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1 Literally meaning a "red-hot coal." The carbunculus of Pliny is supposed to include not only the red, or Iron and Iron-lime garnet, but the Spinelle ruby also, or Oriental ruby.
2 There is some truth in this, as some few kinds both of the Garnet and Ruby are infusible. Of the ruby, the red varieties change to brown, black, and opaque even, as the temperature increases, and on cooling become first green, and then nearly colourless, but at last resume their red colour.
3 From the Greek; meaning "incombustible."
5 Carthago Magna, so called in contradistinction to Carthage Nova, or New Carthage, in Spain.
6 See B. v. c. 29.
7 In the vicinity of Orthosia. It is from this place that one kind of garnet is now called "Almandine." There is also the Almandine, or violet-coloured ruby. See Beckmann, Hist. Inv. Vol. II. p. 238. Bohn's Edition. It is probable that Carthage was the great entrepôt for the car-bunch of the Garamantes and Æthiopia, where Red sapphire, Red corundum, or Oriental ruby, was probably found.
8 A variety, perhaps, of Iron garnet, or Iron-lime garnet.
9 Desfontaines suggests that this may have been the Balas ruby, or possibly the Syrian Garnet, of a violet purple colour. Not improbably it is the Almandine ruby.
10 "Pinnato fulgore." This mottled appearance is to be seen in the interior of some red garnets.
11 Common garnets, probably.
13 See Introduction to Vol. III. If this is the truth, they were made of some of the crystals of the garnet, probably.
14 De Lapid. sec 61.
15 "Pliny has here committed a gross mistake, which has not been observed by Hardouin. Theophrastus, in the passage alluded to, does not speak of a ruby, but the well-known black marble of Chio; though he calls both carbunculus, a name given to the ruby, on account of its likeness to a burning coal, and to the black marble on account of its resemblance to a quenched coal or cinder; and the latter, as well as the Obsidian stone. was sometimes used for mirrors."—Beckmann, Hist. Inv. Vol. II. pp. 67, Bohn's Edition.
16 "Illos." He should have said "hos"—"the latter."
17 See B. iv. c. 35; the present Lisbon.
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