wish to affiance their Minerva Musica to Marc Antony. His reply was, that he would be happy to take her, but with one thousand talents by way of portion.

145 He is mentioned by Xenophon, according to whom, he dedicated the brazen statue of a horse in the Eleusinium at Athens. He was probably an Athenian by birth.

146 Son of Patroclus, who is previously mentioned as having lived in the 95th Olympiad. He was a native of Sicyon, and flourished about B.C. 400. Several works of his are also mentioned by Pausanias.

147 Or "strigil." See Note 19 above.

148 The first Grecian slain at Troy.

149 Famous also as a painter. See B. xxxv. c. 40.—B. Paris, the son of Priam, was known by both of these names.

150 Q. Lutatius Catulus.

151 "Bonus Eventus;" Varro, de Re Rustica, B. i. c. 1, applies this term to one of the deities that preside over the labours of the agriculturist. His temple was situate near the Baths of Agrippa.—B.

152 In the Eighth Region of the City.

153 See Note 78, page 171.

154 Pausanias, B. vi., speaks of a statue of Ancient Greece, but the name of the artist is not mentioned.—B.

155 See B. iv. c. 8.

156 Brotero informs us, from Ficoroni, that there is a gem still in existence on which this design of Eutychides is engraved.—B.

157 Thiersch considers him to be identical with the elder Hegesias. He is mentioned also by Pausanias, B. viii. c. 42.

158 See Note 68, above.

159 Dedicated by Augustus on the Capitoline Hill, in the Eighth Region of the City.

160 Sillig distinguishes three artists of this name.

161 See B. v. c. 40, and B. vii. c. 2.

162 The "Sacrificers of the ox."

163 The son also.

164 Martial expresses the same idea in his Epigram, B. i. Ep. 7; but he does not refer to this statue.—B. Two copies of this Ganymede are still in existence at Rome.

165 Pausanias informs us, B. i. and B. ix., that he saw this statue in the Prytanæum of Athens.—B. Autolycus obtained this victory about the 89th or 90th Olympiad.

166 It was in honour of a victory gained by him in the pentathlon at the Great Panathenæa, that Callias gave the Symposium described by Xenophon.

167 Martial, B. ix. Ep. 51, where he is pointing at the analogy between his poems and the works of the most eminent sculptors, probably refers to this statue:—
"Nos facimus Bruti puerum, nos Lagona vivum."—B.
The reading "Lagonem," or "Langonem," certainly seems superior to that of the Bamberg MS.—"Mangonem," a "huckster."

168 For some further mention of him, see end of B. iv.

169 Delafosse has pointed out the resemblance between this statue and one of the works of Michael Angelo, representing David kneeling on Goliath, and pressing back the giant's neck.—B.

170 A native of Argos, who flourished in the 95th Olympiad. He was the son of Motho, and brother and instructor of the younger Polycletus of Argos. Several of his statues are mentioned by Pausanias and Tatian.

171 Ajasson thinks that three statues in the Royal Museum at Paris may possibly be copies of this Discobolus of Naucydes.

172 The Goddess of Health, and daughter of Æsculapius. Niceratus was a native of Athens, and is also mentioned by Tatian.

173 A "Female sacrificing." The reading is very doubtful.

174 The "Man cooking entrails." For some further account of this statue, see B. xxii. c. 20. This artist is unknown, but Thiersch suggests that he may have been the father of Cleomenes, whose name appears on the base of the Venus de Medicis.

175 The master of the Gymnasium.

176 He is twice mentioned by Pausanias: more particularly for the excellence of his horses and oxen. His country is unknown.

177 "The beautiful-legged." This statue has been mentioned at the end of Chapter 18, as having been greatly admired by Nero.

178 This, it is supposed, is the statue to which Martial alludes in his Epigram, mentioned in Note 95 above.—B.

179 There were two artists of this name, both natives of Samos. The present is the elder Theodorus, and is mentioned by Pausanias as having been the first to fuse iron for statues. He is spoken of by numerous ancient authors, and by Pliny in B. vii. c. 57, B. xxxv. c. 45, and B. xxxvi. c. 19, where he is erroneously mentioned as a Lemnian.

180 At Crete: Athenagoras mentions him in conjunction with Dædalus.

181 See B. vii. c. 21. Hardouin thinks that this bears reference to the conquest of the younger Marius by Sylla, mentioned in B. xxxiii. c. 5. Müller and Meyer treat this story of the brazen statue as a fiction.

182 Probably the same author that is mentioned at the end of B. xxxiii. See also B. xxxv. c. 36.

183 The Galli here spoken of were a tribe of the Celts, who invaded Asia Minor, and afterwards uniting with the Greeks, settled in a portion of Bithynia, which hence acquired the name of Gallo-Græcia or Galatia.—B.

184 See end of B. xxxiii. Attalus I., king of Pergamus, conquered the Galli, B.C. 239. Pyromachus has been mentioned a few lines before, and Stratonicus, in B. xxxiii. c. 55, also by Athenæus.

185 A native of Carthage. A work of his is mentioned by Cicero, In Verrem 4, 14, and in the Culex, 1. 66, attributed to Virgil. See also B. xxxiii. c. 55.

186 In the Eighth Region of the City.

187 We are informed by Pausanias, B. x., that Nero carried off from Greece 500 bronze statues of gods and men.—B.

188 See B. xxxvi. c. 24.

189 See B. xxxv. c. 55.

190 Mentioned by Pausanias, B. vi. Many of these artists are altogether unknown.

191 See B. xxxiii. c. 55.

192 See B. xxxiii. c. 55.

193 See B. xxxiii. c. 56, and B. xxxv. c. 35.

194 Probably the same artist that has been mentioned in the preceding page.

195 The artist already mentioned as having been represented by Silanion.

196 Pausanias, B. iii., speaks of his statue of Cynisca, a female who was victor at the Olympic games. Indeed, the victors at these games were frequently represented in a posture resembling that of adoration.

197 A man "scraping himself," probably. See Note 19, page 175. The "Tyrannicides" were Harmodius and Aristogiton.

198 Tatian mentions an artist of this name.

199 Sillig thinks that this was Seleucus, king of Babylon, B.C. 312.

200 See Note 70 above

201 Pausanias, B. viii., gives an account of a statue of Diana, made of Pentelican marble, by this Cephisodotus, a native of Athens; he is supposed to have flourished in the 102nd Olympiad. In the commencement of this Chapter, Pliny has enumerated a Cephisodotus among the artists of the 120th Olympiad.—B.

202 Bacchus.

203 The elder artist of this name. See B. xxxv. c. 34.

204 A native of Sicyon; Pausanias, B. v. cc. 17, 21, informs us that Cleon made a statue of Venus and two statues of Jupiter; he also mentions others of his works in B. vi.—B.

205 A native of Megara. He made a 'statue of Diagoras the pugilist, who was victor at the Olympic games, B.C. 464. He is mentioned also by Pausanias.

206 Probably the same with the "Laïppus" mentioned in the early part of this Chapter. Silling, Diet. Ancient Artists, considers "Daïppus" to be the right name.

207 See Note 26 above.

208 A native of Sicyon, and pupil of Pison, according to Pausanias, B. vi. c. 3. He flourished about the 100th Olympiad.

209 Works of his at Athens are mentioned by Pausanias, B. i. c. 2, who also states that he was father of Euohir, the Athenian.

210 A statuary of Syracuse, son of Niceratus. He made two statues of Hiero Il., king of Syracuse, who died B.C. 215. He must not be confounded with the painter and statuary of the same name, mentioned in B. xxxiii. c. 56, and B. xxxv. c. 35. He is mentioned also by Pausanias.

211 An Athenian, son of Euctemon. He is mentioned also by Tatian, and is supposed by Sillig to have flourished about B.C. 420.

212 Called Dinomache by Plutarch.

213 Already mentioned as a successful pupil of Lysippus.

214 He was probably a native of Agrigentum, and flourished about B.C. 560. The brazen bull of Perillus, and his unhappy fate, are recorded by many of the classical writers, among others by Valerius Maximus, B. ix. cc. 2, 9, and by Ovid, Art. Am. B. i. ll. 653-4.—B.

215 See B. vii. c. 57.

216 Mentioned at the commencement of this Chapter.

217 A statuary of Ægina, mentioned also by Pausanias, B. v. c. 27, in connexion with Dionysius of Argos. He flourished about Olymp. 76.

218 Already mentioned in B. xxxiii. c. 55, and previously in this Chapter.

219 "Scopas uterque." Sillig, Diet. Ancient Artists, expresses an opinion that these words are an interpolation; but in his last edition of Pliny, he thinks with M. Ian, that some words are wanting, expressive of the branch in which these artists excelled. See also B. xxxvi. cc. 5, 14.

220 He is previously mentioned in this Chapter. See p. 179.

221 An Athenian artist, son of Eubulides. He is also mentioned by Pausanias.

222 A Lacedæmonian artist, also mentioned by Pausanias.

223 See B. xxxvi. c. 4.

224 Mentioned also by Pausanias, B. i. c. 3.

225 Probably not the Athenian statuary mentioned by Pausanias, B. ix. c. 7. See Sillig, Dict. Ancient Artists.

226 A native of Phocis, mentioned also by Vitruvius.

227 Also a Dithyrambic poet; mentioned by Diodorus Siculus.

228 In B. xxxv. c. 36.

229 See B. xxxiii. c. 55.

230 Mentioned by Tatian as having made the statue of Eutychis. See Pliny, B. vii. c. 3.

231 He executed a statue of Hephæstion; and an inscription relative to him is preserved by Wheler, Spon, and Chishull.

232 See B. xxxvi. c. 4.

233 A native of Sardis; mentioned by Pausanias.

234 An Athenian, mentioned also by Pausanias.

235 Strabo mentions some of his productions in the Temple at Ephesus.

236 "Fritterer away of his works." He was also an engraver on gold, and a painter. He is spoken of in high terms by Vitruvius, Pausauias, and Dionysius of Halicarnassus.

237 We have an account of Cato's honourable conduct on this occasion in Plutarch.—B. See also B. xxix. c. 30.

238 "Inane exemplum." Hardouin thinks that this is said in reference to his neglect of the example set by his grandfather, Cato the Censor, who hated the Greeks. See B. vii. c. 31.

239 In the poisoned garment, which was the eventual cause of his death.—B.

240 The general who conducted the war against Mithridates.—B.

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