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Thrace now follows, divided into fifty strategies1, and to be reckoned among the most powerful nations of Europe. Among its peoples whom we ought not to omit to name are the Denseletæ and the Medi, dwelling upon the right bank of the Strymon, and joining up to the Bisaltæ above2 mentioned; on the left there are the Digerri and a number of tribes of the Bessi3, with various names, as far as the river Mestus4, which winds around the foot of Mount Pan- gæum5, passing among the Elethi, the Diobessi6, the Carbilesi; and then the Brysæ, the Sapæi, and the Odomanti. The territory of the Odrysæ7 gives birth to the Hebrus8, its banks being inhabited by the Cabyleti, the Pyrogeri, the Drugeri, the Cænici, the Hypsalti, the Beni, the Corpili, the Bottiæi, and the Edoni9. In the same district are also the Selletæ, the Priantæ, the Doloncæ, the Thyni, and the Greater Cœletæ, below Mount Hæmus, the Lesser at the foot of Rhodope. Between these tribes runs the river Hebrus. We then come to a town at the foot of Rhodope, first called Poneropolis10, afterwards Philippopolis11 from the name of its founder, and now, from the peculiarity of its situation, Trimontium12. To reach the summit of Hæmus you have to travel six13 miles. The sides of it that look in the opposite direction and slope towards the Ister are inhabited by the Mœsi14, the Getæ, the Aorsi, the Gaudæ, and the Clariæ; below them, are the Arræi Sarmatæ15, also called Arreatæ, the Scythians, and, about the shores of the Euxine, the Moriseni and the Sithonii, the forefathers of the poet Orpheus16, dwell.

Thus is Thrace bounded by the Ister on the north, by the Euxine, and the Propontis17 on the east, and by the Ægean Sea on the south; on the coast of which, after leaving the Strymon, we come in turn to Apollonia18, Œsyma19, Neapolis20 and Datos. In the interior is the colony of Philippi21, distant from Dyrrhachium 325 miles; also Scotussa22, the city of Topiris, the mouth of the river Mestus23, Mount Pangæus, Heraclea24, Olynthos25, Abdera26, a free city, the people of the Bistones27 and their Lake. Here was formerly the city of Tirida, which struck such terror with its stables of the horses28 of Diomedes. At the present day we find here Dicæa29, Ismaron30, the place where Parthenion stood, Phalesina, and Maronea31, formerly called Orthagorea. We then come to Mount Serrium32 and Zone33, and then the place called Doriscus34, capable of containing ten thousand men, for it was in bodies of ten thousand that Xerxes here numbered his army. We then come to the mouth of the Hebrus35, the Port of Stentor, and the free town of Ænos36, with the tomb there of Polydorus37, the region formerly of the Cicones.

From Doriscus there is a winding coast as far as Macron Tichos38, or the "Long Wall," a distance of 122 miles; round Doriscus flows the river Melas, from which the Gulf of Melas39 receives its name. The towns are, Cypsela40, Bisanthe41, and Macron Tichos, already mentioned, so called because a wall extends from that spot between the two seas,—that is to say, from the Propontis to the Gulf of Melas, thus excluding the Chersonesus42, which projects beyond it.

The other side of Thrace now begins, on the coast43 of the Euxine, where the river Ister discharges itself; and it is in this quarter perhaps that Thrace possesses the finest cities, Histropolis44, namely, founded by the Milesians, Tomi45, and Callatis46, formerly called Acervetis. It also had the cities of Heraclea and Bizone, which latter was swallowed up by an earthquake; it now has Dionysopolis47, formerly called Cruni, which is washed by the river Zyras. All this country was formerly possessed by the Scythians, surnamed Aroteres; their towns were, Aphrodisias, Libistos, Zygere, Rocobe, Eumenia, Parthenopolis, and Gerania48, where a nation of Pigmies is said to have dwelt; the barbarians used to call them Cattuzi, and entertain a belief that they were put to flight by cranes. Upon the coast, proceeding from Dionysopolis, is Odessus49, a city of the Milesians, the river Panysus50, and the town of Tetranaulo- chus. Mount Hæmus, which, with its vast chain, overhangs the Euxine, had in former times upon its summit the town of Aristæum51. At the present day there are upon the coast Mesembria52, and Anchialum53, where Messa formerly stood. The region of Astice formerly had a town called Anthium; at the present day Apollonia54 occupies its site. The rivers here are the Panisos, the Riras, the Tearus, and the Orosines; there are also the towns of Thynias55, Halmydessos56, Develton57, with its lake, now known as Deultum, a colony of veterans, and Phinopolis, near which last is the Bosporus58. From the mouth of the Ister to the entrance of the Euxine, some writers have made to be a distance of 555 miles; Agrippa, however, increases the length by sixty miles. The distance thence to Macron Tichos, or the Long Wall, previously mentioned, is 150 miles; and, from it to the extremity of the Chersonesus, 125.

On leaving the Bosporus we come to the Gulf of Casthenes59, and two harbours, the one called the Old Men's Haven, and the other the Women's Haven. Next comes the promontory of Chrysoceras60, upon which is the town of Byzantium61, a free state, formerly called Lygos, distant from Dyrrhachium 711 miles,—so great being the space of land that intervenes between the Adriatic Sea and the Propontis. We next come to the rivers Bathynias and Pydaras62, or Athyras, and the towns of Selymbria63 and Perinthus64, which join the mainland by a neck only 200 feet in width. In the interior are Bizya65, a citadel of the kings of Thrace, and hated by the swallows, in consequence of the sacrilegious crime of Tereus66; the district called Cænica67, and the colony of Flaviopolis, where formerly stood a town called Cæla. Then, at a distance of fifty miles from Bizya, we come to the colony of Apros, distant from Philippi 180 miles. Upon the coast is the river Erginus68; here formerly stood the town of Ganos69; and Lysimachia70 in the Chersonesus is being now gradually deserted.

At this spot there is another isthmus71, similar in name to the other72, and of about equal width; and, in a manner by no means dissimilar, two cities formerly stood on the shore, one on either side, Pactye on the side of the Propontis, and Cardia73 on that of the Gulf of Melas, the latter deriving its name from the shape74 which the land assumes. These, however, were afterwards united with Lysimachia75, which stands at a distance of five miles from Macron Tichos. The Chersonesus formerly had, on the side of the Propontis, the towns of Tiristasis, Crithotes, and Cissa76, on the banks of the river Ægos77; it now has, at a distance of twenty-two78 miles from the colony of Apros, Resistos, which stands opposite to the colony of Parium. The Hellespont also, which separates, as we have already79 stated, Europe from Asia, by a channel seven stadia in width, has four cities facing each other, Callipolis80 and Sestos81 in Europe, and Lampsacus82 and Abydos83 in Asia. On the Chersonesus, there is the promontory of Mastusia84, lying opposite to Sigeum85; upon one side of it stands the Cynossema86 (for so the tomb of Hecuba is called), the naval station87 of the Achæans, and a tower; and near it the shrine88 of Protesilaüs. On the ex- treme front of the Chersonesus, which is called Æolium, there is the city of Elæs. Advancing thence towards the Gulf of Melas, we have the port of Cœlos89, Panormus, and then Cardia, previously mentioned.

In this manner is the third great Gulf of Europe bounded. The mountains of Thrace, besides those already mentioned, are Edonus, Gigemoros, Meritus, and Melamphyllos; the rivers are the Bargus and the Syrmus, which fall into the Hebrus. The length of Macedonia, Thrace, and the Hellespont has been already90 mentioned; some writers, however, make it 720 miles, the breadth being 384.

What may be called a rock rather than an island, lying between Tenos and Chios, has given its name to the Ægean Sea; it has the name of Æx91 from its strong resemblance to a goat, which is so called in Greek, and shoots precipitately from out of the middle of the sea. Those who are sailing towards the isle of Andros from Achaia, see this rock on the left, boding no good, and warning them of its dangers. Part of the Ægean Sea bears the name of Myrtoan92, being so called from the small island [of Myrtos] which is seen as you sail towards Macedonia from Geræstus, not far from Carystus93 in Eubœa. The Romans include all these seas under two names,—the Macedonian, in those parts where it touches the coasts of Macedonia or Thrace, and the Grecian where it washes the shores of Greece The Greeks, however, divide the Ionian Sea into the Sicilian and the Cretan Seas, after the name of those islands; and they give the name of Icarian to that part which lies between Samos and Myconos. The gulfs which we have already mentioned, have given to these seas the rest of their names. Such, then, are the seas and the various nations which are comprehended in the third great Gulf of Europe.

1 Or præfectures, as the Romans called them.

2 In the last Chapter.

3 An extensive tribe occupying the country about the rivers Axius, Strymon, and Nestus or Mestus.

4 This river is now called the Mesto or Kara-Sou.

5 A range between the Strymon and the Nestus, now the Pangea or Despoto-Dagh.

6 Probably a canton or division of the Bessi.

7 The most powerful people of Thrace; dwelling on both sides of the Artiscus, and on the plain of the Hebrus.

8 Now the Maritza. It rises near the point where Mount Scomius joins Mount Rhodope. The localities of most of the tribes here named are unknown.

9 The name of this people is often used by the poets to express the whole of Thrace. The district of Edonis, on the left bank of the Strymon, properly extended from Lake Cercinitis as far east as the river Nestus.

10 Or "Trouble City," also called Eumolpias.

11 Or "Philip's City;" founded by Philip of Macedon; still called Philippopoli.

12 Because it stood on a hill with three summits. Under the Roman empire it was the capital of the province of Thracia.

13 On account probably of the winding nature of the roads; as the height of the Balkan range in no part exceeds 3000 feet. With Theopompus probably originated the erroneous notion among the ancients as to its exceeding height.

14 The people of Mœsia. The Aorsi and Getæ are again mentioned in C. 25 of this Book.

15 The inhabitants of the present Bulgaria, it is supposed.

16 Following the account which represent him as a king of the Cicones, and dwelling in the vicinity of Mount Rhodope. The Sithonii here mentioned dwelt about the mouth of the Ister, or Danube, and were a different people from those of Sithonia, in Chalcidice, referred to in a previous note.

17 The Sea of Marmora.

18 It is difficult to conceive which place of this name is here alluded to, as there seem to have been four places on this coast so called, and all mentioned by Pliny in the present Book.

19 Call Æsyma by Homer; between the rivers Strymon and Nestus.

20 Now called Kavallo, on the Strymonic Gulf. The site of Datos appears to be unknown.

21 Now called Filiba, or Felibejik, on a height of Mount Pangæus, on the river Gangites, between the Nestus and the Strymon. It was founded by Philip, on the site of the ancient town of Crenides, in the vicinity of the gold mines. Here Augustus and Antony defeated Brutus and Cassius, B.C. 42; and here the Apostle Paul first preached the Gospel in Europe, A.D. 53. See Acts xvi. 12.

22 Its site seems unknown, but it is evidently a different place from that mentioned in the last Chapter.

23 Also called Mestus.

24 Sintica, previously mentioned.

25 Now Aco Mamas, at the head of the Toronaic Gulf. It was the most important Greek city on the coast of Macedon. It was taken and destroyed by Philip, B.C. 347, and its inhabitants sold as slaves. Mecyberna, already mentioned, was used as its sea-port.

26 On the coast, and east of the river Nestus. Its people were proverbial for their stupidity, though it produced the philosophers Democritus, Protagoras, and Anaxarchus. No traces of its site are to be found.

27 Now called the Lagos Buru. The name of the Bistones is sometimes used by the poets for that of the Thracians in general.

28 Or mares rather. Diomedes was the son of Ares, or Mars, and king of the Bistones. He was slain by Hercules.

29 By some identified with the modern Curnu, by others with Bauron.

30 Or Ismarus, at the foot of Mount Ismarus.

31 Now Marogna.

32 A promontory opposite the island of Samothrace.

33 A town on a promontory of the same name, said to have been frequented by Orpheus.

34 The Plain of Doriscus is now called the Plain of Romigik. Parisot suggests the true reading here to be 100,000, or, as some MSS. have it, 120,000, there being nothing remarkable in a plain containing 10,000 men. Pliny however does not mention it as being remarkable, but merely suggests that the method used by Xerxes here for numbering his host is worthy of attention.

35 Now the Maritza. At its mouth it divides into two branches, the eastern forming the port of Stentor.

36 Still called Enos.

37 A son of Priam and Hecuba, murdered by Polymnestor, king of the Thracian Chersonesus, to obtain his treasures. See the Æneid, B. iii.

38 From the Greek, μάκρον τεῖχος.

39 Now the Gulf of Enos.

40 Now Ipsala, or Chapsylar, near Keshan.

41 Now Rodosto, or Rodostshig, on the coast of the Propontis, or Sea of Marmora.

42 Now called the Peninsula of the Dardanelles, or of Gallipoli. The wall was built to protect it from incursions from the mainland.

43 He here skips nearly five degrees of latitude, and at once proceeds to the northern parts of Thrace, at the mouth of the Danube, and moves to the south.

44 Or, the "city of the Ister," at the south of Lake Halmyris, on the Euxine. Its site is not exactly known; but by some it is supposed to have been the same with that of the modern Kostendsje.

45 Now Temesvar, or Jegni Pangola, the capital of Scythia Minor. It was said to have been so called from the Greek τέμνω, "to cut," because Medea here cut to pieces the body of her brother Absyrtus. It is famous as the place of Ovid's banishment; and here he wrote his 'Tristia' and his 'Pontic Epistles.'

46 Usually identified with the modern Collat, or Collati.

47 Its site does not appear to be known, nor yet those of many of the towns here mentioned.

48 This story no doubt arose from the similarity of its name to γέρανος, "a crane;" the cranes and the Pigmies, according to the poets, being in a state of continual warfare.

49 Supposed to be the present Varna.

50 Now called Daphne-Soui, according to D'Anville.

51 Said to have been built by Aristæus, son of Apollo.

52 Now Missivri.

53 Or Anchiale, now Akiali.

54 Now Sizeboli, famous for its temple of Apollo, with his statue, thirty cubits in height, which Lucullus carried to Rome. In later times it was called Sozopolis.

55 Now Tiniada.

56 The present Midjeh, according to D'Anville.

57 Afterwards called Zagora, which name it still bears.

58 Or Straits of Constantinople.

59 Between Galata and Fanar, according to Brotier.

60 Or Golden Horn; still known by that name.

61 The site of the present Constantinople.

62 These rivers do not appear to have been identified.

63 The present Silivri occupies its site.

64 An important town of Thrace. Eski Erekli stands on its site.

65 Now Vizia, or Viza.

66 He alludes to the poetical story of Tereus, king of Thrace, Progne, and Philomela. Aldrovandus suggests that the real cause of the absence of the swallow is the great prevalence here of northern winds, to which they have an aversion.

67 So called probably from the Thracian tribe of the Cænici, or Cæni.

68 Now called Erkene, a tributary of the Hebrus.

69 All that is known of it is, that it is mentioned as a fortress on the Propontis.

70 Hexamila now occupies its site.

71 The isthmus or neck of the Peninsula of Gallipoli, or the Dardanelles.

72 That of Corinth. They are both about five miles wide at the narrowest part.

73 Now Cardia, or Caridia. It was the birth-place of king Eumenes.

74 From καρδία, in consequence of its supposed resemblance to a heart.

75 Lysimachus destroyed Cardia, and, building Lysimachia, peopled it with the inhabitants.

76 Mannert identifies it with the ancient Ægos and the modern Galata.

77 More generally called Ægospotamos, the "Goat River," upon which the town of Ægos stood. It was here that Lysander defeated the Athenian fleet, B.C. 405, which put an end to the Peloponnesian war.

78 Antoninus, in his Itinerary, makes this distance twenty-six miles.

79 B. ii. c. 92. The present Straits of Gallipoli.

80 Now Gallipoli, a place of considerable commercial importance.

81 Now Ialova; famous in Grecian poetry, with Abydos, for the loves of Hero and Leander.

82 Now Lamsaki.

83 The village of Aidos, or Avido, probably marks its site. To the north, Xerxes passed over to Sestos on his bridge of boats, B.C. 480.

84 Now Capo Helles.

85 Now Jeni-Hisari, the N.W. promontory of Troas. Here Homer places the Grecian camp during the Trojan war.

86 Meaning the "Bitch's tomb," the fable being that Hecuba, in her old age, was changed into that animal. It was near the town of Madytus.

87 Meaning that their fleet was anchored off here during the Trojan war.

88 A magnificent temple was erected near his tomb at Eleus, where he also had a sacred grove. It was greatly enriched by the votive offerings of Greek travellers. According to D'Anville, its site lay to the south of Mastusia.

89 Now called Kilidbahr. Near this place the Spartans were defeated by the Athenians, who erected a trophy near the tomb of Hecuba.

90 In the present Chapter; where he says that the distance from Byzantium to Dyrrhachium is 711 miles. See p. 305.

91 αἲξ, "a goat." Other authors give other derivations for the name of Ægean,—from the town of Ægæ in Eubœa, or from Ægeus, the father of Theseus, who threw himself into it; or from Ægæa, a queen of the Amazons, who perished there; or from Ægæon, a god of the sea; or from the Greek αἰγὶς, "a squall," on account of its storms.

92 See c. 5 of this Book.

93 Both places in Eubœa, mentioned in c. 21 of this Book.

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    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), GA´LLIA TRANSALPINA
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), GANUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), HAEMUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), HEBRUS
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), HYPSALTAE
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    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), ISTRO´POLIS
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    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), LIGER
    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), LUGDU´NUM
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    • Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854), MELDI
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