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A voyage of the honourable Gentleman M. Robert Duddeley, now knight, to the isle of Trinidad , and the coast of Paria: with his returne home by the Isles of Granata, Santa Cruz, Sant Juan de puerto rico, Mona , Zacheo, the shoalds called Abreojos, and the isle of Bermuda . In which voyage he and his company tooke and sunke nine Spanish ships, wherof one was an armada of 600 tunnes. Written at the request of M. Richard Hakluyt.

HAVING ever since I could conceive of any thing bene delighted with the discoveries of navigation, I fostered in my selfe that disposition till I was of more yeres and better ability to undertake such a matter. To this purpose I called to me the advise of sufficient seamen, and principally undertooke a voyage for the South seas; but by reason that many before had miscaried in the same enterprise, I could not be suffered to hazard more of her Majesties subjects upon so uncerteine a ground as my desire: which made me by constraint (great charges already by me defrayed) to prepare another course for the West Indies, without hope there to doe any thing woorth note: and so common is it indeed to many, as it is not woorth the registring. Neverthelesse, I have yeelded to your former importunity, and sent you this my journall to supply a vacant roome amongst your more important discourses.

Nowe being provided for this last enterprize, rather to see some practise and experience, then any wonders or profite, I weighed ancker from Southampton road the sixt of November 1594. But the winde falling scant, it was the 17. day of the same moneth before I could put into the Sea. Upon this day my selfe in the Beare a shippe of 200. tunnes my Admirall, and Captaine Munck in the Beares whelpe vice-admirall, with two small pinnesses called the Frisking and the Earewig passed through the Needles, and within two dayes after bare in with Plimmouth. My busines at this port-towne dispatched, I set saile; whither againe by contrary winds to my great misfortune, I was inforced to returne backe. I might call it misfortune; for by this meanes I utterly (for all the voyage) lost my vice-admirall; which was the cause likewise of loosing mine owne pinnesse, which three were the principall stay of my voyage. For at this last leaving of England in a storme I lost mine owne pinnesse, as is before said. Notwithstanding all these crosses all alone I went wandering on my voyage, sailing along the coast of Spaine within view of Cape Finister, and Cape S. Vincent, the North & South capes of Spaine. In which space having many chases, I could meet with none but my countreymen or countreys friends. Leaving these Spanish shores I directed my course the 14. of December towards the isles of the Canaries. Here I lingered 12 dayes for two reasons: The one, in hope to meete my vice-admiral: The other, to get some vessel to remove my pestered men into, who being 140. almost in a ship of 200. tunnes, there grew many sicke. The first hope was frustrated, because my vice-admiral was returned into England with two prizes. The second expectation fell out to our great comfort: for I tooke two very fine Caravels under the calmes of Tenerif and Palma, which both refreshed and amended my company, and made me a Fleete of 3. sailes. In the one Caravel called The Intent, I made Benjamin Wood Captaine, in the other, one Captaine Wentworth. Thus cheared as a desolate traveller with the company of my small and newe erected Fleete, I continued my purpose for the West Indies, and first for Cape Blanco in Africa upon the deserts of Libya . My last hope was to meete my lost ship, and withall to renue my victuals upon the Canthers, which are Portugal fishermen: but the Canthers had bene so frighted by Frenchmen, as I could get none. Riding under this White Cape two daies, and walking on shore to view the countrey, I found it a waste, desolate, barren, and sandie place, the sand running in drifts like snow and being very stony; for so is all the countrey sand upon stone (like Arabia deserta, and Petrea) and full of blacke venemous lizards, with some wilde beasts and people which be tawny Moores, so wilde, as they would but call to my Caravels from the shore, who road very neere it. But not desirous to make any longer aboad in this place, by reason of the most infectious serenas or dewes that fall all along these coasts of Africa , I caused my Master Abraham Kendall to shape his course directly for the isle of Trinidad in the West Indies; which after 22. dayes we descried, and the first of February came to an anker under a point thereof called Curiapan, in a bay which was very full of pelicans, and I called it Pelicans bay. About 3. leagues to the Eastwards of this place we found a mine of Marcazites which glister like golde (but all is not gold that glistereth) for so we found the same nothing worth, though the Indians did assure us it was Calvori, which signifieth gold with them. These Indians are a fine shaped and a gentle people, al naked & painted red, their commanders wearing crownes of feathers. These people did often resort unto my ship, & brought us hennes, hogs, plantans, potatoes, pinos, tobacco, & many other pretie commodities, which they exchanged with us for hatchets, knives, hookes, belles, and glasse buttons. From this bay I fell downe lower to a place called Paracoa, where I desired rather to ride, because it was a convenient place to water, balast, ground, & grave my Caravels. Then I commanded al my men to lye on shore, after I had caused to be made for them a little skonce like an halfe moone for their defence, being jealous of the Spaniards, of whose estate I could gather no certaintie, till from Margarita Antonie Berreo for his defence had gotten some 300. souldiers, a greater number then I was able to encounter withall, having then but 50. men, because my Caravels before their comming were sent away. The Simerones of the yland traded with me stil in like sort. And the Spaniards now provided for me, began to send messengers to me in kindnesse. Notwithstanding though I had no reason to assault them, because they were both poore & strong, yet for my experience and pleasure I marched 4. long marches upon the yland, & the last from one side of the yland to the other, which was some 50. miles: going and comming through a most monstrous thicke wood (for so is most part of the yland) & lodging my selfe in Indian townes. The country is fertile, and ful of fruits, strange beasts, and foules, whereof munkeis, babions & parats were in great abundance. Being much delighted with this yland, and meaning to stay here some time about discovering the maine right against the same (the entrance into the empire of Guiana ) being shewed the discovery thereof by Captaine Popham, who received the discovery of the saide empire from one captaine Harper, which being a prisoner learned of the Spaniards at the Canaries in the selfe same maner almost, as sir Walter Ralegh very discreetly hath written. The intelligence of Harper, I conceive, the Captaine hath yet to shew in Spanish. This discovery of Guiana I greatly desired: yet least I should adventure all occasions upon it onely, I sent my two Caravels from me the 17. day of February, to try their fortunes in the Indies not appointing any other place to meet but England , furnishing them with all the provision that I could spare, and dividing my victuals equally with them, knowing they were able to do more good in the Indies then greater ships. The Caravels being gone, I began to enquire privately of the Savages concerning the maine over against us, and learned that the names of the kingdomes joyning to the Sea-coast were in order these. The kingdom of Morucca, the kingdome of Seawano, the kingdome of Waliame, the kingdom of Caribes, the kingdome of Yguirie, and right against the Northermost part of Trinidad , the maine was called The high land of Paria, the rest a very lowe land. Morucco I learned to bee full of a green stone called Tacarao, which is good for the stone. In Seawano I heard of a Mine of gold to be in a towne called Wackerew, the Captaines name Semaracon. Of Waliame I will speake last, because therein I made most discovery. The Caribes I learned to be maneaters or Canibals, and great enemies to the Islanders of Trinidad. The kingdome of Yguiri I heard to be full of a metall called by the Indians Arara, which is either copper (as I could learne) or very base gold. In the high land of Paria I was informed by divers of these Indians, that there was some Perota, which with them is silver, and great store of most excellent Cane-tabacco. But lastly to come to Waliame, it is the first kingdome of the empire of Guiana . The great wealth which I understood to be therein, and the assurance that I had by an Indian, mine interpreter, of a golden Mine in a towne of this kingdome called Orocoa, in the River (as he called it) of Owrinoicke was much to be esteemed. This Indian spake Spanish, and whatsoever he knew, he reveiled it to my selfe onely by a private interpreter, not in words alone, but offered upon paine of life to be guide himselfe to any place that he spake of. This discovery of the Mine I mentioned to my company, who altogether mutined against my going, because they something feared the villany of Abraham Kendal, who would by no meanes go. I then wanted my lost pinnesse, and was constrained to send 14. men in my ship-boat for this discovery, with most of the discreetest men in my ship, & gave them their directions to follow, written under mine owne hand. They went from me, and entred into one of the mouthes by the broken lands, which river goeth under the name of the great River Orenoque, the foreland wherof was called Capulio bearing South & by West, wanting a fourth part, from the point of Curiapan aforesaid, being 4. leags distant. They found the maine (as China is reported) full of fresh Rivers running one into another, abounding with fish, and a land al woody, seeming to have great store of strange beasts and foules, & very populous. They entred into a small river called Cabota, the people named Veriotaus, a courteous people. The next river they passed was called Mana in the kingdome of Tivitivas, where the king offered to bring a Canoa full of this golden oare, and to this purpose sent a Canoa, which returned and brought my men this answere, that Armago Captaine of the towne of Orocoa and the Mine refused them, but if they would come thither, hee himselfe would make them answere. Upon this my boat went, and at his appointed place hee met them with some 100. men in Canoas, and tolde them that by force they should have nothing but blowes, yet if they would bring him hatchets, knives, and Jewes-harps, he bid them assure me, he had a Mine of gold, and could refine it, & would trade with me: for token whereof, he sent me 3. or 4. Croissants or halfe moones of gold weighing a noble a piece or more, and two bracelets of silver. Also he told them of another rich nation, that sprinkled their bodies with the poulder of golde, and seemed to be guilt, and farre beyond them a great towne called El Dorado, with many other things. My men being satisfied, and thinking their company too fewe to stay among these Savages, and their victuall spent, returned. This Balthazar my Indian their guide ranne from them: which distresse caused them to borrow of Armago newe guides, who brought them home another way through a River called Braha by the high land of Paria, and so to my ship. They accompted Orocoa 150. miles distant, so they rowed in my boate above 250. miles. Their absence from mee was 16. dayes, making but one nights aboad any where. The report of this made mee attempt my company to goe with them againe. But nowe they were worse then before; for unlesse I would have gone my selfe alone, not one man would goe with me (no albeit I had had commission to hang or kill them) for my men came home in very pitifull case almost dead for famine; and indeed such was their misery, as they dranke not in three dayes, for so long they were out of the fresh Rivers, before they recovered the shippe, and yet the boat was filled with as much victuall, as it could holde.

In this time of my boates absence there came to me a pinnesse of Plimmouth, of which Captaine Popham before named was chiefe, who gave us great comfort. And if I had not lost my pinnesses, wherein I might have caried victuals and some men, we had discovered further the secrets of those places. Also this Captaine and I stayed some sixe or eight dayes longer for Sir Walter Ralegh (who, as wee surmized, had some purpose for this discovery) to the ende, that by our intelligence and his boates we might have done some good: but it seemed he came not in sixe or eight weekes after. So Captaine Popham and I helde it not convenient to stay any longer: therefore new watering our selves at Paracoa, we set saile to see further of the Indies, leaving the yle of Trinidad the 12. day of March. The 13. I tooke a small prize of sackes 25. leagues to the Northward of an yland which I sailed by, called Granata. This prize refreshed us well: yet meaning to sel her at the yle of Sant Juan de Puerto rico, and shaping our course thither by the ylands of Santa Cruz and Infierno, I coasted all the South side of the said yle of S. John, till I came to an ancker at Cape Roxo: where riding 14. dayes to expect S. Domingo men, which oftentimes fall with the yland of Mona , and finding none (neither would the Spaniards of S. Juan de puerto rico buy my prize) I unladed her, tooke in the goods, and after burned her. This ended, I disemboqued (where fewe Englishmen had done before, by reason of the great dangers betweene this yland of S. Juan de puerto rico and Hispaniola) by a little yland called Zacheo. And after carefully doubling the shouldes of Abreojos, I caused the Master, (hearing by a Pilote, that the Spanish fleete ment now to put out of Havana ) to beare for the Meridian of the yle of Bermuda , hoping there to finde the fleete dispersed. The fleete I found not, but foule weather enough to scatter many fleetes; which companion left mee not in greatest extremitie, till I came to the yles of Flores and Cuervo: whither I made the more haste, hoping to meete some great Fleete of her Majestie my sovereigne, as I had intelligence, and to give them advise of this rich Spanish fleet: but finding none, and my victuals almost spent, I directed my course for England .

Returning alone, and worse manned by halfe then I went foorth, my fortune was to meete a great Armada of this fleete of some 600. tunnes well appointed, with whom I fought board and board for two dayes, being no way able in all possibilitie which fiftie men to board a man of warre of sixe hundreth tunnes. And having spent all my powder I was constrained to leave her, yet in such distresse without sailes and mastes, and hull so often shot through with my great Ordinance betweene winde and water, that being three hundred leagues from land, I dare say, it was impossible for her to escape sinking. Thus leaving her by necessitie in this miserable estate, I made for England , where I arrived at S. Ives in Cornewall about the latter ende of May 1595, scaping most dangerously in a great fogge the rocks of Silly.

Thus by the providence of God landing safely, I was kindely intertained by all my friends, and after a short time learned more certaintie of the sinking of that great shippe, being also reputed rich by divers intelligences out of Spaine: which we then supposed not, & were doubtfull whether she had bin of Biscay or S. John de Luz in France laden with fish onely from Newfoundland .

In this voyage I and my fleete tooke, sunke and burnt nine Spanish ships; which was losse to them, though I got nothing.

Here follow certaine wordes of the language of Trinidad which I observed at my being there.

Guttemock. A man.
Tabairo, Dabarah, Or Dabarra. The heare of ones head.
Dessie The forehead.
Dasereth, or Dacosi An eye.
Dalacoack The mouth.
Archeh The teeth.
Daria The gummes.
Desire The lips.
DillThe tongue.
Dudica The eares.
Dacan A hand.
Dacabbo The palme of the hand.
Dadena The wrist.
Dacurle A knee.
Daddano The calfe of the legge.
Dabodda The toes.
Dacutti The feete.
Cattie The moone.
Tauraroth A rope.
Arkeano A paire of cizers.
Weevah The heaven.
Harowa A stone good for the head ache.
Mointiman Yron or steele.
Howa Munkeis in generall.
CarottaA thing like pappe.
Sakel It is well, or I am well.
Techir A bracelet.
Bodad A boxe or chest.
Mentinie A tree.
AddehegaenoA glasse.
*Calcouri Gold.
Perota Silver.
Tacorao a green stone.} {Arrara copper.
CaulpiriA white stone.
Casparo A sword. } { Tibetebe cockles.
Marrahabo a bow. } {Semaro an arrow.
Huculle A bow-string.
Halete A Potato roote.
Caerwoda A sweete root.
Maurisse Wheat. } { Queca A basket.
Yeddola A knife. } { Sambolers A hat.
Beyou A pipe.} {Callit Bread.
*Oronuie Water.
Arguecona A paire of cizzers.
Heldaro A spoone.
Hemachugh A bread which they eate.
Hicket Fire. } {Walrowa A parrot.
Ureit Tabacco. } { Barudda A combe.
Addoth A sticke.
Barreannaire A button, or beads.
Curaballa & Sibath, for 2 sundry stones: but Sibath in general signifieth a stone.
Tolletillero bels. } {Ullasso a Tuny-fish.
Bohery A flying fish. } {Bara Water.
Haddalle The Sunne.
Babage-Canoaseen The manner of the Indians hailing of a ship, calling it after the name of their Canoas.
Non yuo, Or Non quapa I know not, Or I cannot tell.

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