the fifth since the founding of the City, was held this year, to propitiate the same deities as before.1
then the new consuls, having sent fetials, as commanded by the people, to declare war on the Samnites, not only began themselves to make ready for it, on a much greater scale in every respect than they had done against the Greeks, but received new and at that time quite unlooked for help.
for the Lucanians and Apulians, nations which until then had had no dealings with the Roman People, put themselves under their protection and promised arms and men for the war, and were accordingly received into a treaty of friendship.
at the same time, the Romans conducted a successful campaign in Samnium. three towns —Allifae, Callifae, and Rufrium —fell into their hands, and the rest of the country was devastated far and wide at the first coming of the consuls.
while this war was beginning in so prosperous a fashion, the other, against the Greeks, was in a fair way to be concluded. for not only were a part of the besieged cut off from the rest by the intervening entrenchments of the Romans, but things were going on within their walls much more dreadful than the perils with which the enemy threatened them;
and as though the inhabitants had been made prisoners by their own defenders, they were subjected to outrage even in the persons of their [p. 101]
children and their wives, and suffered all the horrors2
of captured cities.
and so, on a report that reinforcements were on their way, both from Tarentum and from the Samnites, they felt that they had within their city more Samnites than they wanted, but being Greeks,
looked forward to the coming of their fellow Greeks, the young men of Tarentum, to enable them to resist the Samnites and the Nolani, no less than their enemies, the Romans. in the end it appeared to them that surrender to the Romans was the least intolerable evil.
Charilaus and Nymphius, their principal citizens, took counsel together, and arranged the part that each should play in order to bring this about. one was to go over to the Roman general, the other to remain behind and make the city ready for the accomplishment of their design.
it was Charilaus who went to Publilius Philo, and praying that it might tum out a good and favourable and fortunate thing for Palaepolis and for the Roman People, announced that he had resolved to deliver up the walls.
it depended, he said, upon the honour of the Romans whether, having accomplished his intention, he should appear to have betrayed his country or to have saved it.
for himself in particular he neither stipulated nor requested anything; for his people he requested — though he did not stipulate —that if the enterprise succeeded, the Roman People should consider with what eagerness they had resumed the friendship, and the hazard which they ran, rather than the folly and temerity which had led them to forget their duty.
The general commended him, and gave him three thousand soldiers to seize that part of the city where the Samnites were established, appointing [p. 103]
Lucius Quinctius, a military tribune, to command3