AFTER the death of king Henrie the eight, sir Anthonie Sentleger knight, was Sir Anthonie Sentleger reuoked. 1547 Sir Edward Bellingham made lord deputie. reuoked; who deliuered vp the sword at his departure vnto sir William Brabston knight; and he was lord iustice, vntill such time as sir Edward Bellingham was sent ouer to be deputie. This man was seruant to king Edward the sixt, and of his priuie chamber: a man verie well learned, graue and wise, and therewith stout & valiant, and did verie worthilie direct his gouernment. In his time there was a mint A mint in Dublin. kept in the castell of Dublin, which being at his commandement, he was the better able to doo good seruice to the king his maiestie, and to the benefit of that realme. In the ciuill gouernment he was carefull to place learned and wise magistrats, vnto Sir Edward Bellinghams carefulnesse in gouernement. whome he had a speciall eie for the dooing of their offices; as he had the like care for good and expert capteins, to serue in the martiall affaires. And for the more spéedie seruice to be doone therein at all times needfull, he kept sundrie stables of Sundrie stables of horsses kept. horsses: one at Leighlin, one at Lex, and some in one place and some in another, as he thought most méet for seruice. And whatsoeuer he had to doo, or what seruice soeuer he meant to take in hand, he was so secret, and kept the same so His secrecie in his seruice. priuie, as none should haue anie vnderstanding thereof, before the verie instant of the seruice to be doone; and for the most part, whensoeuer he tooke anie iournie in hand, his owne men knew not whither, or to what place he would ride, or what he would doo. It happened that vpon some occasion he sent for the earle of Desmond, who refused to come vnto him. Wherevpon calling vnto him his companie as he thought good, and without making them acquainted what he minded to doo, tooke horsse & rode to Leighlin bridge. The abbeie there (being suppressed) he caused Leighlin abbeie inclosed with a wall and made a fort. to be inclosed with a wall, and made there a fort. In that house he had a stable of twentie or thirtie horsses, and there he furnished himselfe and all his men with horsses and other furniture, and foorthwith rode into Mounster, vnto the house of the earle, being then Christmas; and being vnlooked and vnthought of, he went in to The earle of Desmond taken in his house. the earle, whome he found sitting by the fire, and there tooke him, and caried him with him to Dublin.

This earle was verie rude both in gesture and in apparell, hauing for want of good The earle is rude without nurture. The earle instructed in ciuilitie. nurture as much good maners as his Kerns and his followers could teach him. The deputie hauing him at Dublin, did so instruct, schoole, and informe him, that he made a new man of him, and reduced him to a conformitie in maners, apparell, and behauiours apperteining to his estate and degree; as also to the knowledge of his dutie and obedience to his souereigne & prince; and made him to knéele vpon his knées sometimes an houre togither, before he knew his dutie. This though it were verie strange to the earle, who hauing not béene trained vp in anie ciuilitie, knew not what apperteined to his dutie and caning: neither yet of what autheritie and maiestie the king his souereigne was; yet when he had well digested and considered of the matter, he thought himselfe most happie that euer he was acquainted with the said deputie, and did for euer after so much honor him, as that continuallie all his life time at euerie dinner and supper, he would praie for the good sir Edward The earle praieth for sir Edward Bellingham. Bellingham: and at all callings he was so obedient and dutifull, as none more in that land.

This sir Edward lord deputie, when and where soeuer he trauelled, he would be The lord deputie would be chargeable to none. chargeable to no man; but would be at his owne charge. It happened that trauelling the countrie, he was lodged on a night in vicount Baltinglasses house, where all things were verie plentifullie prouided for him: which the vicount thought to haue giuen and bestowed vpon his lordship: but at his departure, he commanded his steward to paie & discharge all things, thanking the vicount for his courtesie, but refused his interteinement; saieng: "The king my maister hath placed me here to serue him, and alloweth me therein for my charges and expenses: wherefore, I neither maie nor will be burdenous nor chargable to anie other man." He was verie exquisit & carefull in the gouernement, as few before him the like; aswell in matters martiall, as politike, magnanimous and couragious: in the one, to the appalling of The good gouernement of this deputie. the enimie; and as seuere & vpright in the other, to the benefit of the commonwelth. For neither by flatterie could he be gained, nor by briberie be corrupted; he was feared for his seueritie, and beloued for his integritie; and no gouernor for the most Sir Edward Bellingham well beloued. vniuersallie better reported of than was he. But as vertue hath the contrarie to enimie, so he found it true: for he was so enuied at, and that rebellious nation not brooking so woorthie a man, who trauelled all the waies he could to reduce them to the knowledge of themselues, and of their duties; and also to reforme that corrupt state of gouernement, that great practises and deuises were made for his reuocation; and matters of great importance informed and inforced against him. Wherevpon, before two yeares ended of his gouernement, he was reuoked, and sir Francis Brian 1548 Sir Francis Brian lord iustice. made lord iustice. At his comming into England, great matters were laid vnto his charge: but he so effectuallie did answer the same, that his maiesties doubtfulnesse was resolued; & he not onelie cléered, but also better liked than euer he was before, & should haue béne sent backe againe, had he not alleged his infirmitie; the which was a fistula, and other good reasons, which were accepted for his excuse. Sir Sir Francis Brian maried the countes of Ormond, died and was buried at Waterford. 1549 Sir William Brabston lord iustice. 1550 Sir Anthonie Sentleger lord deputie the second time. Francis Brian had maried the countesse of Ormond, and by that meanes he was a dweller in that land: where he died & was buried in the citie of Waterford. His time of iusticeship was but short, & no great matters could in so short a time be doone by him. After his death, sir William Brabston had the sword deliuered vnto him, and he continued lord iustice, vntill that sir Anthonie Sentleger came ouer, who was now lord deputie the second time: who notwithstanding by his knowledge & experience he had good skill and did well gouerne: yet there remained some coles of the fire in his first gouernement vnquenched; and within a shorter time 1551 Sir Iames Crofts lord deputie. than thought of, he was reuoked: and sir Iames Crofts was sent ouer to supplie the place; his euill successes in good attempts did not answer his valour and good deserts.

And albeit the time of his gouernement were not long, yet it continued vntill the death of king Edward the sixt, and then he was called home, and sir Thomas Cusacke and sir Gerard Elmer were appointed lords iustices, who iointlie gouerned 1552 Sir Anthonie Sentleger lord deputie the third time. the estate, vntill quéene Marie sent ouer sir Anthonie Sentleger; who now the third time was lord deputie. This man ruled and gouerned verie iustlie and vprightlie in a good conscience, and being well acquainted in the courses of that land, knew how to meete with the enimies, and how to staie all magistrates and others in their duties and offices: for which though he deserued well, and ought to be beloued and commended: yet the old practises were renewed, and manie slanderous informations were made and inueighed against him: which is a fatall destinie, and ineuitable to A fatall destinie to euerie good gouernor to be slandered. euerie good gouernor in that land. For the more paines they take in tillage, the worse is their haruest; and the better be their seruices, the greater is the malice and enuie against them; being not vnlike to a fruitefull apple trée, which the more apples he beareth, the more cudgels be hurled at him. Well, this man is called 1555 The lord Fitzwaters made lord deputie. home, and the lord Thomas Fitzwaters was made lord deputie. At sir Anthonies comming ouer, great matters were laid to his charge, and manie heauie aduersaries he had, which verie eagerlie pursued the same against him: wherein he so answered, that he was not onelie acquited; but also gained his discharge for euer to passe ouer anie more into so vnthankefull a land.

The lord Fitzwaters being lord deputie, after a short time of his being there, was 1555 Sir Henrie Sidneie and Corwen lords iustices. sent for into England. And in his absence, sir Henrie Sidneie then treasuror at warres, and doctor Corwen, were for a time ioint lords iustices: but verie shortlie after, a commission was sent to sir Henrie Sidneie to be sole lord iustice, and so continued alone vntill the lord Fitzwaters, now earle of Sussex, came againe and resumed his former office of deputie. After that he was come ouer, he had somewhat to doo with the Oneile. For the whole north part of Ireland began to be The Oneile and all the north be vnquiet. vnquieted, and for preuenting of sundrie inconueniences, which might grow by the Scotish Ilanders in aiding the said Oneile, the lord deputie made a iourneie and voiage into the said Iles, to ioine them into his friendship. In his absence, he constituted sir Henrie Sidneie lord iustice; but after that he had doone his businesse, he returned againe to Dublin, where he remained and continued in his office vntill 1556 Sir Henrie Sidneie lord iustice the fourth time. 1557 The earle of Sussex lord lieutenant. The Oneile taken and kept in prison. 1564 Sir Nicholas Arnold lord iustice. 1565 Sir Henrie Sidneie lord deputie. the death of quéene Marie, and then he passed ouer into England, and left sir Henrie Sidneie to be lord iustice now the fourth time. And after some time spent there, and quéene Elisabeth now setled in the imperiall crowne of England, she sent ouer the said earle as lieutenant of Ireland to performe those seruices, which before he had taken in hand: who did verie great good seruice against the Irishrie, and by meanes he tooke the Oneile, and kept him prisoner in the castell of Dublin: but yet before he could or did bring the same to perfection, he was reuoked into England, and left the land in a verie broken state; which was committed to sir Nicholas Arnold, & he was made lord iustice. But his gouernement being not well liked, choise was made by hir maiestie and the councell of sir Henrie Sidneie, now knight of the honorable order of the garter, to supplie that place, who then was lord president of Wales.

This man had béene before a long seruitour to that realme, hauing for sundrie yeares béene treasuror at warres, which is the second office vnder the lord deputie in that land; as also had béene lord iustice solie and iointlie foure times. Great was his knowledge, wisedome, and experience both of that land, and of the nature, manners, and disposition of the people: wherein the more he excelled anie others in those daies, the more apt and fit was he to haue the gouernement of them. He was therefore called from out of Wales, where he then resided in his gouernement Sir Henrie Sidneie lord president of Wales. vnto the court: and there after conference had with hir highnesse, and with the councell; he was appointed to be lord deputie of Ireland, being the seuenth yeare of hir maiesties reigne, in the yeare of our Lord 1565. And then he receiued of hir maiestie a booke of instructions signed with hir owne hand, dated the fift of A booke of articles deliuered to sir Henrie Sidneie for his gouernement. October 1565, the seuenth yeare of hir reigne aforesaid, concerning the principall articles for his gouernement & direction, which chieflie consisted in these points.

First, that there should be a bodie of a councell established, to assist him being A councell to be established. lord deputie, in the gouernement of the same realme in times of peace and of warre; and whose names were then particularlie set downe: and order giuen, that euerie of them should before their admission be sworne by the said lord deputie, according to Euerie councellor to be sworne. the accustomed manner: with an exhortation, that for somuch as hir maiestie had reposed a speciall trust and confidence in their wisedomes, aduises, good counsels, and seruices: he the lord deputie should vse their aduises, assistance, and counsels in all matters of treatie and consultation, concerning the state of that realme.

And they likewise, considering the place and authoritie wherevnto hir maiestie had called the said sir Henrie Sidneie, to hold hir place in that realme: they should yéeld that obedience and reuerence vnto him, as to such a principall officer dooth apperteine. And then they both togither, to haue a speciall care and regard to the gouernement, which was comprised in foure articles that doo orderlie hereafter follow.

    The said foure articles were these.

  1. FIRST, that they should faithfullie and earnestlie regard the due and reuerend Gods lawes to be kept, and christian religion to be vsed. obseruation of all Gods lawes and ordinances, made and established for the maintenance of the true christian faith and religion among hir people; and that all meanes should be vsed, aswell by doctrine and by teaching, as by good examples, that deuotion and godlinesse might increase, and contempt of religion might be restreined, punished, and suppressed. That learning in the scriptures might be Learning of the scriptures to be mainteined. mainteined and increased among the cleargie, and that for the reliefe of the ecclesiasticall state, no alienations nor wasts of the lands perteining to anie church or college, The church lands not to be alienated. should be alienated: neither anie impropriations of benefices be put in vre: besides sundrie other articles incident to this effect.
  2. The second was, that the administration of law and iustice should dulie and The lawes to be dulie administred. vprightlie be executed, without respect of persons: that inquirie be made what notable faults are in anie of the iudges, or other ministers of the law: that vnfit persons maie be remoued from their places, and some sufficient persons of English birth be chosen to supplie the same. That shiriffes be appointed and renewed in Shiriffes to be appointed in euerie shire. euerie countie, and to execute their offices vprightlie, according to the lawes of England.
  3. The third, that the garrisons and men of warre be well ordered to the benefit The garisons to be looked vnto. of the realme, and repressing of disordered subiects and rebels: that they doo line according to the orders appointed, without oppression of the good and true subiects. That there shall be once within a moneth at the least a muster made A muster to be kept euerie moneth. either by the lord deputie, or by such commissioners as he shall appoint méete and indifferent for that purpose; who shall make inquirie of the number of the souldiors vnder euerie capteine; for the sufficiencie of their persons, their horsses, armors, and weapons, and other their necessaries: and how they were paied of their wages, and whether they were Englishmen or not.
  4. The fourth article was, whether there had béene had a due care & regard to the A due regard to be had of hir maiesties reuenues. preseruation of the reuenues of the crowne, & for the recouerie of that which is withdrawne. And whether euerie of the officers appointed for the receiuing of anie part of the said reuenues, as namelie the receiuers of rents, shiriffes, exchetors, That euerie officer of receipts doo yearelie make his account. collectors of the subsidies, customors, clerks of the crowne, of the hamper, and of the first fruits, and the farmers of customes and such others, did yearelie make and answer their accounts; and besides sundrie other articles incident to euerie of these principals.

After that he had receiued this booke, and his commission, he prepared himselfe Sir Henrie Sidneie taketh his leaue of the quéene and councell. with all the expedition he could, to follow the great charge committed vnto him: which being doone, he repaired to hir maiestie and tooke his leaue: and to his farewell, she gaue him most comfortable spéeches and good counsels, promising hir fauor and countenance to all his well dooings, and a consideration for the same when as time should serue. The like leaue he tooke also of the lords of the councell, who in like order gaue him the like farewell: and these things doone, he departed towards the sea side, where after he had taried a long time for a good wind and passage, he tooke ship, and arriued in Ireland the thirtéenth of lanuarie, about fiue miles from Dublin, and from thense he trauelled to Dublin; where he was most Sir Henrie Sidneie loifullie receiued into Dublin. honorablie receiued by sir Nicholas Arnold then lord iustice, and the whole councell; togither with the maior and his brethren of that citie. And the people in great troops came and saluted him, clapping and shooting with all the ioie that they could deuise.

The next sundaie then next following, being the seuenth daie of his arriuall, and the twentith of the moneth, he accompanied with the lord iustice and councell, repaired to the high church in the citie named Christes church; where after that the diuine seruice was doone, he tooke his oth, receiued the sword, and assumed vpon him the gouernement: and wherwith he made a most pithie, wise, and eloquent oration, which consisted vpon these speciall points. The first, what a pretious thing The benefit of good gouernement. is good gouernement, and how all realmes, commonwealths, cities, and countries doo flourish and prosper, where the same is orderlie, in equitie, iustice, and wisedome, directed & gouerned. Secondlie, what a continuall care the queenes highnesse The quéenes maiesties continuall care for Ireland. hath had, and yet hath, not onelie for the good guiding & ruling of the realme of England, but also of Ireland; which she so earnestlie desireth, and wisheth to be preserued, as well in peace as in warre: that she hath made great choise from time to time of the most graue, wise, and expert councellors for the one; and the most valiant, skilfull, and expert men of armes for the other: that both in peace and warres, the publike state of the commonwealth, and euerie particular member therein might be conserued, defended, and kept in safetie vnder hir gouernement. And for the performance thereof, hir maiestie ouer and besides the reuenues of the The quéenes maiestie expendeth yearelie out of hir owne cofers for Ireland sundrie thousands of pounds. crowne of Ireland, did yearelie far aboue anie of hir progenitors, expend of hir owne cofers out of England, great masses of monie, amounting to manie thousand pounds. All which hir excessiue expenses and continuall cares she made the lesse account of; so that hir realme and subiects of Ireland might bepreserued, defended, and gouerned.

Lastlie, notwithstanding hir maiestie might haue made better choise of manie others, who were better able to hold hir place in this realme, both for honor, wisedome, and experience: yet hir pleasure was now to cast this heauie charge and burden vpon him. Which he was the more vnwilling to take vpon him, because the greater the charge was, the more vnable & weake he was to susteine the same. Neuerthelesse, being in good hope, and well promised of hir highnesse fauor and countenance in his well dooings, and hauing his confidence in them hir highnesse councellors associated vnto him, to ioine, aid, and assist him in this gouernement: he was and is the more readie to take the sword in hand: in hope that this his gouernement shall be to the glorie of God, the honor of hir maiestie, the benefit of the commonwelth, and the preseruation of the whole realme and people of the same. And so making his earnest request to the said lords present, for their conioining with him, and the aiding and assisting of him in this hir maiesties seruice, he made an end of his speeches.

The said councellors, hauing well considered the great value and weight of this his graue and wise oration, did most humblie thanke his lordship for the same, and promised in all dutifulnesse, faith, and obedience to performe and attend whatsoener to them in anie wise should apperteine. These things doone, they all conducted the said lord deputie in all honorable manner vnto the castell of Dublin: the common people The congratulation of the people. in euerie street and corner meeting him, and with great acclamations and ioie did congratulat vnto his lordship his comming among them in that office. Immediatlie after the performance of all the solemnities, perteining to these actions, he called and assembled all those persons which hir highnesse had appointed, admitted, and allowed to be of hir maiesties priuie councell for that realme, and did sweare them according to the accustomed manner. Then from time to time they assembled and met, consulting and deliberating what waie and order were best to be taken for reparing of that broken commonweale and ruinous state, being as it were a man altogither The broken state of Ireland. infected with sores and biles, and in whose bodie from the crowne of the head to the sole of the foot there is no health. And surelie if the state of that land was euer miserable and in perill to be ouerthrowne: it was neuer more like than at these presents; for as for the English pale, it was ouerwhelmed with infinite numbers The English pale wasted and spoiled. of caterpillers, who dailie by spoiles and robberies haue deuoured and wasted the same: whereby the people vniuersallie were so poore, and the commons in such extreame penurie, that they had not horsses, armor nor weapons to defend them, nor apparell, vittels, nor anie other necessaries to reléeue them; the soldiors so beggerlie soldiors oeggerlie and out of order. that they were most intolerable to the people, and so rooted in insolencie, loosenesse and idlenesse, that vnlesse the remedie were the more speedie, they would bée past correction: and so much the worsse, bicause manie of them were alied in mariage, and companies of the Irish: who the more they were affected to them, their truth and seruice more doubtfull to hir maiestie. The prouince of Leinster and they altogither The miserable state of Leinster. most miserable, the Tools, Obrines, Kinsbelaghes, Odoiles, Omoroughs, Carenaughs, the Moores, and the residue in their accustomable manners wholie bent to spoiles and all mischiefs, no place of anie safetie remaining for the good subiect: especiallie in the countie of Kilkennie, which being sometimes a fertile rich soile, and The fertile soile of the countie of Kilkennie made wast. well manured and inhabited, became of all others most desart and beggerlie, verie few being left to inhabit the same.

Mounster, the inhabitants there likewise for the most part being followers to the Mounster by ciuill war destroied. earle of Desmond, and following his wars against the erle of Ormond, made that prouince, and especiallie the counties of Tipporarie and Kirrie, being wealthie and rich, to become bare and beggerlie; and verie few of whom hir maiestie was or could be assured. Notwithstanding experience had taught them, and they assured, that no waie was for their recouerie and safetie so good and assured, as to humble themselues, and to become hir highnesse loiall and obedient subiects: yet as swine delighting in their dirt and puddles, contented themselues rather with a beggerlie life to be miserable, than in dutifull obedience to be at peace and assured. The Thomond all wasted by ciuill warres. proninces also of Thomond altogither almost wasted by the warres betwéene the earle there and sir Donell Obrien. Ormond likewise by reason of dissention betweene the earles of Desmond and Ormond, and by the dailie inuasions and preies of Piers Grace was almost wasted and vnhabited.

Connagh, one of the goodliest, pleasantest, and most fertile soiles of that land, Connagh deuoured by ciuill warres. & in times past verie rich and wealthie, and well inhabited, is wasted with the wars betwéene the erle of Clanrichard and Mac William Enter: the Irish countries all wasted and impouerished, partlie by reason of their dissimulations, societies, and conferences with the rebelles, and partlie by the particular discords among themselues. Finallie, all the gentlemen throughout, woont in times past to be kéepers The gentlemen all impouerished. of hospitalitie, were by the dailie preies made vpon them and their tenants so impouerished & distressed, that they were not able to mainteine and reléeue themselues nor their families. The prouince of Vlster for wealth and plentie was well stored, Vister wealthie and rich. not onlie of themselues, but by reason that it was the receptacle and place of receipt of all the preies and spoiles from out of the other prouinces: but as for loialtie, dutifulnesse, and obedience to hir maiestie, they were most disloiall, rebellious, and disordered. For after that Shane Oneile by blood and murther had gotten the maisterie, Shane Oneile. he alone then ruled the rost, who in pride exceeded all the men vpon the earth, abiding no superior, nor allowing anie equall. And héere it were not amisse, The cause of Shane Oneiles rebellion. but verie expedient to set downe the first origin and cause whie the said Shane did first breake out from his due obedience, and did shake off the gouernement of hir maiestie, which (as farre as the writer hereof hath gathered and collected) is as here followeth.

Con Oneile, the first earle of Tiron, had two sonnes, Matthew and this Shane or Iohn. And king Henrie the eight hauing good liking of this Con Oneile, and to reteine and keepe him a good subiect, he being a mightie man, and of great power in his countrie, he made and created him earle of Tiron, and his eldest son Matthew Con Oneile made earle of Tiron. he made baron of Dunganon, and the remainder of the said earledome to the said Matthew, and to the heirs male of his bodie. This Shane being the second brother, and of an aspiring mind, enuied his elder brother, and in no wise could he brooke him, but from time to time séeketh occasions to quarell and fall out with him, and in the end most traitorouslie and vnnaturallie murthered him: their father yet liuing, who did not so much lament and bewaile the same, but began much more to distrust of his owne safetie. Neuerthelesse, it is not knowen that the said Shane did offer him anie violence, but when he was dead, although he had no right to succéed into the earledome, by reason that Matthew his elder brother had left sons behind him, who by the letters patents and course of the common law were to succeed the grandfather: yet Shane vsurped the name of Oneile, and entred into his fathers inheritance Shane vsurpeth the name of Oneile. The Irish custome in succession. according to the Irish manner, among whome the custome is, that the eldest in years of the name of anie house or familie dooth succéed his ancestor, vnlesse at the time of his death he had a son of the full age of one and twentie yéers. And thus hauing perforce entred into his fathers inheritance, he scorneth at the English gouernement, and after the Irish manner proclaimeth himselfe Oneile, and the capteine of his countrie, refuseth likewise all obedience to hir maiestie, and breaketh out Shane Oneile breaketh into rebellion. into open rebellion.

Sir Henrie Sidneie then lord iustice, in the absence of the erle of Sussex, being aduertised of these stirs, taketh aduise of the councell what was best to be doone. And then it was agreed, that the said lord iustice should take his iorneie towards Dundalke, for the fortifieng of the English pale, and should send a messenger to Shane Oneile, who then laie at a lordship of his about six miles from Dundalke, and to will him come to Dundalke to his lordship: which was doone. But Shane returned his answer, praieng pardon, and also most humblie requested his lordship that it would please him to christen a son of his, & be his gossip, & then he would Shane Oneile praieth sir Henrie Sidneie tobe his gossip. come to his lordship to doo all things in seruice for hir maiestie, as his lordship should command and appoint. This answere at the first was not thought good, nor yet honorable to the lord iustice so to doo, vntill the said Shane had first come and submitted himself. But when it was considered what great inconueniences might insue, if his request were denied; it was agréed that the said lord iustice should condescend vnto his request. And accordinglie vpon the last of Ianuarie, one thousand fiue 1558 hundred fiftie and eight, he went vnto the said Shanes house, and there his lordship and Iaques Wingfield were godfathers, and hauing performed the baptising of the child, they both had conference of the matter: where the said Shane, to excuse his dooings, Shane excuseth himselfe whie hée came not to the lord iustice. did allege for his defense sundrie articles as foloweth.

First, he said that Matthew baron of Dungannon was the sonne of one Kellaie of Dundalke, a smith by occupation, begotten and borne during the spousals of the Matthew was Kellaies sonne. said Kellaie, and one Alson his wife, and that the said Matthew was alwaies taken and reputed to be the sonne of the said Kellaie, vntill he was of the age of sixtéene The obiections of Shane Oneil against the title of Matthew to be Oneile. yeares or thereabouts: at which time Con Oneile his father, vpon the saieng of the said Alson, that he was the father of the said Matthew, did accept and take the said Matthew to be his sonne, & gaue him the name of Fardarough. And here vnderstand you the wickednesse of this countrie; which is, that if anie woman doo mislike The wicked custome of the Irishrie. hir husband, and will depart from him, he shall haue all such children as were borne of hir bodie during their abode togither, except such as she shall name to be begotten by anie other man: which man so named shall by their custome haue the said child: and so it should séeme to be meant of this point. Also the said Matthew Matthew seeketh the seigniorie of Oneile. did vpon this the affirmation of his mother séeke to vsurpe the name of a segniorie of the Oneiles, and the dominions apperteining to that segniorie and surname. Also that there be aboue a hundred of that name, which will not in anie wise yéeld to this the clame of Matthew, although he for his owne part would be contented therewith. Also he saith that the letters patents (if anie such be) that should intitle the sonne of the said baron to the said lands are vtterlie void, because that Con Oneile father to the said Shane had no other right nor interest to that countrie, but during his owne life: and therefore without the consent of the lords and inhabitants of that countrie, could make no surrender nor conueiance, wherby he might be inabled to take and haue the said lands by force of letters patents.

Also he saith, that by the lawes in the English pale of Ireland, no letters patents, made to anie person, be of anie force or value, vntill that an inquisition be taken of the lands so giuen before that the letters patents doo passe: which in this case neither was, nor could be doone, sith the countrie of Tiron is no shire ground. Also if the said lands should according to the quéens lawes descend to the right heire, then in right it ought to descend to him, as next heire being mulierlie borne; and the other not so borne. Also he saith, that vpon the death of his father lord of the countrie, the whole countrie according to the custome of the countrie did assemble themselues togither, and by a common consent did elect and choose (without anie contradiction) him the said Shane to be Oneile, as the most worthie and ablest of that countrie. Which election by the custome of the countrie hath beene alwaies vsed without anie confirmation, asked of the kings and quéenes of England. Also he saith that as Oneile he clameth such authorities, iurisdictions, and duties vpon his men & countrie, as are due time out of mind to his predecessors, and which duties for the most part are recorded, and remaine in writing. When the lord iustice had at full heard these articles, and considered well of them togither with the councell, made answer vnto Shane that the matter was of great weight and importance, & which neither he nor the councell cold determine of themselues, before hir maiestie were made priuie and acquainted there with; and therefore in the meane time willed and required him to be quiet, and to shew himselfe a dutifull subiect vnto hir maiestie, nothing doubting but that he should haue and receiue at hir hands, what should be found méet, right, and iust.

And so hauing vsed manie good and freendlie spéeches and exhortations vnto him, Shane Oneile promiseth to be quiet. the said Shane promised to vse and behaue himselfe well and honestlie, & as to his dutie should apperteine: they departed in verie freendlie manner. And thus in such wisedome and politike manner the lord iustice handled the matter, that by temporising and gaining of time all matters were pacitied, and so continued vntill the comming ouer of the earle of Sussex lord deputie: who then of a new tooke the matter in hand, and he did so streictlie and seuerelie follow the same, that he ouermatched Sliane Oneile. But it so greeued the said Shane, that notwithstading and ing he dissembled and gaue a good countenance, & promised well, yet in the end being once at libertie, he performed nothing: but as the woolfe which often casteth his haires but neuer changeth his conditions, was one and the same man or rather worse, and thenseforth Shane Oneile is become a tyrant and a rebell. tyrannized and vsed most crueltie, and of all others most disloiall and disobedient; to the deputie would he not come, nor would he in anie wise confer with him, but at his owne pleasure.

The quéenes maiestie in some termes he would honor, but in déeds he denied all obedience, subtill and craftie he was especiallie in the morning: but in the residue of the daie verie vncerteine and vnstable, and much giuen to excessiue gulping and surfetting. And albeit he had most commonlie two hundred tunnes of wines in Shane Oneil a drunkard and a surfetter. his cellar at Dundrun, and had his full fill therof, yet was he neuer satisfied, till he had swallowed vp maruellous great quantities of Vskebagh or Aqua vite of that countrie: wherof so vnmeasurablie he would drinke and bouse, that for the quenching of the heat of the bodie, which by that meanes was most extremelie inflamed and distempered, he was eftsoones conueied (as the common report was) into a déepe Shane Oneil buried in the ground after his drunkennesse. pit, and standing vpright in the same, the earth was cast round about him vp to the hard chin, and there he did remaine vntill such time as his bodie was recouered to some temperature : by which meanes though he came after in some better plight for the time, yet his manners and conditions dailie worse. And in the end his pride ioined with wealth, drunkennesse, and insolencie, he began to be a tyrant, and to tyrannize ouer the whole countrie; greatlie it was feared that his intent was to haue made a conquest over the whole land. He pretended to be king of Vlster, euen as he said his aucestors were, and affecting the maner of the great Turke, was continnallie Shane Oneils force. garded with six hundred armed men, as it were his Ianisaries about him, and had in readinesse to bring into the fields a thousand horssemen, and foure thousand footmen. Ile furnished all the pesants and husbandmen of his countrie with The pesants in Vlster trained vp in warre. armour and weapons, and trained them vp in the knowledge of the wars: and as a lion hath in awe the beasts of the field, so had he all the people to his becke and commandement, being feared and not beloued.

Diuerse meanes and waies were practised and vsed by the lord deputie and councell for the pacifieug and recoueric of him, and commissioners from time to time sent vnto him; for and about the same, who sometimes would be verie flexible, but foorthwith as backwards and vntoward. Of all the residue of Ireland there was the lesse doubt to recouer them, by reason that they by their owne ciuill wars had consumed and spoiled the one and the other: but of this man, small or no hope at all, vnlesse he might be chastised, and with force be reduced to conformities. Which in the end it pleased the Lord God to take the matter in hand, and to performe the same by taking of him awaie. And bicause in these trouble sometimes, it were méet aduertisements should go to and from hir maiestie and councell to the lord deputie, & so likewise from his lordship Posts set betweéne Ireland & London. to them, order was taken for the more spéedie conueiance of letters reciproke, there should be set posts appointed betwéene London and Ireland. This was then the present The miserable state of Ireland. state of all Ireland, altogethers deuoured with robberies, murders, riots, treasons, ciuill and intestine warres, and few or none assured and faithfull to hir highnesse out of the English pale, and out of cities and townes: and yet the one being gentlemen and liuing by their lands, by continuall spoiles and robberies were decaied; the other by the losse of their traffike being merchants impouerished, and brought to such extremities, as not able to relieue and mainteine themselues.

And among all other the most intollerable miseries vniuersallie reigning, this one No God nor religion in Ireland. excéeded all the rest, that there was scarse a God knowen; and if knowen, not all honored in the land, for the churches for the most part were all destroied & vncouered, the clergie scattered, the people vntaught, and as shéepe without their pastour wandering without knowledge and instruction. Then where neither God is knowen, the prince obeied, no lawes currant, no gouernement accepted, and all things infolded in most extreme miserie; how lamentable and dolefull is that state and kingdome? Wherfore sir Henrie Sidneie now lord deputie, & the councell pondering this distressed state, and the great burden which laie them vpon to helpe and redresse the same, dailie assembled themselues; & deuised the best waie what might be to be taken herein. Wherin his lordships cause so much was the weaker, as that such as were chiefest of the councell, then ioined to assist him in councell and seruice, were for the most part spent and decaied men; and the lord deputie himselfe driuen to deuise, to inuent, to dispose, and in the end to execute all himselfe. Well, neuerthelesse it was concluded and agréed, that the English pale should be fortified and defended from the inuasion of the Oneile and all his complices; and that the deuises set downe for the staic and recouerie of the rest of the land should be followed from time to time, as matter, time, and oportunitie would serue therevnto.

At this present time the earles of Ormond and Desmond were in England, and the quarrels and controuersies growen betweene them were dailie examined before the lords of the councell, and their allegations produced in writing by the one against the other. And bicause their assertions were so contrarious and vncerteine in denieng and affirming, as no procéeding could be had for a finall end and order, it was thought good and necessarie that their complaints and answers should be examined in the realme of Ireland, where their dooings were best knowen, and where their misorders were committed. And then by the aduise of the councell both the said earles submitted themselues to the quéenes maiesties order & determination: and for performance The earles of Ormond and Desmond submit themselues to the queens order. thereof, they both by waie of recognisance in the chancerie were bound ech of them in twentie thousand pounds. And then a commission vnder hir highnesse broad seale of England was sent to the lord deputie for taking of the forsaid examinations. But in the meane time whilest these things were in dooing in England, sir Iohn of Desmond in verie outragious and disordered manner, fired & spoiled Sir Iohn of Desmond spoileth the earle of Ormonds lands. the tenements of the earle of Ormond, which things were verie shortlie after appeased. In these troublesome daies Mac Artimore an ancient gentleman of the Irish race, the principall man of his sept in Mounster, hauing verie great possessions, and laie still in peace and did nothing at all, neither tooke he partie with one whom he liked not, neither holpe he the other whom he feared not, but to the outward appéerance misliked both their dooings.

This man made his humble sute to hir maiestie, that he might surrender all his Mac Artimore surrendereth all his lands to the quéene & taketh it of hir. lands, possessions and territories vnto hir maiesties highnesse, and to recognise his dutie and allegiance to hir, and so to resume and haue a new estate therof from hir againe, according to the orders and laws of England. Which hir maiestie did accept, and foorthwith made him a new estate of inheritance: and for the better his staie in all obedience and dutie to hir crowne, did for the worthinesse of his bloud & stocke, & for the greatnesse of his gouernement make him a baron of the parlement in that relme; & for his further aduancement created him an earle vnder hir Mac Artimore made earle of Clancare. letters patents by the name of the earle of Clancare. These newes being reported to Shane Oneile, he scoffed at it, nothing liking the choise of hir highnesse Shane Oneile scoffeth at the earle of Clancare. in aduansing such a one to that honour, and enuied and maligned him that he was so honored. And therefore not long after, when the commissioners were sent to intreat with him vpon sundrie points, they found him most arrogant & out of all good order, braieng out spéeches not méet nor séemelie. "For (saith he) you haue made a wise earle of Mac Artimore, I kéepe as good a man as is he. And albeit I confesse the quéene is my souereigne ladie, yet I neuer made peace with hir, but at hir séeking." And where he had required to haue his parlement The proud taunts of Shane Oneile. robes sent vnto him as earle of Tiron, which title he claimed and required (which if it were denied him, then he required a triall to be made in parlement) yet now he cared not for so meane an honour as to be an earle, except he might be better and higher than an erle. "For I am (saith he) in bloud and power better than the best, and I will giue place to none of them; for mine ancestors were kings of Vlster. And as Vlster was theirs, so now Vlster is mine and shall be mine: with the sword I wan it, and with the sword I will kéepe it." Which his words fell out true, Shane Oneile for his pride and tyrannie becometh hatefull before God & man. though long he inioied not the same: and foorthwith he fell into most horrible tyrannies and cruelties, wherby he became execrable and hatefull vnto all his people and countrie who were wearie of him.

Now hir maiestie, being gréeued and annoied with his treasons and rebellions of long time, was fullie minded either to haue him clearelie rooted out, or chastised: but therein she was staied, being borne in hand that the best waie to bring him to reformation, was to yéeld to him in sundrie things of him desired. But now she seeing him to haue manifested himselfe a notorious traitor, and past all grace; she gaue commandement to the lord deputie to imploie his whole care, consideration: and wisedome, how such a cankred and dangerous rebell might be vtterlie extirped. And séeing the matter also to haue so manie accidents and circumstances belonging vnto it, as which by letters to and fro could not bée well concluded: therefore she sent ouer sir Francis Knolles vicechamberleine, to conferre with the lord Sir Francis Knolles sent into Ireland. 1566 deputie, who arriued at Dublin the seuenth of Maie 1566, aswell concerning these matters of warre, as the whole state and gouernment of this realme. Who when he was arriued, and hauing at large conferred with him about the same, the time betwéene them was concluded and appointed, that the seruice should be in the winter; & accordinglie things necessarie, as well monie, men, munitions, and vittels were sent ouer, and Edward Randolph colonell of the footmen, and sundrie other capteius arriued with their souldiers from out of England, and all things were disposed both for the garrison and the campe, as it was conuenient to be.

Likewise the archtraitor knowing what preparation was made against him, he dooth the like also on his part against hir maiestie; and at a lordship or manour of his, about six miles out of Dundalke, he mustreth all his whole armie, which was of foure thousand footmen, and seuen hundred horssemen. And glorieng much in himselfe of such his great force and puissance, which he thought to suffice to haue conquered all Ireland withall, and that no man durst to aduenture vpon him: he marcheth vnto the towne of Dundalke, where he incampeth himselfe, Shane Oneile besiegeth Dundalke, & is repelled. & beseegeth the same. He was no more busie to giue sundrie attempts of inuasion, and to enter the towne, but the souldiers within were as valiant to resist and defend: which in the end turned to his reproch, and hée had the repulse, being with shame driuen to raise his siege, and to depart with the losse.

The like successe he had at Whites castell, and when he made his rode and inuasion into the English pale, when his great multitude stood him not in so much stead, as a farre smaller companie of the English souldiers deserued commendation: which perforce and maugre of his teeth compelled him to retire with shame, and to returne with losse. About this time in the moneth of lulie 1565, and the first 1565 yeare of the deputation of sir Heurie Sidneie, Edward Randolph, a verie expert and Coronell Randolph arriueth at the Dirrie where he intrencheth himselfe. a valiant soldier, was sent ouer out of England, and arriued at the Dirrie with seuen hundred men vnder his regiment, and he himselfe by the councell in England appointed to be the coronell. This man as soone as he was landed, intrenched himselfe at the Dirrie, where he remained in garrison without dooing of anie thing, vntill the comming of the lord deputie from Dublin, with the residue of hir maiesties forces, appointed to be ioined with the said coronell, for the better seruice against the arrogant traitour Shane Oneile.

And after that the said lord deputie was come, and had staid there about six daies, The lord deputie cōmeth to the Dirrie and setteth all things in order for the seruice. and had set all things in such good order as that seruice required; he returned backe to Dublin through Odonels countrie, and so thorough Connagh, leauing the coronell accompanied with one band of fiftie horssemen vnder the leading of capteine George Ileruie the elder, and with seuen companies or hundreds of footmen vnder the charges of capteine Robert Cornewall, and capteine Iohn Ward, and others; all well furnished, both with munitions, vittels, and all other necessaries meet and requisit. Shane Oneile who knew well of the garrisons, of their forces & numbers, and Oneil incampeth néere the Dirrie and offereth skirmish. he not minding that they should there rest in peace, but standing now vpon his honor and reputation, incamped himselfe about two miles from the garrison, hauing then in his armie two thousand fiue hundred footmen, & thrée hundred horsmen. And frō daie to daie he would continuallie with his horssemen houer and range the fields, and shew himselfe readie to trie the matter if the Englishmen durst to aduenture the same.

The coronell not liking these dailie offers, and thinking it to be a verie great dishonour vnto him, and all the English nation, which were come ouer to serue against him, and now would doo nothing, but were dailie bearded by the enimie: notwithstanding that his forces when they were at the best, were but small in respect of the enimie; and by reason of the sicknesse in the campe, that his small companie was much weakened and vnable to serue: yet he was determined with a full resolution to take the offer of the enimie, and either he would lose his life, or remooue him from his so neere a seat. Wherevpon he drew out of his companie to the number of three hundred men, whome he thought most méet to serue, and being accompanied The coronell prepareth to fight with Oneile. with fiftie horssemen vnder capteine George Ileruie, marched toward Oueils campe, who pretending a great ioy to sée the forwardnesse of the Englishmen, he with all his forces issued out, and with spéed prepared to incounter with them; persuading himselfe that he should that daie be maister of the field, and haue a conquest to his hearts desire.

The coronell made choise of the ground to fight in, and prepared himselfe to stand and abide their charge. Oneile in great furie, and with a great multitude charged the coronels footmen, and his maine battell; but he was so receiued with the English shot and so galled, that he made some staie. Wherevpon capteine Hernie taking his The valiant seruice of capteine George Heruie. oportunitie, most valiantlie with his small band of horssemen brake in to the battell of Oneile. Likewise coronell Randolph with his few horssemen gaue the charge vpon the left wing of them. The one of them being well followed and accompanied with his band, did the seruice which he desired: but the coronell verie valiantlie making The coronell Randolph is slaine. waie through the enimies, and no man following him, was in fighting wounded to death, and whereof immediatlie he died. The rebels being astonied and amazed at the valour of the Englishmen, fled and turned their backs, whome the souldiers Oneile and his companie flie, and are pursued, killed & hurt about 800. followed, and had the slaughter of them so long as their weapons lasted in this con flict. The rebels were slaine that daie in this chase aboue foure hundred persons, besides the like number of such as were hurt and wounded. The coronell onelie was slaine, but capteine Heruie and diuerse of the horssemen were verie sore hurt and wounded.

After the death of this valiant coronell, whose funerall the lord deputie did afterwards The lord deputie kéepeth the coronell Randolphs funerals. celebrate with great honour at Dublin, Edward Sentlow was made coronell: vnder whose gouernement the garrison liued verie quietlie. For this last ouerthrow so quailed the spirits and courages of Oneile and his companie, that they had no desire of anie further incountering with the Englishmen. And thus all the winter following little was doone: and being determined in the spring to aduenture some peece of seruice, but the lord otherwise appointed it. For about the foure and twentith of Aprill, by a misfortune neuer yet knowne by what means, the fort and The Dirrie and all the vittels and munitions are burned. towne of the Dirrie was all burned, and the storehouses where the munitions and vittels laie were blowne vp with the gunpowder, and twentie men killed with the same: and so manie of the souldiers as laie sicke there were burned in their beds. Wherevpon the coronell calling all his capteins togither, and considering the distresse which they now were in, by the losse of their vittels and munitions, and not knowing where to be furnished otherwise, they all concluded and determined to abandon that The coronell abandoneth Dirrie, and returneth to Dublin by seas. Capteine George Heruie returneth by land in great danger. place, and to imbarke themselues for Dublin, which immediatlie they all did, sauing capteine George Heruie: for he rather did choose to hazard his life to returne by land, than to impouerish his souldiers by killing their horsses (which perforce they must needs haue doone) for want of shipping. And therefore euen almost against all hope he returned towards Dublin through the enimies countrie, who followed and chased him foure daies togither without intermission, both with horssemen and footmen: but at length he recouered Dublin, not without great woonder and admiration. The lord deputie he wanted not his espials, both about Oneile, and in all places throughout Vlster: and thereby knew the forces, bent, and determinations of euerie of them, whereby he knew how to meet with them euerie waie for the best seruice of hir maiestie. And yet considering the great importance of the seruice, he could not be satisfied herein, but that he would make a iournie into Vlster himselfe. And being accompanied The lord deputie maketh a iournie into Vlster. with the earle of Kildare, and certeine of the councell, and with such cap, teins and souldiers as he thought good: he aduanced & set foorth out of Drogheda the seuenteenth of September 1566, and incamped that night at Rosse Keagh, & so from 1566 thense he trauelled throughout Vlster, and passed thense vnto Athlon in Connagh, where he came the six and twentith of October.

In this iournie the rebell neuer durst (for all his brags) once to shew his The pusillanimitie of the Oneile. face, nor to offer anie fight at all: sauing once at and néere a wood not far from Glogher, where he offered a skirmish, and gaue the charge with horssemen, footmen, and certeine Scotish shot: which continued a good space, and sundrie hurt on both sides, but none died of his lordships men. He shewed himselfe also once with a great multitude of horssemen and footmen, not farre from the castell of Tirlough Lenough, called the Salmon, but tooke his ease and durst not to giue the aduenture. In this iournie the lord deputie restored Odonell to the possession of his lands and castels, Odonell restored vnto his possessions. The lord deputie recouereth a great countrie in Vlster vnto the crowne. kept by Oneile from him; & sundrie lords and men of the best sort submitted themselues. By which this his lordships iournie he recouered to hir highnesse a countrie of foure score miles in length, and eight and fortie miles in bredth, without losse of anie man sauing Mac Gwier, who being sicke died in this iournie; and sauing a few persons which by the waie vpon an occasion would aduenture the winning of a certeine Iland in the middle of a lough, wherein was supposed to be great store of wealth and vittels of the enimies, and in assailing of it they were drowned.

Immediatlie vpon the discharge of the armie at Athlon, the lord deputie fortified all the frontiers of the English pale with garrisons sufficient for the same. And as concerning the troublesome state of Mounster, the earle of Desmond was in the field The earle of Desmond is in campe and doth no hurt. with two thousand men, and incamped himselfe in places indifferent to annoie at his pleasure the earle of Ormond, the lord Barrie, the lord Roch, and sir Moris Fitzgirald of the Decies; but he did not hurt anie man at all: sauing one Mac Donogh a rebell and a disloiall sauage man. The lord deputie being ouerlaied with the continuall cares to resist Oneile, could not in person trauell into Mounster, nor yet without great perill diuide his armie: wherefore he sent capteine Herne constable of Leighlin vnto the said earle, whereby he might be aduertised of his intendement and meaning: which appeared to be but a méere insolencie and an outrage to be reuenged vpon the earle of Ormond, although the rumor was, that he would conioine with Oneile. Which report when it came to his eares, and being aduertised that the lord deputie The earle of Desmond maketh his repaire to the lord deputie. was offended with him that he had gathered such a force, and was in the fields. He for his purgation herein, without further delaie, tooke his horsse, and hauing in his companie onelie the baron of Dunboine, and capteine Herne, with their companies, made hast to present himselfe before the lord deputie: where and before whome for purging of himselfe, and to declare his dutie, he offered himselfe to his lordships denotion, either to go and attend him vnto Vlster in that sort as he then was, or else to follow him with all such force as he could get; the lord deputie finding him vittels: and then to abide & serue in Vlster in despite of Shane Oneile; or else that he would in his lordships absence remaine vpon the borders there, with such a number of horssemen, as should be appointed vnto him; shewing also and pretending such dutifulnesse to hir maiestie, as was méet for a subiect to shew to his souereigne. The deputie hauing some liking of his offers, and considering the fickle state of these presents, accepteth his last offer, willing him to go backe againe, and to prepare a crew of one hundred horssemen, at the least, and so to returne againe within fouretéene daies: which he did, and with him came sir Iohn Desmond, his The earle of Desmond serueth in the English pale. vncle the baron of Dunboine, the lord Powre and others: who accompanied with the baron of Deluin, sir Warham Sentleger, and capteine Herne, did remaine vpon the borders, vntill his lordships returne from out of his iournie in Vlster.

And as the realme at large was much infested with the cruell warres of Oneile and the troubles in Mounster; so also there wanted no daily complaints of griefs vnto the lord deputie of sundrie persons one against an other. For Oliuer Sutton, a Oliuer Sutton complaineth against the earle of Kildare. gentleman dwelling in the English pale, did exhibit a certeine booke in writing, conteining an information of sundrie notorious disorders in that realme, hurtfull to the good policie of the same, and contrarie to sundrie good lawes and acts of parlement, whereof a great part did touch the earle of Kildare. The matter was referred by hir maiesties order to the hearing of the lord deputie and councell. Likewise sir Edmund The ladie of Dunboine complaineth against the Butlers. Butler and Piers his brother were greeuouslie complained vpon by the ladie of Dunboine, Mac Brian Arra, Oliuer Fitzgirald, sir William Occarell, and others; for their dailie outrages, robberies, murthers, preies, and spoiles taken. For the hearing and appeasing of such matters, and for the better ministration of iustice, the lord deputie had béene a long sutor to hir maiestie and councell for a chancellor to be sent ouer, who at length were resolued vpon doctor Weston, deane of the arches, who arriued at Dublin in Iulie 1567, a notable and a singular man, by profession 1567 Doctor Weston is made lord chancellor of Ireland. a lawyer, but in life a diuine, a man so bent to the execution of iustice, and so seuere therein, that by no meanes would he be seduced or auerted from the same: and so much good in the end insued of his vpright, diligent, and dutifull seruice, as that the whole realme found themselues most happie and blessed to haue him serue among them. Now he taking vpon him to deale in all matters of com plaints, both eased the lord deputie of a great burthen, and did most good to the countrie, and acquited himselfe against hir maiestie.

But to returne to the lord deputie, who immediatlie vpon the dismissing of the armie at Athlon, he tooke order (as is aforesaid) for placing of his garrisons in such conuenient places vpon the frontiers, as then apperteined and was most méet & conuenient. The rebell on his part leaueth nothing vndoon, which might be for the furtherance of his enterprises: and being in great iollitie of himselfe deuised manie things; and to make some shew of his abilitie, entered into the English pale, with The Oneile entereth the English pale with sword and fire. The Oneile besiegeth Dundalke the second time, and departed with great dishonor. The Oneile forsaken of friends. Mac Gwier forsaketh Oneile, and so doo the Scots. sword and fire wasted the countrie, slue manie of hir maiesties subiects, and in the end besieged hir highnesse towne of Dundalke: where his pride and treason were iustlie scourged, who came not with so much glorie to besiege it, as he did returne with shame to leaue and loose it. The lord deputie not abiding the same nor sleeping his matters, determined to make a new rode vpon him: and in the meane time, he so handled the matter, that he had vnfethered him of his best friends, aids, and helps. For besides the whole countrie, as is before said, gained from him the last iournie, Mac Gwier, a mightie man in his countrie forsooke him, and submitted himselfe to hir maiestie, offering all loiall obedience and faithfull seruice, and to receiue his lands and countrie at hir highnesse hands.

Alexander Og and Mac Donell offer to serue hir maiestie, with all the Scots vnder them against the rebell. Con Odonell late deliuered from the rebell, offereth sernice against him. Tirlogh Lenough with the helps of his neighbours dailie backed the said Oneile, that his force was quailed that waie. The lord deputie had continuallie four regiments residing neere the English pale, who continuallie as it were by turnes were occupied in persecuting of the rebell: & his lordship being The lord deputie taketh a great preie vpon the Oneile. at Drogheda did also issue out, and in one morning tooke a preie of two thousand kine, 500 garrons, and innumerable other small beasts and cattell. The rebell seeing himselfe thus distressed of his goods, and forsaken of his helps and followers, his men, some by Odonell, and some by others to the number of thrée or foure thousand persons at times slaine, himselfe discomfited, his passages stopped, and The Oneile distressed of all comfort is in doubt what to doo. all places of his refuge preuented, and now but one poore castell left wherein he trusted to commit himselfe vnto; he being thus weakened, and beholding his declination and fall towards, was fullie bent and determined to disguise himselfe, and so as not knowne to come with a collar or halter about his necke to the presence of the lord deputie, and in all humble and lowlie maner to submit himselfe: hoping Oneile his owne conscience condemneth him to séeke submission. that by this kind of humilitie to find mercie at hir maiesties hands. But his conscience was so cauterised, and his hands so imbrued with infinit and most horrible murthers, bloudsheds, treasons, whoredomes, drunkennesse, robberies, burnings, spoiles, oppressions, and with all kinds ofwickednesse, that his heart was ouerlaied and ouerladen with an vtter despaire to obteine anie grace or fauor: and therefore was the more easilie persuaded by those whome he tooke to be his friends, to trie first and to intreat the Scots for friendship, and that they would ioine and aid him in his most wicked rebellion. Wherevpon he tooke his iournie towards Clandeboie, where Oneile séeketh for helpe of the Scots. Alexander Og and his companie, to the number of six hundred persons, were then incamped: and for the better gaining of his purpose, he had a little before inlarged Charleie Boie brother to the said Alexander, and who had béene prisoner with him.

The Scots disguised the matter with him, pretending and promising him aid and The Scots doo disguise with Oneile. assistance: which they ment not. For assoone as Oneile togither with Odonels wife, whom he kept, & the small companie which he brought with him were come into the tent, and they assured of him; they called to remembrance the manifold iniuries which they had receiued at his hands, and namelie the murthering of one Iames Mac Conell, & one Mac Guillie their néere cousins and kinsmen: and being inflamed with mali cious minds to reuenge their deths, they fell to quarelling with the said Shane Oneile, Shane Oneil slaine by the Scots by a draught made by capteine Piers. and with their slaughter swords hewed him to peeces, and slue all those of his companie that were with him: his bodie they wrapped in a Kernes shirt, and so without all honor was carried to a ruinous church not farre off, and there interred; but after a few daies he was taken vp againe by capteine Piers, by whose deuise this stratagem or rather tragedie was practised, and his head was sundred from the bodie, and sent to Shane Oneils head set vpon the top of the castell of Dublin. the lord deptie, who caused the same to be set vpon a stake or pole on the top of the castle of Dublin. A fit end for such a beginning, and a iust reward for such a wicked traitor and sacrileger: who began his tyrannie in bloud, did continue it with bloud, and ended it with blond. The lord deputie being then at Drogheda, and aduertised of the death of this Shane, and of the iust iudgements of God laid vpon him; for the same prostrated himselfe before the high and eternall God, and gaue his most humble and hartie thanks for the deliuerie of that land from so wicked a tyrant, sacriliger and traitor; and with all the conuenient spéed that might be, he dispatched the The quéene aduertised of Shane Oneils death. messengers to hir maiestie and conncell, aduertising this hap and good successe. Which doone, his lordship with all spéed made his repaire into Vlster, and incamped himselfe in the middle and heart of the countrie, vnto whome all the noblemen and gentlemen of Tiron, being glad that they were deliuered from the tyrant, made their repaire vnto his lordship: and especiallie all they which were competitors of the capteinrie The noblemen of Vlster, being glad of Oneils death do submit themselues. of Tiron, who most humblie and obedientlie presented and submitted themselues vnto hir highuesse. And when his lordship had set all things in such order as the time required, he assembled all the gentlemen of the countrie, and most pithilie and effectuallie instructed and persuaded them to obedience, teaching them the great blessings of God which commeth thereby, as also putteth them in mind what inconueniences, miseries and calamities they had felt by the contrarie: and for their greater quietnesse and peace, he promised shortlie to send commissioners amongst them, who should haue authoritie to decide all controuersies betweene partie and partie (title of land and death of man excepted.)

Also he proclamed and commanded hir maiesties peace to be kept, and commanded Orders giuen by the lord deputie to the noble men of Vlster. all churchmen and husbandmen to returne to their accustomed exercises: and that all men of warre should liue vpon their owne, or vpon that which their fréends with a good will would giue them: and so publishing peace uniuersallie, enerie man departed home ioifillie. The lord deputie likewise returned to Dublin, and commanded Oneils sonne is cōmitted to safe custodie. the sonne of the late rebell, who laie for an hostage of his father, to be safelie kept in the castell of Dublin, according to hir maiesties letters of commandement in that behalfe, dated the sixt of Iulie 1567. The quéenes maiestie being deliuered from this traitorous rebell, and hauing all Vlster at hir commandement and disposition, was verie desirous to haue a true plot of the whole land, wherby she might in some sort see the same, & did send ouer into Ireland one Robert Léeth, skilfull in that art, and Robert Léeth sent into Ireland to draw a true plot of the whole land. that he should make the perfect descriptions of the same. Likewise also she being auertised of the outragious dealings of the earle of Desmond, in mainteining proclamed rebels, and continuing of warres against the earle of Ormond (whose insolencie to séeke to be reuenged vpon the said earle, was the disturbance of the whole realme, the spoile of the whole countrie, and the onelie cause of great murthers, bloudshed, and vndooing of manie people) she willed the lord deputie by hir letters The earle of Desmond committed to ward, and sent to the tower, togither with his brother sir Iohn Desmond. to apprehend the said Desmond, and to commit him to the castell of Dublin, which was so doone. And after both he and his brother sir Iohn of Desmond were sent into England, and there committed to the tower.

After all the foresaid broiles and ciuill wars were appeased, and the realme set in quietnesse and good order, the lord deputie hauing receiued hir maiesties letters for his repaire into England vnto hir presence, he did accordinglie prepare himselfe 1567 therevnto, and by a commission vnder hir brode seale of Ireland did appoint doctor Weston then lord chancellor, and sir William Fitzwilliams treasuror at wars, to be Doctor Weston and sir William Fitzwilliams made lords iustices. lords iustices in his absence: the one of them being verie well learned, iust, and vpright; the other verie wise, and of great knowledge and experience in the affaires of that land. Both which two being like well minded to doo hir maiestie seruice, did most louinglie and brotherlie agree therein, each one aduising and aduertising the other according to the seuerall gifts which God had bestowed vpon them: by which meanes they passed their gouernment verie well and quietlie to the great contentation of hir maiestie, the commendation of themselues, and the common peace of the countrie; and so the said sir Henrie hauing placed the said iustices, he passed the seas into England, and carried with him the earle of Desmond and Sir Henrie Sidneie lord deputie passeth into England, and caried with him the earle of Desmond. Oconnor Sligo, he was with great honor receiued at the court, and the other was sent to the tower. Hir maiestie lay at this time at Hampton court, and looking out at a window, she saw him to come in with two hundred men attending vpon him, and not knowing at the first sight who it was, it was told hir that it was sir Henrie Sidneie hir deputie in Ireland; "Then it is well (quoth she) for he hath two of the best offices in England." So he presented himselfe before hir highnesse, and was Ed. Molineux. welcome to hir. Neuerthelesse, after his departure, the particular grudges betwéene some certeine men brake out into great and outragious disorders, as sir Edmund Sir Edmund Butler breaketh out into outrages. Butler with great hostilitie maketh inuasion vpon Oliuer Fitzgirald, being accompanied with Piers Grace. The outlawes of the Oconnors and Omores proKlamed traitors, and hauing in the field a thousand of Gallowglasses, horssemen, and cernes, threaten to burne the towne of Kilkennie, and spoile Ocarell of his countrie. But they as also Oliuer Fitzgirald, a man not apt in times past to complaine, but rather bent to satisfie himselfe with double reuenge, leauing to séeke reuenge by armes, made their recourses to the lords iustices, and by law requested redresse. The erle of Clancart was puffed vp with such insolencie, that he named himselfe king of Mounster, and did confederate with the Mac Swaines, Osoliuan More, and others The pride of Mac Artie More earle of Clancart. The earle of Clancart maketh warres vpon the lord Roch. Iames Fitzmoris maketh warre vpon the baron of Lixenew. of the Irishrie of that prouince, and in warlike manner and with bannérs displaied inuadeth the lord Roches countrie, and in burning of his countrie, he destroied all the corne therein, seuen hundred shéepe, and a great number of men, women and children, and carried awaie fiftéene hundred kine, and a hundred garons. Also Iames Fitzmoris of Desmond maketh cruell warres against the lord Fitzmoris baron of Lixenew, which albeit they were but priuie displeasures, yet troublesome to the whole countrie: and the lords iustices being not prepared to stop the same, they did yet so temporise with them, as they gained time, till further order might be taken vpon aduertisement of hir maiesties pleasure herein. About this time one Morice a runnigate préest, hauing latelie béene at Rome, and there consecrated by the popes bull archbishop of Cashell, arriued into Ireland, and made chalenge to the same see: which being denied vnto him by the archbishop The archbishop of Cashel in danger to be killed. which was there placed by hir maiestic, the said supposed bishop suddenlie with an Irish skaine wounded the bishop, and put him in danger of his life.

This yeare sir Peter Carew of Mohonesotreie in the countie of Denon knight, one Sir Peter Carew maketh sute to hir maiestie for the recouerie of his lands in Ireland. descended of a noble and high parentage, whose ancestors for sundrie hundred of yeares were not onelie barons of Carew in England; but marquesses of Corke, barons of Odron, and lords of Maston Twete; and sundrie other segniories in Ireland. When he had looked into his euidences, and had found how by right these great inheritances were descended vnto him: he made the quéens maiestie and councell acquainted therewith, and praied that with their fauor and furtherance he might haue libertie to follow, and by order of law to recouer the same. Which was granted vnto him, as also he had hir highnesse and their lordships seueral letters to them, then lords iustices and officers there to that effect: and willing them to aid and assist him with all such hir maiesties euidences remaining in the records of the castell of Dublin, or else where in that land; and by all such other good meanes they might. Wherevpon he sent the writer hereof to be his agent: who hauing by search found his title to be good, and confirmed by sundrie records and presidents, found in hir maiesties treasurie and castell of Dublin, answering and agréeing with the euidences of sir Peter Carew: then the said sir Peter passed in person Sir Peter Carew passeth into Ireland. into Ireland, and made title and claime to the lordship of Maston, then in the possession of sir Christopher Chiuers knight, and to the baronie of Odron, then in the occupation of the Cauenaughs.

The first, when it was found good in law, and sir Christopher Chiuers yéelded, and compounded for it: the other was trauersed before the lord deputie and councell, and vpon good and substantiall euidences, records, and proofes; a decrée passed by the lords of the councell, in the behalfe of sir Peter Carew, and the same confirmed by the Sir Peter Carew by a decrée recouereth the baronie of Odron. lord deputie, and by that meanes he recouered the possession of the baronie, which was before taken from his ancestors; as the records doo impart, about the eighteenth yeare of king Richard the second. But as for the marqueship of Corke, being a matter of great weight and importance, and the prouince of Mounster then not setled in anie quietnesse: he would not as then nor yet thought it good to deale 1568 Sir Henrie Sidneie returneth lord deputie. therein. Sir Henrie Sidneie, hauing spent a long time in England, was commanded to returne to his charge in Ireland, where he arriued at Crag Fergus, in September 1568: and tooke the sword of gouernement vpon him, and so discharged the lords iustices. And then he and the councell by their letters of the fourth of Nouember 1568, did aduertise hir maiestie of the state that the said realme of Ireland then stood in. Which in briefe consisted in these points immediatlie following.

That sir Edmund Butler had made a preie in Shilelagh vpon Oliuer Fitzgarret, The state that Ireland stood in. and doone sundrie murders, burnings, and great spoiles vpon his countrie: who was forthwith sent for, and refuseth to come, excusing that he had businesse about the execution of certeine seruices in the counties of Kilkennie, and Tiporarie, and that the residue of all Leinster was quiet. That Connagh was in indifferent good order, Connagh in reasonable peace. sauing some contention betwéene the earle of Clanricard, and Mac William Enter; and an old controuersie renewed betwéene Odonell and Oconner Sligo for the title of a rent in Enter, Connaghs countrie. In Thomond great complaints made against the earle thereof, by Oshaghnes, who by reason of the oppression of the said earle, he was compelled with his followers to forsake his countries. As for Mounster, it was all in Mounster out of order. disorder by the warres of Iames Fitzmoris of Desmond, against Fitzmoris baron of Lixenew: and of the earle of Clancart, against the baron of Roch: and also by the disorders of Edward Butler, who being combined with Piers Grace and certeine outlawes, did disorderlie spoile and preie the countries to féed their bellies.

The present state of Vlster the lord deputie being desirous to know the certeintie thereof, immediatlie vpon his landing in Ireland he made a iourneie throughout the same, and found the Irishrie to stand in wauering terms: wherevpon he sent for Turlogh Lenogh Oneile, who yéelding himselfe somewhat guiltie, because he somewhat swarued from his dutie, and differed from the articles in his lordships absence Turlogh Lenogh breaketh the peace, but submitteth himself. before, concluded with him in making a iourneie vpon Ferneie, and in combining with the Scots, of whome he had in retinue about one thousand; he desired pardon: which it was long and verie hardlie obteined, and not vntil his lordship had caused the pledges to be executed, which the Scots had put in for their loialtie. Odoneile quietlie possessed the countrie of Trireconell, and continued a dutifull subiect to hir maiestie; sauing the old grudge betwéene him and Turlogh did rather increase than decaie. Ochan lord of the land betwéene Loghfoile and the Ban, being for the same sometime molested by Turlogh Lenogh, did beare with all iniuries, and desired to be exempted from Turlogh, and to hold the same of the queenes maiestie. The like did the two principall men, eligible for the capteinrie of Tiron, desire for their parts all the residue of Vlster in good staie and quietnesse.

The lord deputie after this iourneie returned to Dublin, and there, when by the aduise of the councell he had disposed all things in good order concerning the gouernement; he caused the writs for summons of the parlement to be awarded out vnto euerie noble man for his appéerance; & to euerie shiriffe for choosing of knights and burgesses for their like appéerance at Dublin the seuentéenth of Ianuarie, in the eleuenth yeare of hir maiesties reigne; at which time and daie appéerance A parlement summoned at Dublin. was then and there made accordinglie. On the first daie of which parlement, the lord deputie, representing hir maiesties person, was conducted and attended in most honorable manner vnto Christes church, and from thense vnto the parlement house: where he sat vnder the cloth of estate, being apparelled in the princelie robes of crimson veluet doubled or lined with ermin. And then & there the lord chancellor made a verie eloquent oration, declaring what law was, of what great effect and value, how the common societie of men was thereby mainteined, and each man in his The lord chancellor his oration. degrée conserued; as well the inferior as the superior, the subiect as the prince: and how carefull all good common-wealths in the elder ages haue béene in this respect: who considering the time, state, and necessitie of the common-wealth, did from time to time ordeine and establish most holsome lawes, either of their deuises, or drawen from some other good common-wealth: and by these meanes haue prospered and continued.

And likewise, how the quéenes most excellent maiestie, as a most naturall mother ouer hir children, and as a most vigilant prince ouer hir subiects, hath béene alwaies, & now presentlie is verie carefull, studious, & diligent in this behalfe: hauing caused this present parlement to be assembled, that by the councell and aduise of you hir nobilitie, & you hir knights and burgesses, such good lawes, orders, and ordinances maie be decréed, as maie be to the honor of almightie God, the preseruation of hir maiestie, and of hir imperiall crowne of this realme, and the safetie of the commonwealth of the whole realme: for which they were not onelie to be most thankefull; but also most carefull to doo their duties in this behalfe. And then he the lord speaker directing his speeches to the knights and burgesses, who were there in the behalfe of the whole commons of the realme, willed them that for the auoiding of confusion, and for an orderlie procéeding in this action: they should assemble themselues at and in the house appointed for that assemblie; and there to make choise of some wise and sufficient man to be their mouth & speaker. And then concluding with an exhortation of obedience and dutifulnesse, he ended, and the court adiourned vntill thursdaie next, the twentith of Ianuarie. In the meane time, the knights and burgesses met in the lower house, and appointed for their speaker one Stanihurst, recorder of the citie of Dublin, a verie graue, wise, and learned man; who vpon Stanihurst chosen to be speaker of the lower house. thursdaie aforesaid was presented to the lord deputie, and to the lords of the higher house: & then he hauing doone most humblie his obedience and dutie, made his oration and speech; first abasing himselfe, being not a man sufficientlie adorned and furnished with such gifts of knowledge and learning, as to such an office and calling dooth apperteine: wherein he was so much the more vnfit, as the cause he had in Stanihursts oraion. hand was of great weight and importance. And therefore he wished, if it might so séeme good to his lordship, some man of more grauitie, and of better experience, knowledge, and learning might supplie the place. Neuerthelesse, for somuch as he might not refuse it, he was the more willing, because he did well hope his seruice being doone with his best good will, and in all dutifulnesse, it would be accepted. And againe his comfort was the more, because he had to deale in such a cause, as was for the establishing of some good and holsome lawes, whereof he was a professor.

And herevpon he tooke an occasion, according to the argument that was before handled by the lord chancellor, speaker in the higher house, to discourse of the nature and good effect of lawes, and what good successe there insueth to all such realmes, countries, and common-wealths, as by lawes are well ruled & gouerned. And when he had spoken at large hereof, there he declared what great causes that realme of Ireland had, to giue for euer most hartie thanks and praises to God for his goodnesse, in sending such a vertuous, noble, and a most godlie prince, as was hir maiestie; who not onlie was carefull by the sword to stand in their defense against all enimies, traitors, and rebels, in times of wars and rebellions: but also for their conseruation in times of peace would haue such lawes, statutes, and ordinances to be made in a parlement of themselues, as should be most expedient for the commonwealth of the same land. When he had at large discoursed of this matter, then he concluded with an humble petition, that it might please hir maiestie to grant vnto them their liberties and fréedoms of old belonging to euerie assemblie of a parlement. The first was, that euerie man being a member of the lower house, should and might The requests of the speaker for allowance of the liberties of the parlement house. haue frée comming and going to and from the parlement: and during their abode at the same without molestation or impeachment of anie person or persons, or for anie matter then to be laid against anie of them. The second, that they and euerie of them might haue libertie to speake their minds fréelie to anie bill to be read, & matter to be proposed in that parlement. Thirdlie, that if anie of the said house shuld misorder and misbehaue himselfe in anie vndecent manner, or if anie other person should euill intreat or abuse anie of the said house, that the correction and punishment of euerie such offendor should rest and remaine in the order of the said house. When he had ended his spéech, and in most humble maner doone his obeisance; the lord deputie hauing paused vpon the matter, made answer to euerie The lord deputie answereth Stanihursts oration. particular point in most eloquent and effectuall manner, which consisted in these points: Nothing misliking with the speaker for so much abasing of himselfe, because he knew him to be both graue, wise, and learned, and verie sufficient for that place, doubting nothing but that he would performe the same in all dutifulnesse, as to him apperteined. And concerning the benefit which groweth to all nations and common-wealths by the vse of the lawes; besides that dailie experience did confirme the same generallie, so no one nation particularlie could better auouch it than this realme of Ireland: and therefore he did well hope that they would accordinglie frame themselues to liue accordinglie, and also to praie for hir maiesties safetie and long life, whereby vnder hir they might inioie a peaceable and a quiet life in all prosperitie. And concerning the priuileges, which they requested to be allowed, forsomuch as the same at the first were granted to the end that they might the better and more quietlie serue hir highnesse in that assemblie, to hir honor, and to the benefit of the common-wealth, it pleased hir maiestie so long as the were not impeached, nor hir imperiall state derogated, that they should inioie the same. And so after a long time spent in this oration the court was adiourned.

The next daie following being fridaie the lower house met; and contrarie to the order of that house, and dutie of that companie, in stéed of vnitie there began a diuision, and for concord discord was receiued. For all, or the most part of the knights and burgesses of the English pale, especiallie they who dwelled within the counties of Meth and Dublin, who seeing a great number of Englishmen to haue place in that house began to except against that assemblie as not good, nor warranted by A mutinie in the lower house. law. Their vantparler was sir Christopher Barnwell knight, who being somewhat Sir Christopher Barnwell excepteth against the choise of the burgesses. learned, his credit was so much the more, and by them thought most méetest and worthie to haue béene the speaker for that house. And he being the spokesman alleged three speciall causes, whie he and his complices would not yéeld their consents. The first was, because that there were certeine burgesses returned for sundrie townes, which were not corporat, and had no voice in the parlement. The second was, that certeine shiriffes, and certeine maiors of townes corporat had returned themselues. The third and chéefest was that a number of Englishmen were returned to be burgesses of such towns and corporations, as which some of them neuer knew, and none at all were resiant & dwelling in the same, according as by the lawes is required.

These matters were questioned among themselues in the lower house for foure daies togither, and no agreement: but the more words, the more choler; and the more spéeches, the greater broiles; vntill in the end, for appeasing the matter, the same was referred to the lord deputie and iudges of the realme: vnto whom the said speaker was sent to declare the whole matter, and to know their resolutions. And they hauing at large discoursed and conferred of this matter, returned their answer; that concerning the first and second exceptions, that the burgesses returned for The resolution of the iudges. townes not corporat, and for such shiriffes, maiors, and souereignes as haue returned themselues, shall be dismissed out of the same: but as for such others as the shiriffes and maiors had returned, they should remaine, and the penaltie to rest vpon the shiriffes for their wrong returnes. The messenger of this answer, howsoeuer he were liked, his message could not be receiued nor allowed: which being aduertised The disliking of the iudges opinions. The selfewill and frowardnesse of the burgesse of the English pale. vnto the lord deputie and the iudges, then Lucas Dillon hir maiesties attorneie generall was sent vnto them, to ratifie and confirme their resolutions: and yet could not he be credited, neither would they be satisfied, vnlesse the iudges themselues would come in persons and set downe this to be their resolutions. Vpon this answer the speaker commanded a bill to be read, but the foresaid persons would not suffer nor abide the reading thereof: but rose vp in verie disordered manner, farre differing from their duties in that place, and as contrarie to that grauitie and wisedome, which was or should be in them. Wherefore, for pacifieng of the same, the chéefe iustices of the quéenes bench, and the chéefe iustices of the common plées: the queenes sergeant, attornie generall, and sollicitor, the next daie following came to the lower house, and there did affirme their former resolutions, which thought it might haue sufficed. Yet certeine lawiers who had place in that house, did not altogither like thereof.

And albeit this matter were orderlie compassed, and sufficient to haue contented euerie man: yet the same was so stomached, that the placing of the Englishmen to be knights and burgesses, could not be digested, as did appéere in the sequele of that assemblie, where euerie bill furthered by the English gentlemen was stopped and hindered by them. And especiallie sir Edmund Butler, who in all Sir Edmund Butler misliketh with the parlement. things which tended to the quéenes maiesties profit or common-wealth, he was a principall against it: fearing that their capteinries should be taken awaie, and coine, and liuerie be abolished, and such other like disorders redressed, which he and his complices misliking, it did euen open it selfe of a rebellion then a brewing and towards. Which in déed followed. For immediatlie after the parlement, he returned home with a discontented mind, and gathered his forces, and followed his purpose. But to the purpose.

There were two billes put in of moment & great consequence. The one was concerning the repeale of an act for that sessions, onelie made in the time of sir The repeale of Poinings act. Edward Poinings lord deputie, in the tenth yere of king Henrie the seuenth, which though it were meant most for their owne benefit and common-wealth of that realme: yet so gelous they were, that they would not in long time enter into the consideration thereof. The other was for the granting of the impost for wines then first read. The act for imposts of wines. And in this matter they shewed themselues verie froward & so vnquiet, that it was more like a bearebaiting of disordered persons, than a parlement of wise and graue men. Wherewith a certeine English gentleman (the writer hereof) being a burgesse of the towne of Athenrie in Connagh, who had before kept silence, and still so meant to haue doone; when he saw these foule misorders and ouerthwarting, being gréeued, stood vp, and praied libertie to speake to the bill, who made a preamble, saieng, that it was an vsage in Pithagoras schooles, that no scholers of his should for certeine yeares reason, dispute, or determine, but giue eare and keepe silence: meaning that when a man is once well instructed, learned, and aduised, and hath well deliberated of the things he hath to do, he should with more discretion and wisdome, speake, order, and direct the same. Notwithstanding, now he being but a man of small experience, and of lesse knowledge in matters of importance, and therefore once minded to haue beene altogither silent, is inforced euen of a verie zeale and conscience, and for the discharge of his dutie, to praie their patience, and to beare with his speeches. And then vpon occasion of the bill read, and matter offered, he entred into the discourse what was the office & authoritie of a prince, and what was the dutie of a subiect: and lastlie, how the queenes maiestie had most honorablie and carefullie performed the one, and how vndutifullie they had considered the other: for that she neither found that obedience in that land, which still liued in rebellion against hir; neither that beneuolence of the better sort, which for hir great expenses spent for their defenses and safeties they ought to haue yéelded vnto hir. It appeered manifest in sundrie things, and speciallie in this present assemblie, namelie one bill concerning the repeale of Poinings act, for this time onelie meant for your owne benefit, and for the common-wealth of this realme: and the other concerning the bill now in question, the one by you denied, and the other liketh you not. And yet hir maiestie, of hir owne roiall authoritie, might and may establish the same without anie of your consents, as she hath alreadie doone the like in England; sauing of hir courtesie it pleaseth hir to haue it passe with your owne consents by order of law, that she might thereby haue the better triall and assurance of your dutifulnesse and goodwill towards hir. But as she hath and dooth find your bent farre otherwise, so dooth the right honorable the lord deputie find the like. For notwithstanding his long seruices in times past, his continuall and dailie trauels, iorneies, and hostings, with the great perill of his life against the rebels for your sake and safetie; and his endlesse turmoiles and troubles in ciuill matters and priuat sutes for your quietnesse, and to you well known, he hath deserued more than well at your hands: yet as the vnthankfull Israelites against Moses, the vnkind Romans against Camillus, Scipio, and others: and as the vngratefull Atheniens against Socrates, Themistocles, Meltiades, and others; you haue and doo most vngratfullie requite and recompense this your noble gouernor: against whome and his dooings you doo kicke and spurne what in you lieth. But in the end it will fall vpon you, as it hath doone vnto others to your owne shame, ouerthrow, and confusion. And when he had spent a long time in this matter, and prooued the same by sundrie histories of other nations, he procéeded to the bill, which by sundrie reasons and arguments he prooued to be most necessarie, and méet to be liked, allowed, and consented vnto.

Now when he had thus ended his spéeches, he sat downe, the most part of the house verie well liking and allowing both of the person and of the matter; sauing the persons before named, who did not heare the same so attentiuelie as they did digest it most vnquietlie, supposing themselues to be touched herein. And therfore some one of them rose vp and would haue answered the partie, but the time and daie was so far spent aboue the ordinarie houre, being well néere two of the clocke in the afternoone, that the speker and the court rose vp and departed. Howbeit such was the present murmurings and threatnings breathed out, that the said gentleman for his safetie was by some of the best of that assemblie conducted to the house of sir Peter Carew, where the said gentleman then laie and resided. The lord deputie in the meane time, hearing that the lower house were so close, and continued togither so long aboue the ordinarie time, he doubted that it had béene concerning the questions before proponed, and therefore did secretlie send to the house to learne and know the cause of their long sitting. But by commandement of the speaker, order was giuen to the doore-kéepers, that the doores should be close kept, & none to be suffered to come in or out, so long as the gentleman was in deliuerie of his speeches; and after the court was ended, it was aduertised to the said lord deputie, who thanked God that had raised vp vnknowen fréends vnto him in that place.

The next daie following being fridaie, assoone as the court of the lower house was set, sir Christopher Barnewell, and the lawiers of the English pale, who had conferred togither of the former daies spéeches, stood vp and desired hearing: who leauing the matter in question, did in most disorderlie manner inueigh against the said gentleman, affirming, auouching, and protesting, that if the words spoken had béene spoken in anie other place than in the said house, they would rather haue died than haue borne withall. Wherevpon the speaker by consent of the residue of the house commanded them to silence, and willed that if they had anie matter against the said gentleman, they should present and bring it in writing against mondaie then next following. And for somuch as their dealings then were altogither disordered, being more like to a bearebaiting of lose persons than an assemblie of wise and graue men in parlement; motion and request was made to the speaker, that he should reforme those abuses and disordered behauiours; who not onelie promised so to doo, but also praied assistance, aduise, and counsell for his dooings therein, of such as were acquainted with the orders of the parlements in England. Which was promised vnto A booke of the orders of a parlement house imprinted for Ireland. him and performed, and also promised that a booke of the orders of the parlements vsed in England should in time be set forth in print, which the said gentleman did, and presented & bestowed the same among them in forme following.

The order and vsage how to keepe a parlement in England in these daies, collected by Iohn Vowell aliàs Hooker gentleman, one of the citizens for the citie of Excester at the parlement holden at Westminster, Anno Domini 1571, & Elisabethœ Reg. decimo tertio: and the like vsed in hir maiesties realme of Ireland. And here you must note, that what the kings and queenes of England do in their persons in England, the same is done in Ireland by the lord deputie, and who in the like parlement robes and vnder the like cloth of estate representeth hir maiestie there in all things.

By whom and for what cause a parlement ought to be summoned and called.

THE king, who is Gods annointed, being the head and chiefe of the whole realme, and vpon whom the gouernement and estates thereof doo wholie and onelie depend, hath the power and authoritie to call and assemble his parlement, and therein to séeke and aske the aduise, counsell, & assistance of his whole realme, and without this his authoritie no parlement can properlie be summoned or assembled. And the king, hauing this authoritie, ought not to summon his parlement but for weightie and great causes, and in which he of necessitie ought to haue the aduise and counsell of all the estates of his realme, which be these and such like as foloweth.

First for religion, forsomuch as by the lawes of God and this realme, the king next and immediatlie vnder God is his deputie and vicar in earth, and the chiefest ruler within his realms and dominions: his office, function, and dutie is, aboue all things to seeke and sée that God be honored in true religion and vertue, and that he and his people doo both in profession and life liue according to the same.

Also that all idolatries, false religions, heresies, schismes, errors, superstitions, & whatsoeuer is contrarie to true religion, all disorders and abuses, either among the cleargie or laitie, be reformed, ordered, and redressed.

Also the assurance of the kings and queenes persons, and of their children, their aduancement & preferment in mariages, the establishing of succession, the suppression of traitors, the auoiding or eschewing of warres, the attempting or moouing of wars, the subduing of rebels, and pacifieng of ciuill wars and commotions, the leuieng or hauing anie aid or subsidie for the preseruation of the king and publike estate: also the making and establishing of good and wholesome lawes, or the repealing and debarring of former lawes, as whose execution may be hurtfull or preiudiciall to the estates of the prince or commonwealth.

For these and such like causes, being of great weight, charge and importance, the king (by the aduise of his councell) may call and summon his high court of parlement, and by the authoritie therof establish and order such good lawes and orders as then shall be thought most expedient and necessarie.

The order and maner how to summon the parlement.

The king ought to send out his writs of summons to all the estates of his reamd at least fortie daies before the beginning of the parlement; first to all his lords an barons, that is to wit, archbishops, bishops, dukes, marquesses, earls, vicounts and barons; and euerie of these must haue a speciall writ. Then to the clergie, and the writ of their summons must be addressed to euerie particular bishop for the clergie of his diocesse. All these writs which are for the clergie, the king alwaies sendeth to the archbishops of Canturburie and Yorke, and by them they are sent and dispersed abroad to euerie particular bishop within their seuerall prouinces, and so the bishops giue summons to the clergie.

Lastlie, for the summoning of the commons, he sendeth his writ to the lord warden of the fiue ports, for the election of the barons thereof, and to euerie seuerall shiriffe for the choise and election of knights, citizens, and burgesses within his countie.

How and what persons ought to be chosen for the clergie, and of their allowances.

The bishop ought vpon the receipt of the writ sent vnto him for the summoning of his clergie, foorthwith to summon and warne all deanes and archdeacons within his diocesse to appéere in proper person at the parlement, vnlesse they haue some sufficient and reasonable cause of absence, in which case he may appéere by his proctor, hauing a warrant or proxie for the same.

Then must he also send the like summons to the deane and chapter of his cathedrall church, who shall foorthwith assemble their chapter, and make choise of some one of themselues to appéere in their behalfe, and this man thus chosen must haue their commission or proxie.

He must also send out his summons to euerie archdeaconrie and peculiar, requiring that the whole clergie doo appeere before him, his chancellor or officer, at a certeine daie, time, and place: who being so assembled, shall make choise and election of two men of the said clergie to appéere for them, and these shall haue their commission or proxie for the same.

These proctors thus to be chosen ought to be graue, wise, and learned men, being professors either of diuinitie or of the ecclesiasticall lawes; and that can, will, and be able to dispute in cause of controuersie, conuincing of heresies, appeasing of schismes, and deuising of good and godlie constitutions concerning true religion and orders of the church.

These proctors (thus elected) ought to haue reasonable allowances for their charges, according to the state, qualitie, or condition of the person, as also a respect had to the time. The proctors of the deane and chapter are to be paid out of the excheker of the cathedrall church. The proctors of the clergie are to be paid of the clergie, among whom a collection is to be leuied for the same, according to an old order vsed among them.

How and what maner of knights, citizens, and burgesses ought to be chosen, and of their allowances.

The shiriffe of euerie countie, hauing receiued his writs, ought foorthwith to send his precepts and summons to the maiors, bailiffes, and head officers of euerie citie, towne corporate, borough, and such places as haue béene accustomed to send burgesses within his countie, that they doo choose and elect among themselues two citizens for euerie citie, and two burgesses for euerie borough, according to their old custome and vsage. And these head officers ought then to assemble themselues & the aldermen and common councell of euerie citie or towne, and to make choise among themselues of two able and sufficient men of euerie citie or towne, to serue for and in the said parlement.

Likewise at the next countie daie to be holden in the said countie after the receipt of this writ, the shiriffe ought openlie in the court of his shire or countie, betwéene the houres of eight and nine of the forenoone, make proclamation; that euerie freeholder shall come into the court, and choose two sufficient men to be knights for the parlement; & then he must cause the writ to be openlie & distinctlie read. Wherevpon the said freeholders, then and there present, ought to choose two knights accordinglie, but he himselfe cannot giue anie voice, neither be chosen.

These elections aforesaid so past and doone, there ought to be seuerall indentures made betwéene the shiriffe & the fréeholders of the choise of the knights, and betwéene the maior and the head officers of euerie particular citie & towne of the choise of their citizens & burgesses & of their names, & of their mainperners and suerties. Of these indentures, the one part being sealed by the shiriffe, ought to be returned to the clerke of the parlement; and the other part of the indentures, sealed by such as made choise of the knights, & such as made choise of the citizens & burgesses vnder the seuerall common seales of their cities and townes, ought to remaine with the shiriffe, or rather with the parties so elected and chosen.

The charges of euerie knight and citizen was woont to be a like, which was thirteene shillings and foure pence by the daie: but now by the statute it is but eight shillings, that is, to euerie knight and euerie citizen foure shillings, and to euerie burgesse the old vsage to haue fiue shillings: but now it is but thrée shillings and foure pence limited by the statute, which allowance is to be giuen from the first daie of their iourneie towards the parlement, vntill the last daie of their returne from thense. Prouided, that euerie such person shall be allowed for so manie daies as by iourneieng six and twentie miles euerie daie in the winter, and thirtie miles in the summer, he may come & returne to and from the parlement.

In choise of these knights, citizens, and burgesses, good regard is to be had that the lawes and customs of the realme be herein kept and obserued: for none ought to be chosen, vnlesse he be resiant and dwelling within the shire, citie, or towne for which he is chosen. And he ought to be graue, wise, learned, skilfull, and of great experience in causes of policie, and of such audacitie as both can and will boldlie vtter and speake his mind according to dutie, and as occasion shall serue; for no man ought to be silent or dum in that house, but according to his talent he must and ought to speake in the furtherance of the king and commonwealth.

And the knights also ought to be skilfull in martiall affaires, and therfore the words of the writs are that such should be chosen for knights as be Cincti gladio: not bicause they shall come into the parlement house in armour, or with their swords: but bicause they should be such as haue good experience and knowledge in feats of warre and martiall affaires, whereby they may in such cases giue the king and relme good aduise and counsell. Likewise they ought to be laie men, and of good fame, honestie, and credit, being not outlawed, excommunicated, or periured, or otherwise infamous: for such persons ought not to haue place or be admitted into the parlement house.

The degrees of the parlement.

In times past there were six degrées or estates of the parlement, which euerie of them had their seuerall officers and ministers of attendance; but now the same are reduced into foure degrées.
  • The first is the king, who in his personage is a full and whole degrée of himselfe, and without whom nothing can be doone.
  • The second degree is of the lords of the clergie and of the temporaltie, and are all called by the names of barons.
  • The third is of knights, citizens, and burgesses, & these be called by the names of the communaltie.
  • The fourth is of the clergie, which are called by the name of conuocation, & these persons haue no voice in the parlement; neither can they doo anie thing other than to intreat in causes of religion, which from them is to be commended to other estates.

Of the places and houses of the parlement.

As it lieth in the king to assigne and appoint the time when the parlement shall begin, so that he giue at the least fortie daies summons: so likewise he maie name and appoint the place where it shall be kept. But wheresoeuer it be kept, the old vsage and maner was, that all the whole degrees of the parlement sat togither in one house; and euerie man that had there to speake, did it openlie before the king and his whole parlement. But hereof did grow manie inconueniences, and therfore to auoid the great confusions which are in such great assemblies, as also to cut off the occasions of displeasures which eftsoones did happen, when a meane man speaking his conscience fréelie, either could not be heard, or fell into the displeasure of his betters; and for sundrie other great gréefs, did diuide this one house into thrée houses, that is to wit, the higher house, the lower house, and the conuocation house.

In the first sitteth the king, and his lords spirituall and temporall, called by the name of barons, and this house is called the higher house.

The second is where the knights, citizens and burgesses doo sit, and they be called by the name of commons, and this house is called the lower house.

The third is, where the prelats and the proctors of the cleargie, being called by the name of the cleargie, and this house is called the conuocation house. Of euerie of these houses, their orders and officers, we will bréeflie subnect and declare particularlie in order as followeth.

Of the higher house.

The higher house (as is said) is where the king and his barons doo sit in parlement, where the king sitteth highest, and the lords & barons beneath him, each man in his degrée: the order is this. The house is much more in length than in breadth, and the higher end thereof in the middle is the kings seat or throne hanged richlie with cloth of estate, and there the king sitteth alwaies alone. On his right hand there is a long bench next to the wall of the house, which reacheth not so farre vp as the kings seat, and vpon this sit the archbishops and bishops, euerie one in his degrée. On his left hand there are two like benches, vpon the inner sit the dukes, marquesses, earles and vicounts. On the other, which is the hindermost & next to the wall, sit all the barons euerie man in his degree. In the middle of the house, betwéene the archbishops seat and the dukes seat, sitteth the speaker, who commonlie is lord chancellor, or keeper of the great seale of England, or the lord chiefe iustice of England, as pleaseth the king, who dooth appoint him: and he hath before him his two clerks sitting at a table before them, vpon which they doo write and laie their bookes. In the middle roome beneath them sit the chiefe iustices and iudges of the realme, the barons of the excheker, the kings sergeants, and all such as be of the kings learned councell, either in the common lawes of the realme, or of the ecclesiasticall laws, and all these sit vpon great wooll sacks, couered with red cloth.

At the lower end of all these seats is a barre or raile, betwéene which & the lower end of the house is a void roome seruing for the lower house, and for all sutors that shall haue cause and occasion to repaire to the king or to the lords. This house as it is distinct from the others, so there be distinct officers to the same belonging and apperteining, which all be assigned and appointed by the king, and all haue allowances for their charges at the kings hands, of which officers what they are, what is euerie of their offices, and what allowances they haue, shall be written in order hereafter.

Of the officers of the higher house, and first of the speaker, and of his office.

The chéefest officer of the higher house is the speaker, who is appointed by the king, and commonlie he is the lord chancelor or keeper of the great seale, or lord chéefe iustice of England, his office consisteth in diuerse points.

First, he must on the first daie of the parlement make his oration in the higher house, before the king, his lords and commons; and then and there declare the causes why the king hath summoned that parlement, exhorting and aduising euerie man to doo his office and dutie, in such sort as maie be to the glorie of God, honor of the king, and benefit of the commonwealth.

Also he must make one other oration, but in waie of answer to the speakers oration, when he is presented to the king.

Likewise he must make the like on the last daie of the parlement. And you shall vnderstand, that vpon these three daies he standeth on the right hand of the king neere to his seat, at a barre there appointed for him; but at all other times he sitteth in the middle of the house, as is before said.

When he hath ended his oration vpon the first day, he must giue order vnto the lower house in the kings behalfe, willing them to repaire vnto their house, and there (according to their ancient orders and customs) make choise of their speaker.

All bils presented vnto the higher house he must receiue, which he hath foorthwith to deliuer vnto the clearks to be safelie kept.

All bils he must cause to be read twise before they be ingrossed, and being read thrée times he must put the same to question.

If anie bill put to question doo passe with their consent, then the same must be sent to the lower house, vnlesse it came first from thense, and in that case it must be kept vntill the end of the parlement.

If anie bill be denied, impugned, and cieere ouerthrowne, the same is no more to be thensefoorth receiued.

If any bill be put to question, & it be doubtfull whether side is the greater, & giueth most voices; then he must cause the house to be diuided, and then iudge of the bill according to the greater number.

If anie bill be vnperfect, or requireth to be amended, he must choose a certeine number of that house, as he shall thinke good, and to them commit that bill to be reformed and amended.

If anie bill or message be to be sent to the lower house, it is his office to make choise of two of the kings learned councell there being, to be the messengers thereof.

If any bill or message be sent from the lower house, he must come from his place to the bar, and there receiue the same; and being returned to his place, and euerie stranger or messenger departed, he must disclose the same to the lords.

Item, if anie disorder be committed or doone in the house by anie lord or other person, be ought with the aduise of the lords to reforme the same: but if it be among the lords, and they will not be reformed, then he must foorthwith aduertise the king.

Item, he ought at the beginning of the parlement, to call by name all the lords of the parlement, & likewise at other other times as he séeth occasion, whose defaults ought to be recorded, & they to paie their fines, vnlesse they be dispensed withall by speciall licence from the king, or haue some iust and reasonable cause of absence.

Item, he must see and cause the clearks to make true entries & true records of all things doone there, and to see that all clearks doo giue and deliuer the copies of all such bils there read, to such as demand for the same.

Item, he shall keepe the secrets, & cause & command euerie man of ech degrée in that house to doo the like.

Also he ought not to go anie where, but the gentleman sergeant ought to attend vpon him, going before him with his mace, vnlesse he be the lord chancellor, for then he hatl, a sergeant of his owne.

His allowance that he hath is at the kings charges.

Also for euerie priuat bill that passeth and is enacted, he hath ten pounds for his part.

Of the chancellor of the higher house.

The chancellor is the principall clearke of the higher house, and his charge is safelie to kéepe the records of the parlement, & the acts which be past.

All such statutes as be enacted, he must send to the kings seuerall courts of records to be inrolled, as namelie the Chancerie, the Kings bench, the Common plees, and the Excheker.

All such acts as are to be imprinted, he must send to the printer.

All such priuat acts as are not imprinted, if anie man will haue the same exemplified, he must transmit the same to the lord chancellor to be ingrossed and sealed, and for the same he to take the fees appointed and accustomed.

He hath for his allowance an ordinarie fée for terme of life of the king.

Of the clearks of the parlement.

There be two clearks, the one named the clearke of the parlement, & the other named the clearke of the crowne. The clearke of the parlement his office is to sit before the lord speaker, and to read such bils presented as he shall be commanded.

He must kéepe true records, and true entries of all things there doone and to be entred.

If anie require a copie of anie bill there, he ought to giue the same, receiuing the ordinarie fees.

If anie bill after his ordinarie readings be to be ingrossed, he must doo it.

The councell of the house he maie not disclose.

At the end of the parlement he must deliuer vp vnto the chancellor all the acts and records of that house, sauing he may keepe a transumpt and a copie thereof to himselfe.

He hath his allowance of the king.

Also for euerie priuat bill which is enacted, he hath thrée pounds.

Also for euerie bill whereof he giueth a copie, he hath for euerie ten lines a penie, according to the custome.

¶ The clearke of the crowne, his office is to supplie the place and roome of the clearke of the parlement in his absence, & hath in all things the like charges and profits as the clearke ought to laue.

He must giue his attendance to the higher house from time to time, & doo what shall be inioined him.

All such acts as be not imprinted, if anie man will haue them exemplified vnder the brode seale, he must exemplifie them, and haue for the same his ordinarie fees.

These two clearks, at the end of the parlement, ought to be present in the house, and within the lower bar at a boord before them, their faces towards the king: and there the one must read the bils which are past both houses, and the other must read the consent or disagréement of the king.

Of the sergeants or porters of the higher house.

There is but one sergeant, which hath the charge of keeping of the doores: for though there be diuerse doores, yet the kéepers thereof are at his assignment.

He ought to sée the house be cleane & kept swéet.

He ought not to suffer anie maner of person to be within the house, so long as the lords be there sitting, other than such as be of the learned councell, and of that house; and except also such as come in message from the lower house with bils or otherwise, and except also such as be sent for, and be admitted to haue anie thing there to doo.

Also he must attend and go alwaies with his mace before the speaker, vnlesse he be lord chancellor, or kéeper of the great seale: for then he hath a sergeant of his owne.

He ought to kéepe safelie such prisoners as be commanded to his ward, and to fetch or send for such as he shall be commanded to fetch.

This porter or sergeant hath (besides his ordinarie fée) a standing allowance for euerie daie of the parlement.

Also he hath for euerie priuat bill which is enacted, fortie shillings.

Also he hath for euerie prisoner committed to his ward, a certeine allowance for his fées.

Also he hath of euerie baron or lord of that house, a certeine reward.

Of the lower house.

The lower house (as is said) is a place distinct from the others, it is more of length than of breadth, it is made like a theater, hauing foure rowes of seates one aboue an other round about the same. At the higher end in the middle of the lower row, is a seat made for the speaker, in which he alwaies sitteth: before it is a table boord, at which sitteth the clarke of the house, and therevpon laieth his bookes, and writeth his records. Vpon the lower row on both sides the speaker, sit such personages as be of the kings priuie councell, or of his chiefe officers; but as for anie other, none claimeth, nor can claime anie place; but sitteth as he commeth, sauing that on the right hand of the speaker, next beneath the said councels, the Londoners, and the citizens of Yorke doo sit, and so in order should sit all the citizens accordinglie. Without this house is one other, in which the under clearks doo sit, as also such as be sutors and attendant to that house. And when soeuer the house is diuided vpon anie bill, then the roome is voided; and the one part of the house commeth downe into this to be numbered.

The office of the speaker of the lower house.

The chiefe or principall officer of this house is the speaker, and is chosen by the whole house, or the more part of them; he himselfe being one of the same number, and a man for grauitie, wisedome, experience, and learning, chosen to supplie that office, during the time of the parlement; and is to be presented to the king the third daie folowing.

His office is to direct and guide that house in good order; and to sée the ordinances, vsages, and customs of the same to be firmelie kept and obserued.

When he is presented vnto the king, sitting in his estate roiall in the parlement house for the purpose, he must then and there make his oration in commendation of the lawes and of the parlement; which doone, then he hath (in the name of the house of the commons) to make to the king the three requests.

First, that it maie please his maiestie to grant, that the commons assembled in the parlement, may baue and inioie the ancient priuileges, customes, and liberties, as in times past haue apperteined, and béene vsed in that house.

Then, that cuerie one of that house maie haue libertie of spéech, and fréelie to vtter, speake, and declare his mind and opinion to anie bill or question to be proponed.

Also, that cuerie knight, citizen, and burgesse, and their seruants, maie haue free comming and going to and from the said parlement, as also during the said time of parlement; & that they, nor anie of their seruants or retinue to be arrested, molested, sued, imprisoned, or troubled by anie person or persons.

And lastlie, that if he or anie other of that companie, béeing sent or come to him of anie message, and doo mistake himselfe in dooing thereof, that his maiestie will not take the aduantage thereof, but gratiouslie pardon the same.

He must haue good regard, and sée that the clearke doo enter and make true records, and safelio to keepe the same, and all such bils as be deliuered into that house.

He must on the first and third daie, and when soeuer he else will, call the house by name, and record their defaults.

All bils, to be brought and to be presented into that house, he must receiue & deliuer to the clearke.

He ought to cause and command the clearke to reade the bils brought in, plainelie, and sensiblie; which doone, he must bréeflie recite and repeat the effect and meaning thereof.

Of the bils brought in he hath choise, which and when they shall be read: vnlesse order by the whole house be taken in that behalfe.

Euerie bill must haue thrée readings, and after the second reading he must cause the clearke to ingrosse the same, vnlesse the same be reiected and dashed.

If anie bill or message be sent from the lords, he ought to cause the messengers to bring the same vnto him, and he to receiue the same openlie; and they being departed and gone, he ought to disclose and open the same to the house.

If when a bill is read, diuerse doo rise at one instant to speake to the same, and it cannot be discerned who rose first; then shall he appoint who shall speake: neuerthelesse, euerie one shall haue his course to speake if he list.

If anie speake to a bill and be out of the matter, he shall put him in remembrance, and will him to come to the matter.

If anie bill be read thrée times, and cuerie man haue spoken his mind; then shall he aske the house whether the bill shall passe or not? saieng thus: As manie as will haue this bill passe in maner & forme as hath béene read; saie Yea: then the affirmatiue part saie Yea. As manie as will not haue this bill passe in maner and forme as hath beene read, saie No. If vpon this question the whole house, or the more part, doo affirme and allow the bill: then the same is to be sent to the higher house to the lords. But if the whole house, or the more part doo denie the bill; then the same is to be dashed out, and to be reiected: but if it be doubtfull vpon giuing voices, whether side is the greater; then must a diuision be made of the house, and the affirmatiue part must arise and depart into the vtter roome, which (by the sergeant) is voided before hand of all persons that were there. And then the speaker must assigne two or foure to number them first which sit within, and then the other which be without, as they doo come in, one by one: and as vpon the triall the bill shall be allowed or disallowed by the greater number: so to be accepted as is before said.

If vpon this triall the number of either side be like, then the speaker shall giue his voice, and that onelie in this point; for otherwise he hath no voice.

Also if anie of the house doo misbehaue himselfe, & breake the order of the house: he hath to reforme, correct, and punish him, but yet with the aduise of the house.

If anie forren person doo enter into that house, the assemblie thereof being sitting, or doo by arresting anie one person thereof, or by anie other meanes breake the liberties and priuileges of that house, he ought to sée him to be punished.

Also during the time of the parlement, he ought to sequester himselfe from dealing or intermedling in anie publike or priuat affaires, and dedicat and bend himselfe wholie to serue his office and function.

Also he ought not to resort to anie noble man, councellor, or other person, to deale in anie of the parlement matters: but must and ought to haue with him a competent number of some of that house, who maie be witnesses of his dooings.

Also during the time of parlement, he ought to haue the sergeant of armes with his mace to go before him.

Also he hath libertie to send anie offendor, either to sergeants ward, or to the tower, or to anie other prison at his choise, according to the qualitie and quantitie of the offense.

He hath allowance for his diet one hundred pounds of the king for cuerie sessions of parlement.

Also he hath for euerie priuat bill passed both houses, and enacted, five pounds.

At the end, and on the last daie of the parlement, he maketh his oration before the king in most humble maner, declaring the dutifull seruice and obedience of the commons then assembled to his maiestie: as also most humblie praieng his pardon, if anie thing haue beene doone amisse.

Of the clearke of the lower house.

THERE is onelie one clearke belonging to this house, his office is to sit next before the speaker at a table, vpon which he writeth & laieth his bookes.

He must make true entrie of the records and bils of the house, as also of all the orders thereof.

The bils appointed vnto him by the speaker to be read: he must read openlie, plainelie, and sensiblie.

The billes which are to be ingrossed, he must doo it.

If anie of the house aske the sight of anie bill there, or of the booke of the orders of the house; he hath to deliuer the same vnto him.

If anie desire to haue the copie of anie bill, he ought to giue it him, receiuing for his paines after ten lines a pennie.

He maie not be absent at anie time of sitting, without speciall licence.

He ought to haue for euerie priuat bill passed and enacted, fortie shillings.

He hath allowed vnto him for his charges (of the king) for euerie sessions, ten pounds.

Of the sergeant or porter of the lower house.

THE sergeant of this house is commonlie one of the kings sergeants at armes, and is appointed to this office by the king. His office is to kéepe the doores of the house: and for the same he hath others under him, for he himselfe kéepeth the doore of the inner house, where the commons sit, and séeth the same to be cleane.

Also he maie not suffer anie to enter into this house, during the time of the sitting there; vnlesse he be one of the house, or be sent from the king or the lords, or otherwise licenced to come in.

If anie such person doo come, he ought to bring him in, going before him with his mace vpon his shoulder.

If anie be committed to his ward, he ought to take charge of him, and to kéepe him in safetie vntill he be required for him.

If he be sent for anie person, or to go in anie message, he must leaue a substitute behind him, to doo his office in his absence.

He must alwaies attend the speaker, and go before him, carieng his mace vpon his shoulder.

His allowance (during the time of the parlement) is twelue pence the daie of the kings charges.

Also he hath of euerie knight and citizen, two shillings six pence; and of euerie burgesse, two shillings.

If anie be commanded to his ward, he hath of euerie such prisoner, by the daie, six shillings and eight pence.

If anie priuat bill doo passe and be enacted, he hath for euerie such bill, twentie shillings.

Of the conuocation house.

THE conuocation house is the assemblie of the whole clergie, at and in some peculiar place appointed for the purpose.

But as the barons and lords of the parlement haue their house seuerall and distinct from the commons: euen so the archbishops and bishops doo sequester themselues, and haue a house seuerall from the residue of the clergie. And this their house is called the higher conuocation house, the other being named the lower conuocation house. Both these houses haue their seuerall officers, orders, and vsages; and each officer hath his peculiar charge and function; as also certeine allowances, euen as is vsed in the parlement houses of the lords and commons.

The archbishops and bishops doo sit all at a table, and doo discourse all such causes and matters as are brought in question before them, either of their owne motions, or from the higher court of parlement, or from the lower house of conuocation, or from anie priuat person. Euerie archbishop and bishop sitteth & taketh place according to his estate and degrée, which degrees are knowne by such degrées & offices in the church as to euerie of them is assigned: for one hath the personage of a priest, an other of a deacon, this is a subdeacon, he is a sexton, and so foorth, as such officers were woont to be in the church.

The bishops doo not sit at forenoone, but onelie at afternoone, because they, being barons of the higher house of parlement, doo resort and assemble themselues there at the forenoones with the temporall lords.

The conuocation house of the rest of the clergie doo obserue in a manner the like orders as the lower house of the commons doo vse. For being assembled togither on the first daie, with the bishops, are by them willed to make choise of a speaker for them, whom they call the proloquntor: when they haue chosen him, they doo present him vnto the bishops: and he thus presented, maketh his oration, and dooth all things as the speaker of the lower house for the commons dooth, as well for the ordering of the clergie & of the house, as for the order in sitting, the order in speaking, the order of recording things doone among them, and all other such like things.

And this is to be vnderstood, that the whole clergie can deale and intreat but onlie of matters of religion, and orders of the church, which their dooings and conclusions can not bind the whole realme, vnlesse they be confirmed by act of parlement: but yet sufficient to bind the whole clergie to the kéeping thereof; so that the king (who is the supreme gouernor of both estates) doo consent and confirme the same. And forsomuch as by knowing the orders of the parlement house, you may also know the orders of both the conuocation houses, which are like & correspondent to the others: these shall suffice for this matter.

Of extraordinarie persons which ought to be summoned to the parlement.

BESIDES the personages of the former degrées, which ought to be summoned to the parlement: the king also must warne and summon all his councellors both of the one law and of the other; and these haue their places onelie in the higher house, namelie the two chéefe iustices and their associats of the kings bench and the common plées, the barons of the excheker, the sergeants, the attorneie, the sollicitor, the maister of the rolles, and his fellows of the chancerie.

The offices of these personages are to giue councell to the king and parlement, in euerie doubtfull cause according to the lawes.

Also if anie bill be conceiued and made disorderlie, they ought to amend and reforme the same, vpon order and commandement to them giuen.

Also they must attend to come and go at the commandement of the king and parlement.

Also they may not speake nor giue aduise, but when they be asked and put to question.

Also they haue no voice in parlement, because they are commonlie councellors to the same.

They are all reteined at the kings charges.

Likewise all officers of the parlement are to be summoned, as namelie the chancellor of the parlement, the clerks, the sergeants, the porters, and such others, who likewise are reteined at the kings costs. Of their offices and charges it is alreadie particularly declared.

Of the daies and houres to sit in parlement.

ALL daies of the wéeke are appointed, sauing and excepted the sundaies and all principall feasts, as namelie the feast of Alhallowes daie, Christmas, Easter, Whitsuntide, and saint Iohn the baptists daie, and also such other daies as the parlement by consent shall appoint and assigne.

The beginning is at eight of the clocke in the morning, and dooth continue vntill eleuen of the clocke.

They doo not sit at afternoones, for those times are reserued for committées and the conuocation house.

In the morning they beginne with the common praier and the letanie, which are openlie read in the house.

Of the king, his office and authoritie.

HAUING declared of all the estates, degrees, and personages of the parlement, it resteth now to speake also of the king, and of his office, who is all in all, the beginning and ending, and vpon whome resteth and dependeth the effect & substance of the whole parlement. For without him and his authoritie nothing can be doone, and with it all things take effect. Neuerthelesse, when he calleth & assembleth his parlement, there are sundrie orders which of him are to be obserued, and which he ought to see to be kept and executed; or else the parlement ceasseth to be a parlement, and taketh not his effect, of which orders these be the chéefe which doo insue.

First, the king ought to send out his summons to all the estates of his realme, of a parlement, assigning and appointing the time, daie, and place.

Also his summons must be at the least fortie daies before the beginning of his parlement.

Also he must appoint and prouide all such officers as ought to attend the parlement, who must be found at his charges.

Also the king ought not to make anie choise, or cause anie choise to be made of any knight, citizens, burgesses, proctors of the clergie, speaker of the common house, or proloquutor of the conuocation house: but they must be elected and chosen by the lawes, orders, and customs of the realme, as they were woont and ought to be, and the kings good aduise yet not to be contemned.

Also the king ought to grant, permit, and allow to all and euerie of the estates, and to euerie particular man lawfullie elected, and come to the parlement, all and euerie the ancient freedoms, priuileges, immunities, and customs, during the parlement; as also during the times and daies, comming and going to and from the parlement: but yet the same humblie to be requested of his highnesse by the speaker in his oration at the beginning of the parlement.

Also the king in person ought to be present in the parlement thrée daies at the least, during the time of the parlement; that is to saie, the first daie, when the whole estates according to the summons make their appearance, which is called the first daie of the parlement. On the second daie, when the speaker of the common house is presented, which is counted the beginning of the parlement. And the third daie, which is the last day, when the parlement is proroged or dissolued: for vpon these daies he must be present, vnlesse in case of sicknes, or absence out of the realme, for in these cases the king may summon his parlement by commission, and the same is of as good effect as if he were present in person: and as for anie other daies, he is at his choise and libertie to come or not to come to the parlement.

Also the king ought to propone to the parlement house in writing all such things & matters of charge, as for which he calleth the said parlement. And accordinglie as the same shall then by the consent of all estates be aduised, concluded, and agréed: so the king either hath to allow or disallow the same, for he can (of himselfe) neither adde nor diminish anie bill; but accept the same as it is presented vnto him from the estates of the parlement, or else altogither reiect it.

Also the king as he dooth prefix and assigne the daie and time when the parlement shall begin; so also he must assigne & appoint the time when the same shall be proroged or dissolued: which ought not to be as long as anie matters of charge, weight, or importance be in question, and the same not decided nor determined.

Of the dignitie, power, and authoritie of the parlement, and of the orders of the same.

THE parlement is the highest, cheefest, and greatest court that is or can be within the reahne: for it consisteth of the whole realme, which is dinided into thrée estates; that is to wit, the king, the nobles, and the commons, euerie of which estates are subiect to all such orders as are concluded and established in parlement.

These thrée estates may iointlie and with one consent or agreement establish and enact anie lawes, orders, and statutes for the common wealth: but being diuided, and one swaruing from the other, they can doo nothing. For the king, though he be the head, yet alone can not make anie law; nor yet the king and his lords onelie, nor yet the king and his commons alone; neither yet can the lords and the commons without the king doo anie thing of anaile. And yet neuerthelesse, if the king in due order haue summoned all his lords and barons, and they will not come, or if they come they will not yet appéere; or if they come and appeere, yet will not doo or yéeld to any thing, then the king with the consent of his commons (who are represented by the knights, citizens, and burgesses) may ordeine and establish anie act or law, which are as good, sufficient, and effectuall, as if the lords had giuen their consents.

But of the contrarie, if the commons be summoned and will not come, or comming will not appéere, or appéering will not consent to doo anie thing, alleging some iust, weightie, and great cause; the king (in these cases) cannot with his lords deuise, make, or establish anie law, the reasons are these. When parlements were first began & ordeined, there were no prelats or barons of the parlement, and the temporall lords were verie few or none, and then the king and his commons did make a full parlement, which authoritie was hitherto neuer abridged. Againe, euerie baron in parlement dooth represent but his owne person, and speaketh in the behalfe of himselfe alone.

But in the knights, citizens, and burgesses are represented the commons of the whole realme; and euerie of these giueth not consent onlie for himselfe, but for all those also for whome he is sent. And the king with the consent of his commons had euer a sufficient and full authoritie to make, ordeine, and establish good and wholesome lawes for the commonwealth of his realme. Wherfore the lords being lawfullie summoned, and yet refusing to come, sit, or consent in parlement, can not by their follie abridge the king and the commons of their lawfull procéeding in parlement.

The lords and commons in times past did sit all in one house, but for the auoiding of confusion they be now dinided into two seuerall houses, and yet neuerthelesse they are of like and equall authoritie, euerie person of either of the said houses being named and counted a péere of the realme (for the time of the parlement) that is to saie, equall: for Par is equall. And therefore the opinion, censure, and iudgement of a meane burgesse, is of as great auaile as is the best lords, no regard being had to the partie who speaketh, but the matter that is spoken.

They be also called péers, as it were fathers, for Pier is a father, by which is meant that all such as be of the parlement should be ancient, graue, wise, lerned, and expert men of the land: for such were the senators of Rome, and called Patres conscript, for the wisedome and care that was in them in gouerning of the commonwealth. They are also called counsellors, because they are assembled and called to the parlement for their aduise and good councell, in making and deuising of such good orders and lawes as may be for the commonwealth.

They therefore which make choise of knights, citizens and burgesses, ought to be well aduised that they doo elect and choose such as being to be of that assemblie, and thereby equall with the great estates, should be graue, ancient, wise, learned, expert and carefull men for their commonwealth, and who (as faithfull and trustie councellors) should doo that which should turne and be for the best commoditie of the commonwealth, otherwise they doo great iniurie to their prince and commonwealth.

Also cuerie person of the parlement, during the times of the parlement, and at his comming and going from the same, is frée from all troubles, arrests and molestations: no action or sute taking effect which during that time is begun, entred, or commensed against him, in what court so euer the same be, except in causes of treason, murther, and fellonie, and except also executions in law, awarded and granted before the beginning of the parlement.

Also euerie person hauing voices in parlement, hath free libertie of speach to speake his mind, opinion, and iudgement, to anie matter proponed; or of himselfe to propone anie matter for the commoditie of the prince and of the commonwealth: but hauing once spoken to anie bill, he may speake no more for that time.

Also euerie person once elected & chosen a knight, citizen or burgesse, and returned, cannot be disnissed out of that house; but being admitted, shall haue his place and voice there, if he be a laieman. But if by errour a man of the cleargie be chosen, then he ought and shall be dismissed; also if he be excommunicated, outlawed, or infamous.

Also euerie one of these houses ought to be incorrupt, no briber nor taker of anie rewards, gifts, or inonie, either for denising of anie bill, or for speaking of his mind; but to doo all things vprightlie, and in such sort as best is for the king and commonwealth.

Also euerie one ought to be of a quiet, honest and gentle behauiour; none taunting, checking, or misusing an other in anie vnséeinelie words or deeds: but all affections set apart, to doo and indecuour in wisedome, sobrietie and knowledge, that which that place requireth.

Also if anie one doo offend or misbehaue himselfe, he is to be corrected and punished by the aduise and order of the residue of the house.

Also all the prisons, wards, gailes, within the realme and the kéepers of the same are at the commandement of the parlement, for the custodie and safekeeping or punishment of all and euerie such prisoners, as shall be sent to anie of them by the said parlement houses, or anie of them: howbeit most commonlie the tower of London is the prison which is most used.

Also if anie one of the parlement house is serued, sued, arrested, or attached by anie writ, attachment, or minister of the Kings bench, Common plees, Chancerie, or what court so euer within this realme: the partie so troubled and making complaint thereof to the parlement house: then foorthwith a sargeant at armes is sent to the said court, not onelie aduertising that the partie so molested is one of the parlement house; but also inhibiting and commanding the officers of the said court to call in the said processe, and not to deale anie further against the said partie: for the parlement being the hiest court, all other courts as inferior yéeld and giue place to the same.

Also as euerie one of the parlement house is free for his owne person, for all manner of sutes to be commensed against him: so are also his seruants frée, and not to be troubled nor molested; but being troubled, haue the like remedie as the maister hath or may haue.

Also no manner of person, being not one of the parlement house, ought to enter or come within the house, as long as the sitting is there, vpon paine of imprisonment, or such other punishment as by the house shall be ordered and adiudged.

Also euerie person of the parlement ought to kéepe secret, and not to disclose the secrets and things spoken and doone in the parlement house, to anie manner of person, vnlesse he be one of the same house, vpon paine to be sequestred out of the house, or otherwise punished, as by the order of the house shall be appointed.

Also none of the parlement house oaght to depart from the parlement, without speciall leaue obteined of the speaker of the house, and the same his licence be also recorded.

Also no person, being not of the parlement house, ought to come into the same, during the time of the sitting: so euerie one comming into the same oweth a dutie and a reuerence, to be giuen when he entreth and commeth in.

If a baron or a lord come and enter into the higher house, he ought to doo his obeisance before the cloth of estate, and so to take his place.

Also when he speaketh, he must stand bareheaded, and speake his mind plainlie, sensiblie, & in decent order.

If anie come in message or be sent for to the higher house, they must staie at the inner doore vntill they be called in, and then being entred, must first make their obeisance; which doone, to go to the lower end of the house, and there to staie vntill they be called: and being called, they must first make one lowe courtesie and obeisance, and going forwards must in the middle waie make one other lowe courtesie; and then being come foorth to the barre, must make the third courtesie; the like must be doone at the departure.

Also when anie knight, citizen or burgesse dooth enter and come into the lower house, he must make his dutifull and humble obeisance at his entrie in: and then take his place. And you shall vnderstand, that as euerie such person ought to be graue, wise, and expert; so ought he to shew himselfe in his apparell. For in time past, none of the councellors of the parlement came otherwise than in his gowne, and not armed nor girded with weapon. For the parlement house is a place for wise, graue, and good men; to consult, debate, and aduise, how to make lawes and orders for the commonwealth, and not to be armed as men readie to fight, or to trie matters by the sword. And albeit the writ for the election of the knights haue expresse words to choose such for knights as be girded with the sword; yet it is not meant thereby that they should come and sit armed: but be such as be skilful in feats of armes, and besides their good aduises can well serve in martiall affaires. And thus the Romane senators vsed, who being men of great knowledge and experience, as well in martiall affaires, as in politike causes, sat alwaies in the senat house and places of councell in their gownes and long robes. The like also was alwaies and hath béene the order in the parlements of this realme, as long as the ancient lawes, the old customes, and good orders thereof were kept and obserued.

Also if anie other person or persons, either in message or being sent for, doo come: he ought to be brought in by the sergeant, and at the first entring must (following the sergeant) make one lowe obeisance, and being past in the middle waie, must make one other; and when he is come before the speaker, he must make the third, and then do his message; the like order he must kéepe in his returne. But if he doo come alone, or with his learned councell, to plead anie matter, or to answer to auie obiection: he shall enter, and go no further than to the bar within the doore, and there to doo his three obeisances.

Also when anie bill is committed, the committées haue not authoritie to conclude, but onelie to order, reforme, examine, and amend the thing committed vnto them, and of their dooings they must giue report to the house againe, by whome the bill is to be considered.

Also euerie bill, which is brought into the house, must be read three seuerall times, and vpon thrée seuerall daies.

Also euerie bill, which vpon anie reading is committed and returned againe, ought to haue his thrée readings, vnles the committées haue not altered the bill in anie substance or forme, but onelie in certeine words.

Also when anie bill vpon reading is altogither by one consent reiected, or by voices after the third reading ouerthrown, it ought not to be brought anie more to be read, during the sessions of parlement.

Also if anie man doo speake vnto a bill, and be out of his matter; he ought to be put in remembrance of the matter by the speaker onelie and by none other, and be willed to come to the matter.

Also whensoeuer anie person dooth speake to anie bill, he ought to stand vp, and to be bareheaded, and then with all reuerence, grauitie, and séemelie spéech to declare his mind. But whensoeuer anie bill shall be tried either for allowances, or to be reiected: then euerie one ought to sit, bicause he is then as a iudge.

Also euerie knight, citizen, and burgesse, before he doo enter into the parlement, and take his place there, ought to be sworne and to take his oth, acknowledging the king to be the supreme and onelie gouernour of all the estates within this realme, as also to renounce all forren potentates.

The order of the beginning and ending of the parlement.

ON the first daie of the summons for the parlement, the king in proper person (vnlesse he be sicke or absent out of the realme) being apparelled in his roiall and parlement robes, ought to be conducted and brought by all his barons of the cleargie and laitie, and the commons summoned to the parlement, vnto the church, where ought a sermon to be made by some archbishop, bishop, or some other famous learned man. The sermon ended, he must in like order be brought to the higher house of parlement, and there to take his seat vnder the cloth of estate: likewise euerie lord and baron (in his degrée) ought to take his place.

This doone, the lord chancellor, or he whom the king appointeth to be the speaker of that house, maketh his oration to the whole assemblie, declaring the causes whie and wherefore that parlement is called and summoned, exhorting and persuading euerie man to doo his best indeuour in all such matters as shall be in the said parlement proponed, as shall be most expedient for the glorie of God, the honor of the king, and the commonwealth of the whole realme. Then he directeth his talke vnto the knights, citizens, and burgesses, aduertising them that the kings pleasure is, that they doo repaire to their house; and there according to the old and ancient custome, doo choose and elect some one, wise, graue, and learned man among themselues to be speaker for them, and giueth them a daie when they shall present him to the king. And these things thus doone, the king ariseth, and euerie man departeth. This is accounted for the first daie of the parlement.

The second or third daie after, when the speaker is to be presented: the king with all his nobles (in like order as before) doo assemble againe in the higher house, and then come vp all the commons of the lower house, and then and there doo present their speaker vnto the king. The speaker foorthwith maketh his dutifull obeisances; beginneth and maketh his oration before the king, and prosecuteth such matters as occasion serueth, and as is before recited in the office of the speaker; and this doone, euerie man departeth. And this is accounted for the beginning of the parlement, for before the speaker be presented, and these things orderlie doone, there can no bils be put in, nor matters be intreated of.

Lastlie when all matters of weight be discussed, ended, and determined, the king commandeth an end to be made. And that daie the king, his nobles, and commons doo againe assemble in the higher house in their robes, and in like order as is before recited, where the speaker maketh hic oration, and is answered by the lord chancellor or speaker of the higher house. Then all the bils concluded and past in both houses, that is to saie, in the higher house of the lords, and in the lower house of the commons, are there read by the titles: and then the king giueth his consent or dissent to euerie of them as he thinketh good. And when the titles of all the bils are read, the lord chancellor or lord speaker, by the kings commandement, pronounceth the parlement to be proroged or cleane dissolued. And this is called the last daie or the end of the parlement, and euerie man is at libertie to depart homewards.

The mondaie following, sir Christopher Barnewell and his complices, hauing better considered of themselues, were quiet and contented, and the parlement begun with some troubles had his continuance and end with better successe. In the time of this parlement, and after the same, sundrie grieuous complaints were exhibited to the lord deputie and councell by the late wife of the deceased baron of Dunboin, Mac Brian Arra, Oliuer Fitzgirald, sir William Ocarell, and diuerse others the quéenes good subiects, against sir Edmund Butler and his brethren, for sundrie routs and riots, spoiles and outrages which they were charged to haue doone vpon hir maiesties Commissioners sent to heare the cōplaints made against the Butlers. subiects. Wherevpon first letters and then commissioners were sent in to the counties of Kilkennie and Tiporarie for the hearing and redressing thereof: but they returned without dooing of anie thing. For sir Edmund, conceiuing some hard dealings to be meant toward him by the lord deputie, and minding to stand vpon his defense and gard, did not appéere before the said commissioners, but both he and his brethren combined themselues with Iames Fitzmoris Odesmond, Mac Artie The noblemen and gentlemen in Mounster sent their messengers to the pope. More, Mac Donagh, and the seneschall of Imokilie and others of Mounster, who before (and vnwitting the Butlers) had sent the vsurped bishops of Cashell and Emelie togither with the yoongest brother of the erle of Desmond vnto the pope & to the king of Spaine, for reformation of the popish religion, & for fréeing the land from the possession of hir maiestie and of the imperiall crowne. Which mater in the end brake out into an open and actuall rebellion, and the lord deputie by proclamation The noblemen & gentlemen in Mounster proclamed traitors. Sir Peter Carew is cōmanded to serue against the Butlers. published them all to be traitors, and against whom he prepared an hosting. But before the same was fullie prepared, he sent his letters and commandement vnto sir Peter Carew knight then being at Leighlin, to enter into the action of warres against sir Edmund Butler, who being accompanied with capteine Gilbert, capteine Malbie, capteine Basenet, and others, latelie sent vnto him from the lord deputie, followed his commandement, and first assaulted the castell of Cloughgriman Cloughgriman taken. in the Dullogh belonging to sir Edmund Butler, and tooke it, and gaue the spoile vnto the souldiers.

From thense they remooued to Kilkennie towne, where they laie for a time, where a man of the earle of Ormonds, espieng vpon a certeine daie sir Peter Carew to be walking in the garden of the castell of Kilkennie alone, he charged his peece, and leueled the same vnto the said Peter Carew, and minded to haue discharged it vpon Sir Peter Carew in danger to haue béene killed. him out of a window in the castell. At which verie instant a chapleine of the said earls & his steward, comming by him, & suspecting some euill thing towards, turned vp the mouth of the péece, which therewith was discharged, and so no bodie hurt; and vnderstanding the thing was meant against sir Peter Carew, blamed the fellow, and for a time thrust him out of the house. Whilest these capteins laie at Kilkennie, it was aduertised vnto them, that a great companie of the rebels were incamped about thrée miles out of the towne, & were there marching in verie good order. Wherevpon sir Peter Carew, being then the generall, assembled all the capteins, and taking their aduise what was best to be doone, they concluded that Henrie Dauels a verie Henrie Dauels sent to discouer the enimie. honest and a valiant English gentleman, who had serued long in that countrie, and was verie well acquainted, especiallie in those parts, for he had maried his wife out of that towne, and him they sent out to discouer the matter, who about thrée miles off had the view, and espied a great companie of about two thousand, resting vpon a little hill in the middle of a plaine, being all armed and marching in battell araie. When he returned with this report, then sir Peter Carew appointed the voward to capteine Gilbert, who togither with Henrie Dauels and twelue other persons of his companie galloped before the rest, and finding as it was before aduertised, gaue the charge. The residue of the companie followed with the like hast vnder sir Peter Carew, and then Sir Peter Carew and the English capteins giueth charge vpon the rebels & haue the victorie. capteine Malbie, and capteine Basenet, séeing and assured that all things were cleere behind them, followed so néere, that all the companie euen as it were at one instant gaue the like charge, where they slue foure hundred Gallowglasses at the least, besides others. The residue of the companie were fled into the mounteins fast by, and none or few escaped but the horsemen and Kerns. And of hir maiesties side no one man slaine, but a man of capteine Malbies was hurt.

Sir Peter Carew, hauing had and obteined this victorie, and marching in good order, did returne with all his companie to the towne of Kilkennie, euerie capteine and souldier carieng two Gallowglasses axes in his hand, but left the spoile to their followers. Sir Edmund Butler at this instant was not in the campe, but was at his vncles house at dinner. The townesmen of Kilkennie were verie sorie for this the slaughter of so manie men. And yet neuerthelesse not long after, Iames Fitzmoris Iames Fitzmoris besiegeth Kilkennie. came to this towne, and besieged it; but the towne being well garonised with certeine soldiers, & they themselues well appointed, did so carefullie and narowlie looke to themselues, that they defended and kept the towne, notwithstanding all his force. But yet the countrie and other small townes did not so escape, for the countie of Waterford, and the lord Powre, the countie of Dublin, and all the countrie were spoiled, preied, and ouerrun; and among all others the old Fulco Quimerford a gentleman, of long Fulco Quimerford spoiled & robbed. time seruant to thrée earles of Ormond, was robbed in his house at Callon of two thousand pounds, in monie, plate, and houshold stuffe, besides his corne and cattell. When they had taken their pleasure in this countrie, they went to the countie of Wexford, which thing had not lightlie béene séene before, and at a faire kept then at Enescorth, there the souldiers committed most horrible outrages, lamentable slaughters, A wicked masacre at Enescorth. filthie rapes, and deflourings of yoong women, abusing mens wiues, speiling the towne, & slaughtering of the men, and such as did escape the sword were caried captiues A wicked conspiracie and combining of the traitors. & prisoners. From hense they went into Osserie and into the quéenes countie, and spoiled the countrie, burned townes and villages, murthered the people: and then they met with the earle of Clancare, and Iames Fitzmoris Odesmond, with whom they then combined; and agreed to cause Tirlough Lennough to procure in the Scots, they sent new messengers to the pope, and to the king of Spaine. Finallie, nothing was left vndoone, which might anie waies tend to the subuersion of hir maiesties imperiall crowne of Ireland, and to discharge that land from all Englishmen and English gouernement, and by these means (the English pale and the good cities & townes excepted) the most part, if not the whole land, was imbrued & infected with this rebellion.

The earle of Ormond himselfe, a man of great honour and nobilitie, was all this time in England: but from time to time was aduertised of the troublesome state in that land: and whereof no little detriment redounded to his lordship, by reason that a great and most part of all his lordships throughout that land were spoiled and wasted, The earle of Ormonds lands spoiled. which did not so much gréene him as the follies of his brethren. For great were his griefs, & verie much was he vnquieted therewith: for when he bethought himselfe of his brethren, nature mooued him, and reason persuaded him, that no such outragious The good affection of the earle of Ormond to his brethren. parts could proceed from them, which in anie waies should either concerne hir maiestie, or the dishonour of him and his house, which hitherto hath beéne alwaies found sound and true. Wherefore, when he heard of anie matter against them herein, he would plead their innocencies, and defend their causes, vntill such time as by credible letters, aduertisements, and reports, he saw apparant matter and manifest proofes of the contrarie. Which reports albeit they grecued him verie much, yet (as I said) nothing gréeued him more, than their disloialtie and breach of dutie against hir maiestie, The earle of Ormond offereth to serue against his brethren. and the dishonour of his owne house. Wherefore to acquite himselfe and his dutie towards hir highnes: he offereth to serne against them & others, by the sword, or by some other means, to recouer and reclaime them.

Wherevpon hir maiestie, standing assured of his fidelitie, and hauing a speciall trust in him, sent him ouer into Ireland, who arriued at Wexford the fouretéenth of August 1569, at that verie time when that wicked massaker was committed and doone at The earle of Ormond arriueth at Wexford. The earle repaireth to the lord deputie. the faire at Innescorth. Immediatlie vpon his landing, he aduertiseth vnto the lord deputie his comming, and with all conuenient spéed maketh his repaire vnto him, who then was incamped and laie néere Limerike: and then and there offereth his seruice with all his best power, and brought with him his brother Edmund Butler, who in the open view and sight of the whole campe did yéeld and submit himselfe simplie Edmund Butler submitteth himfelfe. to hir maiesties mercie, confessing his follie and craning pardon. And then was he deliuered to the earle his brother vpon his bonds, to bée foorth comming before the said lord deputie at his comming to Dublin: and also promised to doo the like with his two other brothers, which he did vpon the sixtéenth of October 1569. At which time when they all appeared before the lord deputie and councell, they were charged with manie and sundrie things: but sir Edmund Butler for himselfe alledged, that others were the causers whie he did that which he did. And for himselfe he alledged, Sir Edmund Butlers excuses. first that the lord deputie did not brooke nor like him, for he could haue no iustice at his hands, nor against sir Peter Carew, who claimed and had entered vpon some part of his lands, nor yet against any other person. Then that the said lord deputie had threatned him that he would lie in his skirts, and would pull downe his loftie lookes. Thirdlie, that the said lord deputie should go about to kill all the Butlers in Ireland, and would then go into England, and there would doo manie things.

When all these things were heard at full, and nothing in proofe falling out as was auouched, the thrée brethren were committed to ward into the castell of Dublin, out of which sir Edmund escaped, and made breach: neuerthelesse the earle brought him againe. And vpon the last of Februarie 1569 he brought also his two other brethren, 1569 for whome he had vndertaken, and presented them before the lord deputie and councell, where the matter being heard at large, the councell conferred hereof among themselues, and in the end they all the thrée brethren were againe called before the lord deputie and councell, and then and there knéeling vpon their knées, did confesse their follies, and submitted themselues in all dutifulnesse and simplicitie to the quéens mercie: where the earle not onlie naturallie as a brother made humble petition for them: but grauelie as a father recited their errors, reprooued The loue and grauitie of the earle of Ormond to his brethren. them of their outrages, and counselled them to their duties: and in the end condescended in the due consideration of hir maiesties roiall estate. And therevpon they were committed to safe kéeping within hir maiesties castell of Dublin, at hir highnesse disposition; and not long after vpon hope of amendment were pardoned. But to the matter againe.

The lord deputie followed his first begun hosting, who when he was incamped neere Clomnell, where it was thought he should haue béene fought withall, he wrote to the maior and his brethren of the citie of Waterford, to send vnto him the assistance of a The citie of Waterford standing vpon their liberties refuse to send aid to the lord deputie. few souldiers onelie for thrée daies; who did verie insolentlie and arrogantlie returne an answer by waie of disputing their liberties with hir maiesties prerogatiue, and so sent him no aid at all. Wherein the more they shewed their affection to the rebels; the more was their ingratitude & disloialtie to hir highnesse, the reward whereof they felt in the end. The camp at this time being within half a mile of Clomnell, the The lord deputie went into Clomnell & vseth verie good spéeches vnto them. lord deputie before his dislodging from thense went into the towne, where the souereigne and his brethren receiued him with all the honour they could, and gaue him a banket in their towne-house, where, vnto them & the whole multitude then present, he made a verie eloquent speach, teaching them the dutifulnesse and obedience of a subiect, and the great inconuenience which groweth by the contrarie to all commonwealths, and each member of the same: and therefore laieng before them their present estate for example, did mooue and persuade them to hold fast the dutie & obedience which they owght to hir maiestie, and not to be dismaid at the dooings of the rebels and disobedient: who though for a time they had their will and pleasure, yet God, in whose hand is the heart of the prince, and vnder whome all kings and princes doo rule, hath béene alwaies, is, and will be, a swift reuenger against them for the same: euen as of the contrarie he sendeth his manifold blessings of peace, wealth and prosperitie to the obedient and dutifull subiect. And so hauing vsed sundrie and notable sentences and examples to this effect, he left them and returned to his campe.

And from thense he remooued and marched towards Cashell, which lieth in the countie of Tipporarie, néere vnto which place Edmund Butler had warded a castell: who when he saw the armie approching, he set all the out houses on fire, and prepared themselues to defend the pile. The lord deputie taking the same as a defiance, approched therevnto and besieged it: and whilest the assault was in preparing, it was yéelded by composition, and after restored to one Cantrell the owner thereof. From thense by iourneies he marched and went to Corke, being met in the waie by the vicounties of Roch and Barrie, and by sir Corman Mac Teege: and being aduertised that Fitzedmund seneschall of Imokillie, a principall rebell, and combined with Iames Fitzmoris, had spoiled and preied the whole countrie, and had also warded and vittelled his castell of Balie martyr, which by his tenure he was of himselfe bound to mainteine Balie martyr a castell of the seneschals besieged and taken. The seneschall escapeth out of his castell. and defend it, he marched thither and laid siege to the same, and in the end tooke it full of vittels. But the seneschall in the dead of the night fled out through a hole of the house in a bog, and there escaped.

The spoile was giuen to the souldiers, & the castell with a gard of twentie men was giuen to Iasper Horseie, & so he returned to Corke, and from thense he tooke iourneie to Kilmallocke, and finding that place most necessarie for a fort, he appointed and named Humfreie Gilbert hir maiesties seruant to be coronell, and besides his owne Humfreie Gilbert made coronell of Mounster. band of an hundred horssemen he appointed foure hundred footmen, and certeine Kernes there to remaine. And there he did knit and conioine vnto him by oth, and vnder good pledges, the vicounties of Roch and Dessis, with the lord Powre, the lord Courcie, sir Corman Mac Téege, sir Donogh Clancartie, and Barrie Oge, and the most part of the freeholders in the counties of Limerike and Corke. And this doone he passed by iourneies to Limerike, and from thense he went to Gallewair, and there established a president and a councell, and placed sir Edward Fitton to be lord president, Sir Edward Fitton made president of Connagh. the earles of Thomond and Clanricard, and all the noble men & septs of gentlemen of that prouince yéelding to the same.

Thense he marched to Athlon, taking in the waie the castell of Rosocomen, whichhe left with the ward of twentie horssemen, to Thomas le Strange, and there dismissed the armie; but himselfe by iourneies trauelled and came to Dublin, and there remained. Capteine Gilbert in the meane time, hauing a speciall respect and regard to his charge, Capteine Gilberts good service. his valiancie and courage was such, and his good hap so well answering his woorthie and forward attempts, that he in short time broke the hearts, and appalled the courages of all the rebels in Mounster, and no rebell knowne left in effect, which dare to withstand and make anie resistance against him. And to such an obedience he brought that countrie, that none did or would refuse to come vnto him, if he were sent for but by a horsse boy: for all yéelded vnto him, some by putting in recognisances, & some by giuing of pledges, and all in séeking mercie and pardon.

And that proud earle of Clancare, which in his glorie not long before vsurped this The earle of Clancare submitteth himselfe to capteine Gilbert. name to be king of Mounster; euen he now, and Mac Donagh his chiefe follower, went to Limerike vnto him, and there falling vpon their knées acknowledged their tresons, and most humblie desired hir maiesties pardon: and offered to put in his eldest sonne, and the sonnes of his chiefest fréeholders for pledges and hostages. Likewise the president of Connagh in such wisedome, courage, & vprightnesse, directed The good seruice of sir Edward Fitton lord president of Connagh. his gouernement, that he was obeied of all the whole people in that prouince, as well the nobilitie as the commons. The wicked he spareth not, but being found faultie either in open sessions, or by martiall inquisition, he causeth to be executed: and by these meanes hauing rid awaie the most notable offendors and their fosterers, the whole prouince rested in good quietnesse and in dutifull obedience to hir maiestie and hir lawes.

The Canenaghs, the ancient enimies to the English gouernement, and who in the The Cauenaghs submissions. rebellion were conioined with the Butlers: these bordering vpon the frontiers appointed to sir Peter Carew, were so by him chased and persecuted, that finding no place of rest or quietnesse, he hath brought them to submit themselues simplie to hir maiesties mercie, and haue put in their pledges to abide such orders and conditions Turlogh shot through with two bullets. as shall be laid vpon them. Turlogh Lennogh in Vlster, being at supper with his now wife, aunt to the earle of Argile, was shot through the bodie with two pellets out of a caliuer, by a ieaster or rimer of the Doniloghs. Wherevpon the Scots whome he reteined were in a maze, and the countrie standing vpon the election of a new capteine: howbeit, he was in hope of recouerie. And thus after long troubles was the state of the whole realme recouered to quietnesse. Whervpon capteine Gilbert, when he had setled Mounster in outward appéerance in a most perfect quietnesse, and brought it to good conformitie: he made his repaire to Dublin to the lord deputie, where he aduertised and recounted all his dooings at full.

And hauing matters of great importance in England, he desired licence to depart ouer: whome the said deputie did not onelie most courtconslie receiue; but also most thankefullie did accept his good seruice, and in some part of recompense, vpon Newyeares daie in the church at Drogheda, he did bestow vpon him the order of knighthood; Drogheda. Capteine Gilbert dubbed knight. which he well deserued, and at his departure gaue him letters of credit to hir highnesse, and to the lords of the councell. And now by the waie, if without offense a man maie, after the maner of Cambrensis in his historie, and after the vsage of noble gouernors and capteins in other realmes, who for the increase of vertue, and incouraging of woorthie persons, doo attribute to such as doo deserue well their due praises & commendations, I hope it shall not be offensiue to the reader, nor impertinent to the historie, to set downe somewhat of much, what maie be said of these two woorthie personages, sir Peter Carew, and sir Humfreie Gilbert: both which were of one countrie and birth, borne in the countie of Deuon, and of néere bloud, kinred, and consanguinitie.

Sir Humfreie Gilbert, he was a second brother, and borne of a great parentage, The description of sir Humfreie Gilbert, and his descent. waase ancestors came and descended from the earle of Cornewall, a man of a higher stature than of the common sort, & of complexion cholerike; from his childhood of a verie pregnant wit and good disposition: his father died leauing him verie yoong, and he conceiuing some great good thing to come of his towardnesse, prouided some portion of liuing to mainteine and kéepe him to schoole. And after his death, his mother, being no lesse carefull of him, did cause him to be sent to schoole to Eton college: from thense, after he had profited in the elements & principall points of grammar, he was sent to Oxford, & did there prosper & increase verie well in learning and knowledge. And being (as his friends thought) verie well furnished, they would haue put him to the ins of court. But an aunt of his, named mistres Katharine Ashleie, who was attendant to the queenes maiestie, after that she saw the yoong gentleman, and had had some conference with him, she fell in such liking with him, that she preferred him vnto hir maiesties seruice: and such was his countenance, forwardnesse, and behauiour, that hir maiestie had a speciall good liking of him; and verie oftentimes would familiarlie discourse and conferre with him in matters of learning. After a few yeares spent in the court, he passed ouer into Ireland, being commended by hir highnesse to sir Henrie Sidneie then lord deputie: who gaue him interteinement, and made him a capteine ouer an hundred horssemen: wherein he so well acquited himselfe, that he was also made coronell of Mounster; and had appointed vnto him, besides his owne band of one hundred horssemen, foure hundred footemen, besides such Geraldines as Thomas of Desmond, brother to the erle of Desmond had procured, & vpon his oth of loialtie and pledges had promised his faithfull seruice.

And albeit he were but yoong of yeares, which might séeme to hinder his credit: yet such was his deuout mind to serue hir maiestie, and so effectuallie to his great praise he followed the same; that with manie good gifts and excellent vertues he so supplied euen as much as manie men of elder yeares & greater experience did not commonlie atteine vnto. For in seruice vpon the enimie he was as valiant and couragious as no man more; and so good was his hap to answer the same: for he alwaies for the most part daunted the enimie, and appalled their courage; as did appéere in the ouerthrow giuen néere Kilkennie in the Butlers warres, when he with twelue persons gaue the onset vpon a thousand men, of which six hundred were armed Gallowglasses, who then were ouerthrowne: and likewise in Mounster, which was altogither vp in rebellion; and he coronell, did not onelie in martiall affaires shew The valiantnes in seruice, and the wisedome in gouernement of sir Humfreie Gilbert. himselfe most valiant; and in short time reduced the whole troope of the rebels, and the proudest of them to obedience, hauing vnder him but fiue hundred against sundrie thousands; and inforced that proud earle of Clancart to follow him to Limerike, and there humblie vpon his knees to aske pardon and mercie: but also, after that he had subdued and ouercome them, did most vprightlie order and direct his gouernement, and with all indifferencie would heare, decide, and determine the complaints & griefs, and compound all the causes of euerie sutor. Which was so rare a thing in one of his yeares, as scarse was credible, had not eiewitnesses and dailie experience prooued and iustified the same.

After that he had established peace and tranquillitie in that countrie, he went to Dublin: where when he had recounted all his seruices, and the good successe thereof; and in what quiet state he had left the countrie, he desired leaue to passe ouer into England, for and about certeine matters of great importance, which he had to follow, which he he did obteine: as also in reward of his seruice, and for his good deserts he (as is before said) was honored and dubbed a knight; and with letters in his praise and commendation to hir maiestie, and the lords of the councell, he departed. Assoone as he had presented himselfe before hir highnesse, hir good countenance and fauour, in respect of his good seruice to hir maiestie was increased and doubled; and he speciallie aboue all others magnified and well accepted. Not long after, he was maried to a yoong gentlewoman, and an inheritrix: and thensefoorth he gaue himselfe to studies perteining to the state of gouernement, and to nauigations. He had an excellent and readie wit, and therewith a toong at libertie to vtter what he thought. Which being adorned with learning and knowledge, he both did and could notablie discourse anie matter in question concerning either of these, as he made good proofe thereof, as well in familiar conference with the noble, wise, and learned; as also in the open assemblies of the parlements, both in England and in Ireland: in which he shewed the great value of knowledge, wisedome, and learning which was in him, and the great zeale he had to the commonwelth of his countrie. He had a great delight in the studie of cosmographie, and especiallie in nauigations; and finding out by his studies, certeine nations and vnknowne lands, which being found, might redound to the great benefit of his countrie: he made hir maiestie acquainted therewith, and obteined of hir a licence to make a nauigation, which he tooke in hand. But before he could Sir Humfreie Gilbert is drowned. compasse the same to effect, he was in a foule storme drowned at the seas. Onelie he of all his brethren had fiue sonnes and one daughter, children by their countenances giuing a hope of a good towardnesse. And albeit he in person be deceassed, yet in their visages, and in the memoriall of his great vertues, and a life well spent, he shall liue in fame immortall. Thus much without offense, and not altogither impertinent, concerning this gentlemen, and now to the historie.

Turlogh Lenough thinking to inuade vpon the English pale, for the bending of the Turlogh Lenough prepareth to inuade the English pale. lord deputies force against him, he was repressed, and driuen to kéepe himselfe within his owne limits, and by that meanes brought to disperse his power: for being not able to paie and satisfie the Scots, the one was wearie of the other; and his wife and he not agéeing, they were vpon a point to sunder. The earle of Thomond reuolteth The earle of Thomond revolteth. The earle of Ormond followeth the earle of Tho mond, and driueth him out of the land. from his due obedience, and becommeth a rebell: whome the earle of Ormond so hardlie pursued, that he draue him out of that land, and he fled into France, and from thense into England. For the discouerie of whose treasons and rebellions to hir maiestie & to the lords of the councell, one Rafe Rockeleie chiefe iustice of Connaugh was sent into England, where after long sute made for his submission, he was sent backe into Ireland, there to receiue according to his deserts: hir maiesties pleasure yet being such, that if he were not found culpable of treason against the state, that he should be spared from iudgement of death.

This yéere the queenes maiestic, considering the good seruice of Lucas Dillon hir Lucas Dillon made chéef baron. generall attorneie in Ireland, was vpon the death of baron Bath made chéefe baron of the excheker there; & capteine Piers for his good scruice at Knockfergus was liberallie considered and countenanced by hir maiestie. And likewise after manie motions, sutes, and requests made to hir maiestie for a president and councell to be established in Mounster; and the same once determined and appointed: but by the sicknesse and vnabilitie of sir Iohn Pollard, appointed to be the president, it was lingered and deferred, is now reuiued and renewed; and sir Iohn Perot knight was Sir Iohn Perot appointed to be lord president of Mounster. made lord president, and a councell of good assistants chosen, as also his diet houses, interteinment, and all other things necessarie ordered, assigned, and appointed. This knight was borne in Penbrokeshire in Southwales, and one of great reuenues and worship, valiant, and of great magnanimitie; and so much the more méet to gouerne and tame so faithlesse and vnrulie a people, as ouer whome he was now made ruler. They heard no sooner of his comming, but as a sort of wasps they fling out, and revolting The rebelling of Mounster against the president. from their former feined obedience, became open rebelles and traitors vnder Iames Fitzmoris an archtraitor, and as dogs they returne to their vomit, and as swine to their durt and puddles.

And here may you see the nature and disposition of this wicked, effrenated, barbarous, The nature of the Irishmen. and vnfaithfull nation, who (as Cambrensis writeth of them) they are a wicked and peruerse generation, constant alwaies in that they be alwaies inconstant, faithfull in that they be alwaies vnfaithfull, and trustie in that they be alwaies trecherous and vntrustie. They doo nothing but imagin mischeefe, & haue no delite in anie good thing. They are alwaies working wickednes against the good, and such as be quiet in the land. Their mouths are full of vnrighteousnesse, and their toongs speake nothing but curssednesse. Their feet swift to shed blood, & their hands imbrued in the blood of innocents. The waies of peace they know not, & in the paths of righteousnesse they walke not. God is not knowne in their land, neither is his name called rightlie vpon among them. Their quéene and souereigne they obeie not, and hir gouernment they allow not: but as much as in them lieth doo resist hir imperiall estate, crowne, and dignitie. It was not much aboue a yeare past, that capteine Gilbert with the sword so persecuted them, and in iustice so executed them, that then they in all humblenesse submitted themselues, craued pardon, and swore to be for euer true and obedient: which, so long as he maistered and kept them vnder, so long they performed it; but the cat was no sooner gone, but the mise were at plaie; and he no sooner departed from them, but foorthwith they skipped out, and cast from themselues the obedience and dutifulnesse of true subiects. For such a perverse nature they are of, that they will be no longer honest and obedient, than that they cannot be suffered to be rebelles. Such is their stubbornesse and pride, that with a continuall feare it must be brideled; and such is the hardnesse of their hearts, that with the rod it must be still chastised and subdued: for no longer feare, no longer obedience; and no longer than they be ruled with seueritie, no longer will they be dutifull and in subiection; but will be as they were before, false, trucebreakers & traitorous. Being not much vnlike to Mercurie called quicke siluer, The nature of quicke siluer. which let it by art be neuer so much altered and transposed, yea and with fire consumed to ashes; yet let it but rest a while vntouched nor medled with, it will returne againe to his owne nature, and be the same as it was at the first. And euen so dailie experience teacheth it to be true in these people. For withdraw the sword, and forbeare correction, deale with them in courtesie, and intreat them gentlie, if they can take anie aduantage, they will surelie skip out; and as the dog to his vomit, and the sow to the durt & puddle they will returne to their old and former insolencie, rebellion, and disobedience. This is to be meant of the Irishrie and sauage people, who the further they are from the prince and court, the further from dutie and obedience; the more they are vnder their Obrian gouernment, the lesse dutifull to their naturall souereigne and prince. But concerning the inhabitants in the English pale, and all cities and towns, the contrarie (God be praised) is dailie seene.

Well, this worthie knight knowing that he should haue to doo with a sort of netles, The gouernment of sir Iohn Perot. whose nature is, that being handled gentlie, they will sting; but being hard crushed togither, they will doo no harme: euen so he began with them. The sword and the law he made to be the foundation of his gouernement, by the one he persecuted the rebell and disobedient, and by the other he ruled and gouerned in iustice and iudgement. His seruise against the rebelles. Great troubles he had in both, but little he did preuaile in the latter, before he had ouercome the first: and therefore minding to chastise the rebelles, and to bring them to obedience, he followed and chased them from place to place: in the bogs he pursued them, in the thickets he followed them, in the plaines he fought with them, and in their castels and holds he beseeged them, and would neuer suffer them to be at rest and quietnesse, vntill he had tired and wearied them out, and at length inforced Iames Fitzmoris and his complices to come vnto Killmalocke vnto him, and there simplie to Iames Fitzmoris seeketh for peace, and submitteth himselfe. submit himselfe, and vpon his knees in the open sight of all the people to confesse his disloialties, and in all humble manner to craue mercie and pardon. Whome though vntill hir maiesties pleasure knowne he did forbeare, yet the residue he spared not; but after their deserts he executed in infinit numbers. And hauing thus rid the garden from these wéeds, and rooted vp the fields from these thornes, he entreth into the gouernement by order of law, and from place to place throughout all Mounster The ciuill governement of sir Iohn Perot. he trauelleth and kéepeth hïs sessions and courts, hearing euerie mans complaints, and redresseth their gréefs, and in short time brought the same to such a quietnesse and peaceable estate, that whereas no man before could passe through the countrie, but was in danger to be murdered and robbed, and no man durst to turn his cattell into the fields without watch, and to keepe them in barnes in the night time: now euerie man with a white sticke onelie in his hands, and with great treasures might The quietnesand safetie in Mounster. and did trauell without feare or danger where he would (as the writer hereof by triall knew it to be true) and the white shéepe did kéepe the blacke, and all the beasts laie continuallie in the fields, without anie stealing or prcieng.

Now when he had thus quieted this prouince, and setled all things in good order, then he beginneth to reforme their maners in life and common conuersation and apparell, suffering no glibes nor like vsages of the Irishrie to be vsed among the men, nor the Egyptiacall rolles vpon womens heads to be worne. Whereat though the ladies and gentlewomen were somewhat greeued, yet they yéelded: and giuing the same ouer, did weare hats after the English manner. In this his seruice he had two verie good Sir Iohn Perots assistants. & notable assistants, the one concerning the martiall affaires, and the other for his gouernement by the course and order of the law. Concerning the affaires martiall George George Burchier his birth and seruices. Bourchier esquier was ioined with him in commission, and did him notable good seruice, he was the third sonne to Iohn earle of Bath, whose ancestors were descended from out of the loines of kings, and men of great honor and nobilitie; and they were no more noble of bloud than valiant, wise and prudent in all their actions, both in the seruices of chiualrie and matters of policies, and whereof the histories of England in manie places doo make mention and report. And this gentleman, hauing some motion of the value and valiantnesse of his ancestors deriued and descended vpon him, was affected and giuen to all feats of chiualrie, and especiallie to the seruice in the warres, wherein he prooued a verie good souldior, and an expert capteine, both as an horsseman, and as a footeman, both which waies he serued, as the seruice and time required. If he serued vpon foot, he was apparelled in the manner of a Kerne and a foot souldior, and was so light of foot as no Kerne swifter: for he would pursue them in bogs, in thickets, in woods, in passes, and in streicts whatsoeuer; and neuer leaue them, vntill he did performe the charge and seruice committed vnto him. If he were to serue vpon his horssebacke, his dailie seruice can witnes sufficientlie how much, and how often he preuailed against the enimie, and appalled their courages, and with whome he would incounter if he might by anie meanes.

Notwithstanding, as couragious and circumspect as he was, that he would not be lightlie intrapped in the field, yet was he deceiued in the house. For vnder the colour of a parlée, and vpon a truce taken, he was inuited to a supper: and little thinking that anie breach of the truce should be made, he went into the castell whereas he George Burchier taken prisoner. was bidden. But in his being there, he was taken prisoner, and handfasted, and so kept for a space; but yet not long after he was restored and set at libertie. Concerning his other assistant, his name was George Welsh borne in Waterford, and a gentleman George Welsh a lawier, well learned, and vpright. of an ancient familie, he was brought vp in learning, and was a student in the innes of court at London, and prospered verie well therein: and albeit his yeares were but yoong, yet his knowledge, grauitie, and sinceritie counteruailed the same with an ouerplus. In deciding of all matters he was vpright and iust, being not affectionated nor knowne to be corrupted for anie mans pleasure. In iudgement vpright, in iustice seuere, and without respect of persons would minister what the law had prescribed, he spared neither partie, nor would be affected to anie; by which meanes he did maruellous much good in that seruice, and happie was that gouernor that had so good a counsellor.

Immediatlie vpon the placing of this gouernement in Mounster, sir Henrie Sidneie had libertie and licence to returne ouer into England, and receiued hir maiesties letters dated the thirtéenth of December one thousand fiue hundred seuentie and one, 1571 Sir William Fitzwilliams made lord deputie. & in the thirtéenth yeere of hir maiesties reigne, for the placing of sir William Fitzwilliams to be lord deputie in his place. Which when he had doone, he passed ouer the seas, and by iourneies came to the court. He was verie honorablie receiued, and by hir highuesse well commended, there being sundrie noblemen and gentlemen of the court, which met him before he came to Whitehall, where hir maiestie then laie, who (as time conuenieut serued) did recounte vnto hir the whole estate in all things of the realme of Ireland, which hir maiestie liked verie well.

But this sir John Perot president of Mounster continued still in his office, and there remained for certeine yeares vntill he was reuoked, which was too soone for that countrie. For neuer man was more fit gouernour for that effrenated and hardnecked people than was he, nor was that countrie euer in better estate for wealth, peace and obedience, than he in the time of his gouernement did reduce the same vnto. Happie was that prouince, and happie were those people, which being eaten out, consumed and deuoured with caterpillers, he had brought and reformed to a most happie, peaceable, and quiet estate; and he left it euen in the same maner. Which if it had béene continued by the like, to haue followed him in the gouernement, the same would so haue continued: but the want of the one was in short time the decaie of the other, and that reformed countrie brought to a most miserable estate, as by the consequence may appéere.

Sir William Fitzwiliams, hauing a speciall care and respect to his charge and office, disposeth all things in the best order he could by the aduise of the councell, and finding the state somewhat quiet, sauing Mounster, his care and studie was so to keepe and mainteine it. And he being a wise and a graue man, and of so great experience in that land, he draweth the plot of his gouernement into certeine speciall points and articles. First, that the religion established according to Gods holie The points of sir William Fitzwilliams lord deputies gouernement. Religion. The common peace. The sauing of expenses. Lawes to be executed. word, should haue a frée passage through the whole land, and by euerie man aswell of the clergie as of the laitie to be receiued, imbraced and followed. Then that the common peace and quietnesse throughout the whole land might and should be conserued, and all occasions of the breach thereof, and of all mutinies and diuisions to be cut off. Thirdlie, that hir maiesties great and excessiue charges to the consuming of hir treasure might be shortened, and hir reuenues well husbanded and looked vnto, according to hir sundrie commandements tofore giuen. Lastlie, that the lawes and iustice might haue their due course and be current throughout the whole land, and the iudges and officers should vprightlie minister iustice to each man according to his desert, and that all the souldiers should be kept in that discipline Souldiers to be kept in their discipline. as to them apperteineth.

These considerations and such like, being ordered and established with the consent and aduise of the whole councell, and well liked of euerie good subiect, bicause the same was grounded vpon verie good reasons: yet it tooke not that effect as it was meant and wished it should. For that wicked race of the Irishrie, in whom was no zeale in religion, and lesse obedience to hir maiestie, and least care to liue in an honest conuersation and common societie, but alwaies watching the best opportunitie and time to breake out into their woonted outrages, robberies, and rebellions: these (I saie) in sundrie places begin to plaie their pagents. The first was Brian Mac Kahir of Knocking in the countie of Caterlough Cauenagh, who vpon Brian Mac Kahir his warres in Wexford. certeine wrongs which he complained he had receiued by one Robert Browne of Malrenkam, he tyrannized ouer the whole countrie, committed manie outrages and spoiles, preied the countrie, & burned sundrie towns. Likewise the gentlemen of the countie of Wexford, and namelie sir Nicholas Deuereux knight, being gréeued with the death of Robert Browne, who was his nephue, being his sisters sonne, were as vnquiet on their parts, and all rose vp in armour against Brian Mac Kahir, and each one with all the forces they could make did resist the other, so that all the whole countrie was thereby in a verie troublesome state; and no end could be had before they had tried it with the sword. For the Wexford men following their matters verie egarlie, and being in a great companie well appointed, they sought out Brian Mac Kahir, and gaue the onset vpon him; but he so watched the matter, and tooke them at that aduantage, that although he and his companie were but small in respect of the others, yet he gaue them the foile and ouerthrow, and killed Brian Mac Kahir hath the victorie of the Wexford men. Thomas Masterson. the most principall gentlemen of that shire about or aboue thirtie persons.

In this companie was an English gentleman, who after was in great credit & offiee among them, and he in danger to haue drunken of the same cup, was driuen to leape vp on horssebacke behind another man, and so escaped, or else he had neuer béene seneschall of that prouince. After this fight, though the grudge were not forgotten nor a reuenge vnsought, yet by little and little it quailed. About two yeares after, Brian Mac Kahir made humble sutes to the lord deputie for his Brian Mac Kahir his submission. pardon, and submitted himselfe to his lordships deuotion, confessing in writing his fowle disorders and outrages; and yet firmlie auouching that the quarell did not begin by him nor by his meanes: his submission was such and in so humble sort, as that he obteined the same. And according to his promise then made, he did thenseforth vse and behaue himselfe most dutifullie, and liued in a verie good order. This Brian was a Cauenaugh, and the sonne of Charels, the sonne of Arthur, which Brian Mac Kahir what he was. Arthur was by king Henrie the eight made a baron for terme of his life: for he was a man of great power within the counties of Wexford & Catherlough. And this Brian Mac Kahir Mac Arthur was a yoonger sonne to Charels, but the chiefest for valiantnesse, magnanimitie and wisedome; and none of all the sept of the Cauenaughs, though they were manie and valiant men, to be compared vnto him euerie waie, and vnto whom they all would giue place.

Now he being assured of them, and also being alied by marriage vnto Hewen The strength of Brian Mac Kahir. Brian Mac Kahir is a follower to sir Peter Carew. Mac Shane, whose daughter he married, he was also assured of the Obirnes and of the Omeroughs, & so a man of great strength and abilitie. He became in the end to be a follower vnto sir Peter Carew, with whom he neuer brake his promise, but stood him in great stéed aswell in matters of counsell, as of anie seruice to be doone in those parts. A man (which is rare among these people) verie constant of his word, and so faithfullie he serued, and so much he honoured sir Peter Carew, that after his death, being as one maimed, he consumed and pined awaie, and died in peace.

The Omores, notwithstanding the earle of Kildare was waged by hir maiestie to The Omores rebell. persecute and chastise them, yet without anie resistance or impechment they rage and outrage in all traitorous manner and rebellious disorders. They inuaded the English pale, spoiled and burned sundrie townes and villages, and carried the preies and pillage with them without anie resistance. The whole prouince of Connagh All Connagh in actuall rebellion. was altogither in actual rebellion by the earle Clanricard sonnes, and they for their aid had called & waged a thousand Scots. And though they and the Irishrie were of diuerse nations, yet of one and of the same dispositions and conditions, being altogither giuen to all sinne and wickednes, and their harts were altogither imbrued in bloud and murther. The earle himselfe was at this time prisoner in the castell of The false dissembling of the earle of Clanricard. Dublin for the same rebellion, who hearing of the outrages of his sonnes, made sute to the lord deputie, that if he might be set at libertie, he would vndertake to bring in his sons, and to quiet the countrie.

The lord deputie, desiring nothing more than peace, after sundrie conferences had with him, did by the aduise of the councell inlarge him, in an assured hope that he would effectuallie performe in déed what he had promised in word. But he came no sooner home among his people, and had conferred with his sonnes, but he forgat his promise and performed nothing at all. Likewise the Ochonners and the The Ochonners and the Omores rebell. Omores, accompanied with a rable of like rebels, fall into open rebellion, spoile the countrie, deuoure the people, and make all wast and desolate. Tirlough Lenough in Vlster was readie to reuolt, but that he stood in doubt of the earle of Essex, who lieng vpon the fines and marches in Vlster, was not onelie in readinesse to haue bearded him: but also he had set Odoneile in open warres against him. Mounster was likewise in open rebellion. But sir Iohn Perot then president so coursed and followed them, that notwithstanding a great combination and league was betwéene The distressed mind of the lord deputie. Iames Fitzmoris and all the rebels in Connagh and Leinster, yet he kept them asunder and so sharpelie pursued Iames, that he left him no one place to rest in, nor anie followers to follow him. Besides these vniuersall troubles, which were sufficient to haue apalled the best and wisest gouernour, these three things increased his griefe and sorrow. First the losse of a most faithfull councellor and one of his chiefest and trustiest assistants doctor Weston then lord chancellor, whom it pleased The death of doctor Weston lord chancellor. God to call out of this miserable life, a man in his life time most godlie, vpright and vertuous, and such a one as that place was not possessed of the like in manie currents of yeares, in his life most vertuous and godlie, in matters of councell most sound and perfect, in iustice most vpright and vncorrupted, in hospitalitie verie bountious and liberall, and in manners and conuersation most courteous and gentle, faithfull to his prince, firme to his friend, and courteous to all men. And as was his life so was his death, who a little before the same called his houshold, and gaue them such godlie instructions, as to their callings apperteined. Then he set his priuate things in order, and he spent all the time that he had in praiers and exhortations.

At last, feeling a declination towards, he appointed a generall communion to be had of his houshold and friends in his chamber, vnto which all the councell came and were partakers. And then these godlie actions finished, he gaue a most godlie exhortation to the councell, persuading them to be vertuous and zelous in Gods true religion: then to be mindfull of their duties to hir maiestie, and lastlie remembring their callings and estate, and the great charge of the gouernement laid vpon them and committed vnto them, that they would be valiant, carefull, and studious to performe the same, as might be to the glorie of God, honor to the quéene, & benefit to the whole realme. Which points he handled so godlie, learnedlie & effectuallie, that he made their teares to trill, and their hearts to be heauie. After this doone he bid them farewell, and not long after he being feruent in his praiers, he died most godlie, vertuouslie, and christian like.

The next was the breach of the earle of Desmond, who was a prisoner in the castell The earle of Desmond breaketh prison. of Dublin, and he hauing giuen his faith and oth to be a true prisoner, and to shew himselfe a dutifull subiect, did yet make his escape: which being doone in so troublesome a time, it was doubted verie much what would insue thereof. Wherefore not onelie in that land, but in England also, hir maiestie vpon knowledge did cause musters to be made in all the parts vpon and towards the south and west parties, and men to be in readinesse to be transported, if anie occasion by his escape should happen to follow. For it was greatlie doubted what would follow of that his breach, sauing that the president in Mounster was thought to be sufficientlie prepared and furnished against him, if he did or would attempt anie disorder that waie.

The third was the reuocation of the earle of Essex, who had taken vpon him to The reuocation of the erle of Essex. recouer the whole prouince of Vlster to obedience, with hir maiesties aid. And he hauing with great charges brought the same to a great likelihood and towardnesse, the armie was cashed, and he dismissed and discharged, and the enterprise dissolued. These with sundrie other accidents of the like nature, were sufficient to haue swallowed vp anie man in the gulfe of despaire, had not the lord God looked vpon him, and hir maiestie most gratiouslie pondered his manie & sundrie most humble requests for his reuocation, which hir highnes by hir letters vnto him granted; and immediatlie wherevpon he (after foure yeares painfull seruice) was discharged of Sir William Fitzwilliams discharged of the deputiship. his office, & returned into England, Manie good & notable things were doone in the time of this mans deputation worthie to be remembred, and for euer to be chronicled. But forsomuch as the records and presidents of the same cannot bee had, and the imprinter cannot staie his impression anic longer time, the same with patience must be borne withall, vntill a better opportunitie shall serue as well for it, as for the commendation of this honorable & ancient gentleman, who hath deserued well and honourablie of his prince and countrie for his seruice and gouernment. After that this man was cleane discharged, the sword and office was deliuered vnto 1575 Sir Henrie Sidneie lord deputie the third time. sir Henrie Sidneie, who now the third time entred into the gouernment of this cursed land, and arriued at the Skirries the twelfe of September 1575, who at his comming found the infection of the plague so generallie dispersed, and especiallie in the English pale, that he could hardlie find a place where to settle himselfe without The pestiléce great in the English pale. dancer of infection. And euen as this plague reigned, so the old rebellious minds of the northerne Vlsterians brake out. For he was no sooner knowne to be entred into the land, but for a bien veneu to welcome him into the countrie, Serlo Boie with his companie came to Knockfergus, there to make preie of the towne, Serlo Boie assaulteth Knockfergus. & so proudlie assailed the same, that he slue a capteine named Baker, and his lieutenant, with fortie of his souldiers, besides diuerse of the townsmen, of whome some were hurt, some maimed, and some slaine; and yet neuerthelesse by the valour & courage of the rest of the souldiers and townsmen, the preie was rescued, and the Scots perforce driuen awaie.

The lord deputie, considering with himselfe that of such beginnings euill would be the euents and sequels thereof, if the same were not out of hand preuented; and knowing also by his owne experience, how perillous delaies be in such cases, thought it verie necessarie' and expedient (according to the old saieng Principifs obsta serò medicina paratur, &c.) foorthwith to withstand the same. And therefore by the aduise of so manie of hir maiesties priuie councell, as could in that quesie time be assembled, he tooke order for the safe kéeping of the English pale, and committed the custodie thereof in his absence, to certeine gentlemen of best account and wisedome, to sée the same to be kept and quieted. And he himselfe in his owne person, taking with him hir maiesties armie, which was then about six hundred horssemen and footmen, and accompanied with such gentlemen and councellors as he had appointed The lord deputie maketh a iourneie into Vlster. for that seruice, tooke his iourneie towards Vlster. And as he passed, he found the whole countrie throughout wasted, spoiled, and impouerished, sauing the Newrie, which sir Nicholas Bagnoll knight marshall did inhabit, and the Glins and Routs which Serlo Boie with the Scots possessed, and Killultagh.

Now in all that iorneie few came to submit themselues, sauing Mac Mahon, and Mac Gwier, & Tirlough Lenough, who first sent his wife; and she being a woman verie well spoken, of great modestic, nurture, parentage, and disposition, and aunt to the then earle of Argile, was verie desirous to haue hir husband to liue like a good subiect, and to be nobilitated. Tirlough himselfe followed verie shortlie after his wife, & came before the lord deputie without pledge, promise or hostage, and simplie & without anie condition did submit himselfe in all humblenesse and reuerence Tirlough Lenough submitteth him in all humilitie. to his lordship, making the like sutes as his wife before his comming had motioned vnto his lordship, referring himselfe neuerthelesse to be ordered and directed by his lordship in all things. And after that he had spent two daies, vsing himselfe in all the time of his abode in all dutifulnesse, subiection, and reuerence, did in like maner take his leaue, and returned to his owne home. And as for Odonell lord of Tirconell, and Mac Gwier lord of Farmanaugh, albeit they came not in persons, yet they wrote their most humble letters of submission, and offered all such rents and seruices, as to them apperteined to yéeld, making request that they might onelie serue vnder hir highnesse, and be discharged from the exactions of all others.

After that the lord deputie had performed this iourneie, and was returned to Dublin, The iourneie of the lord deputie in Leinster. then he made the like iourneies towards the other parts of the land. And beginning in Leister, he found the whole countie of Kildare, and the baronie of Carberie, extreamelie impouerished by the Omeries, both in the time of the late rebellion, and also since, when they were vnder protection. The kings and queenes counties were all spoiled & wasted by the Oconners and the Omores, the old natiue inhabiters of the same, and of them Rorie Og had gotten the possession and the setling of himselfe in sundrie lands there, whether the tenants will or no, and as a prince occupieth what he listeth, and wasteth what he will. Neuerthelesse, Rorie Og vpon the word of the earle of Ormond came vnto the lord deputie, and submitted himselfe. vpon the word of the earle of Ormond, he came to the lord deputie at his being in Kilkennie; and in the cathedrall church there he submitted himselfe: and in outward appearance repented his former faults, and promised amendment: but how well he kept and performed it, his rebellions in the yeare following can witnesse.

The lord deputie at his comming to Kilkennie was receiued by the townsmen in The lord deputie interteined verie well in Kilkennie. all the best maner they could, and the earle of Ormond himselfe feasted and intreated him most honourablie, and had great care that his lordship and all his traine should not want anie thing. At this towne the two cousins and kinsmen of sir Peter Carew late deceassed, that is, Peter Carew, and George Carew, and the gentleman Sir Peter Carew his death. who had béene his agent in all his causes within that land, came before the lord deputie, and there communicated with his lordship the state of the deceassed knight, and of his countrie; submitted the same to his order and direction, as also made humble sute vnto his lordship for his presence at the funerals at Waterford, where it was appointed he should be buried. Whose lordship as vpon the first newes of this knights death, so now also vpon the new ricitall thereof, maruellouslie lamented and bewailed the losse of so worthie a knight, and the want of so wise and faithfull an assistant and councellor. And then he tooke order therein, shewing most honourablie not onelie the offices of a faithfull and good friend to the dead; but also the like good will to the two yoong gentlemen, of which one was then his heire, and to inioy his baronie. And according as things were determined, the corps was remooued from Rosse where he died, and caried to Waterford Sir Peter Carew died at Rosse, & was buried at Waterford verie honourablie. against his comming thither, where it was buried in verie honourable maner, as shall hereafter appeare, being not impertinent to the historie to set downe some short discourse of this most woorthie gentleman and of his life.

Sir Peter Carew was descended of noble and high parentage, whose first ancestor Sir Peter Carew his life, birth and conditions. His descent. was named Montgomereie and in the time of king Henrie the second he maried the ladie Elisabeth daughter to Roesius prince of Soathwales, by which mariage he was aduanced to honour, and made baron of the castell of Carew, whereof Baron of Carew. his posteritie in time tooke their surnames, being called Carews. And some of them passing into Ireland did grow to be mightie men, and of great honor and possessions in that land, being marquesses of Corke, barons of Hidron and Lexnew, lords of Maston, and inheritors to sundrie great lordships and seigniories in that land. And likewise in England they were men of great credit, seruice, and honour, and by waie of mariages matched and combined with honourable and great houses.

This foresaid sir Peter, who was lineallie descended from them, was of stature His stature. meane, but verie stronglie and well compacted; of complexion cholerike, from his childhood vpwards bent and giuen to an honest disposition, and in his tender yeares His disposition. he serued vnder, and was page to the prince of Orenge beyond the seas, and by that means had the greater delight & skill in martiall affaires, wherein he had good His skill and seruice in the warres knowledge, as did well appeare in the manifold seruices he did vnder king Henrie the eight, king Edward the sixt, and quéene Elisabeth, in sundrie places beyond as also on this side the seas. He was in his yonger years a great traueller, and had His trauels. béene at Constantinople in the Turkes court, at Vienna in the emperours palace, at Venice, and in the French kings court, and in the houses of the most of all christian princes; in cuerie of which places he left some tokens of his value. He was blessed of God with manie singular good gifts, as well of the mind as of the bodie, being vertuouslie disposed euen from his verie infancie, sincere in religion (and for which His religion. he was partlie an exiled man in the Marian daies) dutifull to his prince, and faithfull His qualities. to his countrie, vpright in iustice, politike in gouernement, and valiant in armes, skilfull in the Italian and French toongs, and a great student in such bookes as those His learning. toongs did yéeld; and by that means some knowledge ioined with his pregnancie of wit, he would discourse verie substantiallie in anie matter concerning policie or religion, peace or warres, good to euerie man, hurtfull to no man; bountifull & His cōditions. liberall, abhorring couetousnesse and whordome: a great housekéeper, and of great hospitalitie. And if anie fault were in him, it was rather of too much spending, than in reasonable sauing; he would be soone warme, but without gall, and His anger without malice. against his enimie most stout and valiant: finallie such was his vpright dealing, honest conuersation, and zeale to the commonwealth, as no man was more honoured His zeale. nor vniuersallie beloued than was he.

When he had spent the greater part of his age, he bethought himselfe vpon such His title to his lands in Ireland. lands as his ancestors had in Ireland, and which in right did descend vnto him: and finding his title to be good, he acquainted hir highnesse therewith; and obteined hir fauour and good will to passe ouer into Ireland, to follow the recouerie thereof. Which he did, and made such good proofes of his title, as well by records He recouereth some part of his lands in Ireland. as by euidences, that he recouered so much as he did then put in sute, namelie the lordship of Maston, of which he had béene dispossessed of about seauen score yeares, which he departed with vnto sir Christopher Chiuers knight, then tenant to the same, and the baronie of Hidron then in the possession of the Cauenaughs, the ancient enimies of the English gouernment, and who had expelled his ancestors about two hundred yeares past. But being put once in possession, he dealt in such His good dealing with his tenants. good order with them, and so honourablie vsed himselfe, that they all voluntarilie yeelded vp their lands, and submitted themselues to his deuotion; and finding him to be a verie rare man in manie and sundrie respects, as of the like they had not heard nor knowne, they much reioised of him, and counted themselues happie and blessed to be vnder his gouernment. At his first comming he resumed the whole baronie into his owne hands, and thereof he gaue some péeces in fréehold, to such gentlemen as he thought good; and for the residue euerie of them what he had before, he tooke it againe vnder writing by lease. He diuided the baronie into certeine manors and lordships, and in euerie one he did erect a court baron, and there all matters in variance betwéene them were ended and determined after the English maner, according to iustice & truth. He would not suffer anie wrong to be doone vnto them, neither would he beare with anic of them dooing wrong. Their complaints he would heare, and with indifferencie he would determine them: he dwelled among them, and kept a verie liberall and a bountifull house, and such His housekeeping and hospitalitie. hospitalitie as had not béene tofore knowne among them; and for which he was maruellouslie beloued, and his fame spred throughout that land.

He kept continuallie of his owne priuat familie, aboue or néere a hundred persons in house, he had alwaies in readinesse fortie horssemen well appointed, besides footmen, & commonlie one hundred Kerns, and all that his countrie at commandement; by which meanes he chased and pursued such as laie vpon the frontiers of his countrie, that they if anie had offended, would come and submit themselues simplie to his mercie: & the residue willing to serue him at all néeds. If anie noble man or others did passe by his house, there he first staied and was interteined according to his calling, for his cellar doore was neuer shut, & his butterie alwaies open, to all commers of anie credit. If anie garrison either came to assist and attend him, or passed through his countrie, he gaue them interteinment, and vittelled them at his owne charges, and paied readie monie both for it, and for all things taken of the countrie; for without present paiment he would haue nothing: which Readie paiment for all things. was a rare thing and not heard of in that land. And as concerning hir maiesties seruice, it was so honourable for hir highnesse, and so profitable to the countrie, and accomplished with such a disposition and a good will, as all and euerie the gouernours in his time thought themselues happie to be assisted with such a man. In matters of counsell he was verie graue and considerate, in matters of policie verie wise and circumspect, and in martiall affaires verie valiant and noble, and in all of great knowledge and experience: in euerie of which (as occasion serued) his seruice was readie and at commandement, so long as his abode was in that land.

In the Butlers warres, vpon commandement from the deputie, he did first serue at His seruice in the Irish wars. Cloghgreman, a castell of sir Edmund Butlers, where being accompanied with capteine Gilbert, capteine Malbeie, and capteine Basnet, and Henrie Dauels, and their bands, assaulted the castell, tooke it, and gaue the preie to the souldiers. Then they went to Kilkennie where they issued out and made a sallie vpon the whole armie of sir Edmund Butler: which being about thrée miles from the towne, gaue them the ouerthrow, and put all the Gallowglasses and the rest to the sword, sauing the horssemen and Kernes which fled into the woods: and then méeting the lord deputie, attended him in the whole iourneie and seruice of the said warres vntill the same was ended. In which he assisted the said deputie with his faithfull aduise and counsell, and with all such dutifull seruice as which his lordship could not lacke, and which he so aduertised to hir maiestie. Likewise in Vlster he was in the whole or the most part of that seruice with the carle of Essex, whom he aduised and assisted with all Sir Peter Carewes seruice in Vlster. the best seruice and counsell he could, to the great comfort of the earle, and commendation of himselfe.

The fame and report of this noble gentleman, for his wisedome, valiantnesse, experience, vprightnes, houskéeping, bountifulnesse, liberalitie, and his iust dealings with euerie man, was spred through out all that nation, and he fauoured and beloued of all men. And certeine gentlemen in Mounster, knowledging and confessing that His title to his lands in Mounster. he had a iust title to their lands and possessions, and that he (as descending lineallie from the marquesse of Corke) was their lawfull lord, and to whome they ought to yéeld their lands; some of them made their repaire, and some wrote their letters The offer of the gentlemen to be his tenants. vnto him: and all with one consent acknowledged him to be their right and lawfull lord, and offered not onelie truelie to instruct and to aduertise him throughlie of his whole inheritance; but if it would please him to come to the citie of Corke, they would all appeare before him, and submit themselues, and yéeld vp their lands into his hands. Sir Peter Carew, when he had considered and well bethought of these offers, and had taken aduise with his fréends, thought it not good to refuse the same; and that so much the sooner, bicause he had made hir highnesse acquainted with his title, and had before obteined hir letters to sir William Fitzwilliams then lord deputie of Ireland, and to sir Iohn Parret then lord president of Mounster, that they should assist him in his sutes, and to call the contrarie parts, and to persuade them with all quietnesse to yéeld to his iust titles. And againe, finding that part of the realme to be now verie quiet, & the people well disposed, he sent first his agent the writer heereof to Corke, where and before whome there came Mac Artie Riogh, Corman Mac Teege, Barrie Og, the Omalions, the Odriscots, the Odallies, & sundrie others, who of their owne fréewill offered to giue in recompense of that which was past, and towards the setting vp of his house, if he would come and dwell among them, thrée thousand kine; and so manie shéepe and hogs and corne, as according to that proportion; and would also yéerelie giue him in the like maner such a portion as should be to his contentation and good liking. When his agent had aduertised these things vnto him, and according to his order had prepared a house in Kinsale, and one other in Corke for him: the said sir Peter did set the house of Leighlin to his kinsman and cousine Peter Carew, who afterwards was his heire, and prepared his ship to passe himselfe with his houshold stuffe to Corke. And being in readinesse for the same, it pleased God to call him to another passage; for falling sicke at the towne of Rosse, he died the seauen and twentith of Nouember The death of sir Peter Carew 1575. 1575, and was buried verie honorablie and in warlike manner at Waterford, the fiftéenth of December in the cathedrall church, with all such ensignes of honor as His buriall. to his degrée apperteined, there being then present sir Henrie Sidneie lord deputie, and the councell. And thus much concerning that worthie knight sir Peter Carew.

The lord deputie, being accompanied from Kilkennie with the earle of Ormond The receiuing of the lord deputie at Waterford. vnto the citie of Waterford, he was verie honourablie receiued at his entrie into the citie, by the maior & his brethren, and an oration congratulatorie made vnto him in the Latine toong by a yoong scholar clad in white attire, verie well and eloquentlie pronounced. Great triumphes were made, both vpon the land and vpon the water; with all such shewes and tokens of ioie and gladnesse, as could be deuised. And whiles he remained in the citie, there wanted not anie thing méet and conuenient for the interteinement of his lordship, and of all his traine: which his lordship did verie well accept and take in good part; as also aduertised it to the lords of hir maiesties honourable priuie councell in England. This citie is a verie ancient The description of the citie of Waterford. The situation. citie, and first builded (as the common opinion is) by Sitiracus one of the thrée brethren, which came out of Norwaie, called Easterlings. It standeth and is situated vpon the riuer of Suire, which riseth in the hill or mount Blandina, named in Irish Slough blome: and fléeteth by Thurles in Tipporarie, whereof the earles of Ormond are vicounts: from thense to the Holie crosse, Ardmale, Cahir Doweske, Ardfinan, Inislouagh, Clomnell, Caricke Mac Griffin, and so to Waterford.

It was of it selfe a verie little pile, but strong and well walled, and of late yeares vpon occasion of warres inlarged in the time of king Henrie the seuenth and in closed with a strong wall: when Lamberd (named Perkin Warbecke) was crowned A controuersie betwéene the earle of Kildare and the Waterfordians. king at Dublin, about which king fell great controuersies betwéene them and Gilbert erle of Kildare. For the said erle being then lord deputie sent his letters to the said maior & his citizens, requiring them to receiue into their citie the new king, as other good cities had doone: who refusing to acknowledge anie other king, than The Waterfordians refuse to acknowledge Perkin to be their king. The Waterfordians in fauor with the kings of England. king Henrie of England, he threatened them that he would take their citie perforce and hang the maior. Wherevpon hot words grew on euerie side, & the same like to haue growne to hand fight: the Waterfordians offering to wage the battell where the erle would appoint. Which their truth at that time auailed them much afterwards, and they in speciall fauour with king Henrie the seuenth and king Henrie the eight, by whome their liberties and franchises were inlarged.

The soile about it is verie barren and full of hils and rocks, and the lesse profit The commoditie of the riuer. able for lacke of good manurance and husbandrie: but what faileth in the land, is recompensed with the sundrie commodities which the riuer yéeldeth, which is not onlie plentifull and abundant of all sorts and kinds of fishes, but also it is a goodlie hauen and a receptacle for all sorts of ships: & for this it is called Larga porta, The Larga porta. great or large hauen. The resort of merchants from out of all countries to this citie maketh the same verie populous and rich, & is the chiefest Emporium of that prouince. Great be the priuileges which the kings of England gaue to the maior & citizens, as well concerning the riuer as the citie, by king Iohn, king Henrie the third, and king Edward the first.

The riuer was bounded and limited from the mouth of the seas, betwéene Rindowan The riuer at Waterford. where Hoke tower standeth vpon the east side, and Rodibanke vpon the west side, and from thense vnto Caricke vpon Suire: and so farre beyond, as the said riuer ebbeth and floweth that waie: & from the said mouth vnto the Inostiage vpon the riuer of Oire, and so far as the same water ebbeth and floweth; and likewise from the said mouth, vnto saint Molins vpon the riuer of Barrow; and so farre beyond the same, as the water ebbeth & floweth. Yet notwithstanding great controuersies haue beene betwéene this citie and the towne of Rosse, which A controuersie betwéene the Waterfordians and the towne of Rosse for the riuer of Barrow. lieth vpon the riuer of Barrow, concerning the bounds and limits that waie, bicause they of Rosse doo claime a priuilege vpon that riuer as of the gift and grant of Roger Bigod earle marshall: who married Isabell the eldest daughter of Walter earle marshall, and in hir right was lord of Rosse and of the riuer of the Barrow. Wherevpon certeine inquisitions were taken in the time of king Edward the third, and of king Richard the second: and then at Clomnell vpon the othes of six knights A verdict passed in the behalfe of the Waterfordians. and eighteene esquiers, it was found for the citie of Waterford. And these are the bounds of the port or hauen of Waterford; within the which bounds and limits the citie of Waterford, by the grants of sundrie kings vnder their charters, haue these The priuileges of Waterford vpon the water. priuileges: That no ship shall be laden nor vnladen, but at the citie of Waterford, and there to paie all such customes and duties as belong and are due for their merchandize: Also that they haue the prisage wines and the iurisdiction of the admeraltie, within the limits of the said riuer.

The citie it selfe was first incorporated by king Henrie the second, & after con firmed by king Iohn, Henrie the third, and king Edward the first with augmentations The incorporation of the citie. The priuileges of the citie of Waterford. The sword of iustice. The maior hath the sword borne before him by the gift of king Edward the fourth, and king Henrie the seauenth, by the name of the sword of iustice. They haue cognisanee of all maner of plées as well reall, personall, & mixt. They are iustices of oier and determiner, & maie sit vpon triall of treasons, murthers, and felonies, without anie speciall commission to be sued out for the same. Also that no officer nor officers of the kings or quéenes of England, nor their deputies shall intermeddle, nor exercise anie authoritie nor iurisdiction, within the citie and liberties, but onelie the maior & officers of the same. Also they haue a maior and officers of the staple yearelie to be chosen, who haue the liberties for taking of statutes and recognisances staple, not onelie within their owne towne & concerning themselues, but also of sundrie townes in Leinster and Mounster, and the counties of Waterford, Kilkennie, Wexford, and Tipporarie. Also they haue libertie from time to time to transport, lade, and carrie awaie corne, vittels, wooll, horsses, & hawks; and to licence anie other within the limits of their iurisdiction to doo the like. Also all forfeitures, amerciaments, fines, felons goods, and deodands goods, they haue to their owne vse. Also that in all doubts, the words of their charters should be expounded to the best sense, and if then there were anie further doubt, the same should be determined and decided by the king or his councell in the realme of England. Also that they should not at anie time be compelled to go and serue in anie hosting, except the king himselfe or anie of his sonnes were present in person.

These and manie other like priuileges of the kings of England from time to time, of their bounteous liberalitie and in consideration of their dutifull and good seruices, did giue and bestow vpon them. All which, O you the inhabitants of Manapia and citizens of Waterford, the ofspring of so good ancestors, ought to be An admonition to the citizens of Waterford. lessons and presidents vnto you, for your continuance in the like offices and duties: that you maie thereby shew your selues to be as were your predecessors, faithfull, loiall, and obedient: and that your apophthegme maie be for euer found true, Waterfordia Waterfordia semper vanet intacta. semper manet intacta. Otherwise brag neuer so much of your worthinesse, & glorie neuer so much of your values (as the Iewes did of their father Abraham) yet it shall so little auaile you, that their honour shall be your reproch, and their glorie your shame, if you doo not also the like; and in the end your vtter confusion. For as the holie scripture saith: If you be the children of light, then as children walke you in the light; otherwise that light which is in you shall be darkenesse. If you be the children of Abraham, then doo you the workes of Abraham: otherwise God, who is able and will raise vp the verie stones to be sonnes to Abraham, shall reiect you, and giue your citie to a people which shall bring foorth the fruits of dutie and obedience. For so did he with his owne peculiar people, the Iewes, whom for their disobedience against himselfe, and against his annointed princes, did after sundrie punishments and no amendment giue them ouer vnto their enimies hands: who put their yoong men to the sword, & their priests to slaughter, their virgins were deflowred, their widows defiled, their citie vtterlie destroied, and not one stone left vpon an other; and all the people which escaped the sword, carried awaie captiues, & made vagabonds, euen to this daie vpon the face of the earth. If he did this to his owne peculiar people, doo not you of Waterford, whom God hath blessed manie waies, thinke that you dooing the like wickednesse, shall escape the like iudgements. Wherefore if you will eschew the wrath to come, An exhortation to the citizens of Waterford. beware by their examples, and humble your selues in all dutifulnes & obedience to God and to your prince. Examine not his authoritie, nor decipher his power: compare not your priuileges with his authoritie, nor doo you dispute your liberties with his prerogatiue. For notwithstanding your priuileges, liberties, and grants be great and manie: yet they can not abate nor impugne the least part of the princes prerogatiue: which is so great, as nothing can be greater, if you will take the view of Gods owne ordinances, when he first erected and established a king, who gaue The princes prerogatiue. him so high and so absolute authoritie, that (as the apostle saith) it must be with all humblenesse obeied: bicause he is Gods minister especiallie when it concerneth the interest of hir maiesties imperiall crowne of that land, the suppression of rebels and traitors, & the deliuerie of your selues and that realme from the enimies and rebels.

And doo not you thinke that this digression is impertinent to the historie. For as your ancestors good dooings are set downe to their praises and commendations; so the same shall be doone of yours, either to your praises for your well dooings, or for your reproch to the contrarie. But to the historie. When the lord deputie had giuen thankes to the maior and his brethren for his good interteinement, he departed thense by iournies towards Corke, and by the waie at Dungaruon the earle of Desmond The earle of Desmond humblie offereth his seruice to the lord deputie. The lord deputie receiued honorablie into Corke. came vnto him, and verie humblie offered him all the seruice he was able to doo to hir maiestie, and did accompanie him from thense vnto the citie of Corke, where the said lord deputie was receiued in the best manner the citizens could, with all humblenesse, and with all such triumphs and other shewes and tokens of good will and dutifulnesse as they could giue, without grudging or complaining either of the townesmen or of the souldiers. To this towne resorted vnto him the earles of All the noblemen in Mounster repaire to the lord deputie. Desmond, Thomond, Clancar, and all the noblemen and best gentlemen in all Mounster, and their wiues, and there kept their houses the whole Christmasse. During his being there, manie complaints were made of great outrages, murthers, spoiles, and thefts doone throughout that prouince; wherevpon dailie sessions were kept, and the malefactors of which thrée and twentie verie notable and notorious Executions at Corke. offendors were executed and put to death.

It was also ordered, that for the cutting off and abolishing of the great swarmes and clusters of the idlers, which like waspes troubled the whole land, and liued onelie by spoile and rapine; that eueric nobleman and gentleman should giue and Euerie nobleman and gentleman to answer for his men. deliuer in the names of euerie seruant and follower which he had, and should sée the same to be booked and registred. And if any of them were found vnbooked and not registred, that he should be vsed as a fellon where so euer he was taken; and for all such, as whose names were registred, his lord and master should answer for him. To this order all the noble and gentlemen gave their full consents, and foorth with the same was openlie proclamed in their presence, who séemed to receiue it with all ioy, and promised that it should be followed with effect, and immediatlie they gaue in their pledges. When all things were thus in these parts setled in good and quiet order, he tooke his iournie towards Limerike, and there he was receiued with much more pompe and shewes than in anie place before. But as The lord deputie honorablie receiued at Limerike. before, so here he spent a few daies in kéeping of sessions, in executing of iustice, and in hearing of poore mens complaints, and tooke the like order for registring of euerie noble and gentlemans follower, as he had doone at Corke. Which when he had doone, he rode thense vnto Thomond, where he was complained vnto of manie great murthers, rapes, thefts, and other outrages, whereof he found great Thomond is cleane out of order. plentie. And for want of sufficient time to proceed throughlie to doo iustice and iudgement therein; he referred the same to certeine commissioners appointed for the purpose: sauing that he committed the principall offendors to ward, and some he banished and abandoned out of those parts, vntill further order were taken for them.

From thense he entred into Connagh, and came to the towne of Gallewaie, where he found the towne much decaied and almost desolated, sundrie of the good The towne of Gailewaie in great decaie. housholders hauing sought new habitations vnder Mac William Eughter, and the countie through out altogither spoiled and deuoured by the Mac an Earles, the hopeles (but much better if they had beene hoplesse) sonnes of the earle of Clanricard, whose outrages were most heinous and horrible. But when these graceles impes perceiued of the great complaints made against them, and doubting what would be the sequele if some waie were not taken, they voluntarilie went to Gallewaie The earle of Clanr cards sonnes submit themselues. towne, and came to the church vpon a sundaie at the publike seruice, where the lord deputie then was; and there kneeling vpon their knées confessed their faults, submitted themselues, and most lamentablie craued pardon, promising vnfeinedlie amendment, and neuer to reuolt more from their dutifull obedience to hir maiestie and hir lawes. The deputie mooued herewith, and hoping the best, did by the aduise of hir maiesties councell thinke it good, with some sharpe reprehensions and a little punishment for this time to release them, & so he tooke his iournie towards Dublin, where he came the thirtéenth of Aprill 1576, but kept sessions 1576 in euerie place as he passed through the countrie, and placed his garrisons in places conuenient.

In this his iournie he found a verie ruinous state and most lamentable disorders, which required a spéedie reformation. And though the outrages in the ciuill gouernment were great, yet nothing to be compared to the ecclesiasticall state, for The ruine of the ecclesiastical state. that was too too far out of order; the temples all ruined, the parish churches for the most part without curates and pastors, no seruice said, no God honored, nor Christ preached, nor sacraments ministred. And therefore it appéered, yea and it was openlie preached before the lord deputie himselfe, that manie were borne which Manie in Ireland not christened. neuer were christened" and the patrimonie of the church wasted & the lands imbezelled. A lamentable case, for a more deformed and a more ouerthrowne church The spoile of the churches. there could not be among christians. The deputie considering and bethinking with himselfe, how the church of God was abused, and that God had in store some wrath and indignation for this defiling of his holie sanctuary, did for the auoiding thereof write his letters of aduertisement to hir highnesse, and most earnestlie praied hir princelie authoritie for redresse thereof; and therewith most humblie requested, that the commonwealth being destitute of a chancellor, and other most necessarie magistrates for the gouernement, might likewise with all spéed be sent ouer. When hir maiestie and councell had considered this aduertisement, and had entered into the depth thereof, order for a redresse was taken foorthwith: and the matters concerning An order for the reformation of religion. religion and reformation of the church, it was committed to the said lord deputie, and to archbishops and certeine bishops, with others, to sée the same to be put in execution. And for the gouernment one William Gerard esquier a professor William Gerard to be lord chancellor. Sir William Drurie to be lord president. 1576 of the laws was sent to be lord chancellor, & sir William Drurie to be president of Mounster, which arriued at Dublin, the one the sixteenth of Iune, and the other the three and twentith of the same 1576. The lord chancellor he did foorthwith settle and place in his roome. And then his lordship prepareth to take a iournie towards Waterford, to doo the like with sir William Drurie. But when he was passed a daies iournie, word was brought vnto him from the bishop of Meth, who laie then vpon the confines of Meth and Connagh for ordering of matters in these The earle of Clanricards sonnes brake out into rebellion. parties; and the like from the maior of Gallewaie, and from diuerse others, who affected well the state, crieng out with trembling termes and dolefull reports, that the earle of Clanricard his sonnes that basterlie brood, which not scarse two moneths past had humbled themselues to the lord deputie, confessed their faults, and craued pardon, and had most firmelie protested and sworne most dutifull and continuall obedience.

These (I saie) not without the counsell and consent of their father, were on a The earle consented to his sonnes disloialtie. night stollen ouer the riuer of Shennon, and there cast awaie their English apparell, and clothed themselues in their old woonted Irish rags, and sent to all their old friends to come awaie to them, and to bring the Scots whom they had solicited, and their Gallowglasses, and all other their forces with them. Who when they met togither, they foorthwith went to the towne of Athenrie, and those few houses Athenrie spoiled. which were newlie builded, they sacked, set the new gates on fire, beat awaie the masons and labourers which were there in working, brake and spoiled the quéenes armes, and others, there made and cut to be set vp. Bad and wicked they were be fore, but now ten times worse than euer they were; being come, euen as it is said in the scriptures, that the wicked spirit was gone out of the man, and wanting his woonted diet, returneth vnto the house from whense he came, and finding the same swept cleane, he goeth and séeketh out other seuen wicked spirits, and entreth and dwelleth where he did before, and the last state of that man is woorse than the first. And if a man should aske of these bastardlie boies, and of their sier, what should be the cause that they should thus rage, and so wickedlie and suddenlie reuolue, as dogs to their vomits, so they to their treasons and treacheries, hauing beene so courteouslie vsed, so gentlie interteined, so friendlie countenanced, so fatherly exhorted, so pithilie persuaded, & so mercifullie pardoned in hope of amendment: surelie nothing can they answer, but that they would not be honest, nor in anie part Selfewill cause of the rebellion. satisfie a little of infinite the robberies, thefts, and spoiles which they had made. For bastardlie slips cannot bring foorth better fruits, neither can thornes bring foorth grapes. It is the good trée onelie that bringeth foorth good fruits, & which is to be cherished, and to be much made of; but thornes and briers are prepared for the fire, and to be burned. For let the husbandman bestow neuer so much husbandrie vpon the thorne, he will still be but a thorne: yea let him graffe neuer so good a peare vpon him, the same shall be but a stonie peare; and lacking continuall husbandrie, will reuolt to his old nature againe. As the husbandman then prospereth best, when his fields and gardens are weeded and clensed from thornes, brambles & briers, prepared for the fire: euen so shall the magistrate inioie the quiet state of a commonwealth, when iustice taketh place, and iudgement is executed; when the good are Punishment of the wicked maketh a quiet common wealth. preserued and cherished, and the wicked (prepared for the gallowes) according to their deserts are punished.

The instrument, when euerie string is streined to his proper tune, then the musike is sweet, and the harmonie pleasant; but if that one string be out of order, the discord of that one marreth and disgraceth all the whole musike of the rest: euen so is it in a commonwealth, when euerie subiect is dutifull to his prince, obedient to his magistrate, and liueth according to his vocation and calling, the same prospereth and flourisbeth; but let the wicked be left at libertie, and be vnpunished, the whole state is disturbed, & the commonwealth (as a garden ouergrowne with wéeds) in perill and danger to be ouerthrowne. The best commonwealth in all ages then prospered best, when the wicked were as well punished, as the good conserued. And experience teacheth, that a théefe, murtherer, a traitor, & such malefactors doo neuer better seruice to their prince & commonwealth, than when they be hanged on the gallowes, and so fastened to a gibbet. But to the matter.

The lord deputie vpon these aduertisements, finding the matter to be of such importance, The lord deputie altereth his course, and entreth into Connagh. which required some expedition to withstand the same, or else the whole land like to be in danger, altereth his intended iourneie, and returneth to Dublin, vsing such expedition, that within three daies following he was entered into Connagh. The brute thereof when it was blowne abrode, it was scarse credited by the rebels, bicause it was so sudden and with such spéed. But finding it to be true, and they affraid of their shadowes, they all one and other fled into the mounteins, sauing certeine gentle men of the earls countrie, which left the traitorous boies, & came to the deputie, and offered their loialtie and seruice with fidelitie. The earle their father would faine haue excused himselfe, but in the end when no excuses could be accepted, The earle of Clanricard is sent to the castell of Dublin and kept in close prison. his castels were taken, and he brought to the lord deputie: who notwithstanding his humble submissions and crauing of pardons, he was sent to the castell of Dublin, and there kept in close prison. But the lord deputie he passed thense to Gallewaie, and after he had there staied a few daies, for the comforting of the townesmen, who stood much dismaied of their estate, and in feare to be surprised and taken for pledges: he passed through Thomond, and came to Limerike, where Sir William Drurie placed to be lord president in Mounster. he setled sir William Drurie (who had accompanied him in all this seruice) to be the lord president. And from thense being accompanied and attended vpon with him and the nobilitie of that prouince, and diuerse gentlemen of account, they passed to Corke, & there the lord president remained.

Now he the said president, being thus placed in the gouernement of that prouince, The gouernement of sir William Drurie. did beare himselfe so vprightlie, and in so honourable a sort, that he reformed the same maruellouslie both in life and maners: and of a fierce people he tamed them to obedience. For the euill men he spared not, but by law and iustice in the open sessions, or by sword without respect of persons he punished according to their deserts: euen as of the contrarie the good subiects he would fauour and protect. If anie seruice were to be doone vpon the enimie and rebell, he would be the first in the field, and neuer ceasse to pursue him, vntill he had either taken him, or driuen him out of the countrie. If anie matters were in variance betwéene man and man, or anie bils of complaints exhibited vnto him, the same he would either determine, or referre them to the law, for which he kept courts continuallie, & where the same were heard and ended, and at which for the most part he would be present. The rude people he framed to a ciuilitie, & their maners he reformed and brought to the English order. And by all these means he did maruellouslie reforme that whole prouince to a most peaceable, quiet and ciuill estate, sauing the countie palatine in Kerie: which the earle of Desmond claimed to be his libertie, and that no person The earle of Desmond will haue no officer to intermeddle in his countie palantine. The countie palantine a sanctuarie of sinne and wickednesse. The lord president purposeth to doo iustice in Kerrie. was to intermeddle nor yet to vse anie iurisdiction there, other than his owne officers. But when his lordship had looked into the most loose and dissolute life there vsed, and that it was a sanctuarie for all lewd and wicked persons, and how that liberties granted at the first for the maintenance of iustice was now become a cloke and a shrowd for all licentiousnesse: he purposed and was fullie determined to make a iourneie into that priuileged place, to make a passage for law and iustice to be there exercised, euen as he had tofore doone in other places, knowing that it could not be safe among a great flocke to leaue a scabbed sheepe, nor good for a commonwealth to haue nursseries for sinne.

The erle, when he perceiued this, he was in a great furie and agonie, and vsed all the waies he could to dissuade the lord president from the same. Which when he by no means could compasse, then according to his accustomable dissimulations he maketh faire weather, and offereth all the seruice he could doo to his lordship, and requested him that it would please him to vse his house and countrie at his pleasure, and that it would likewise please his lordship to lie at his house at Tralie when he passed that waie; the earle minding nothing lesse than his welcome thither, but practising in the end openlie what he had dissemblinglie and in secret deuised and determined. The lord deputie, nothing mistrusting anie secret practise to be imagined against him, granteth the earles request; and when he saw time, he taketh his iourneie into Kerrie, hauing no more men with him than sufficient, to the number of The lord president entreth into Kerrie. six score, or seuen score persons: and as he passed through the countrie, he kept courts and sessions, and heard euerie mans complaint: and at length as his iourneie laie, he rode vnto Tralie, where he minded to lodge with the earle. The earle hauing the gouernor (as he thought) within his clooches, and minding to practise that openlie, which he had deuised secretlie; had appointed in a readinesse seuen hundred, or eight hundred of his best followers to haue intrapped his lordship; and The treacherous practise of the earle to haue intrapped the lord president. in sted of a bien venu into the countrie, to haue cut him off for euer comming more there. Which his villanous treacherie when his lordship saw and vnderstood; and considering that he was so néere vpon them, as that he was either to aduenture vpon them, or with dishonor to hazard himselfe and his companie: he calleth all his The lord president giueth the charge vpon the earle of Desmond. companie togither, and with verie good and pithie words incourageth them to giue the onset vpon them: and foorthwith with a good courage they all march forwards, and gaue the charge vpon them. But they, notwithstanding they were all well armed, and seuen to one of the other: yet being as it were astonied at the boldnesse of this noble man, and at his great courage; for which he was famous in & through all that land: both the earle and his companie turned their heeles, forsooke the field, and dispersed themselues into the woods, and elsewhere, for their best safetie.

The countesse, when she heard hereof, fell in a great sorow and heauinesse for hir husbands so bad dealings; and like a good Abigaell went and met the lord president, fell vpon hir knées, held vp hir hands, and with trilling teares praied his lordships patience and pardon, excusing as well as she could hir husbands follie, saieng that he had assembled all that companie onelie for a generall hunting, nothing thinking vpon his lordship; and that the men séeing his lordship could not be persuaded to make anie staie: and so praied his lordship to take it. And herein she so wiselie and in such modestie did behaue hir selfe, that his lordship granted hir request, and temporised with the earle. But he followed his determination, and vsed his authoritie to decide matters in and throughout the palantine of Kerrie. This gréeued the earle to the hart, who hauing no other waie to be reuenged, he deuiseth The earle complaineth against the lord president. certeine articles against the president, which he with great exclames exhibited vnto the lord deputie. The lord deputie, when he departed from Corke, he returned to Dublin, where he was aduertised that the Mac an Earles in Connagh had The Mac an Earles in Connagh rise in rebellion. hired a new supplie of two thousand Scots, and were in actuall rebellion. Wherevpon he prepared a new iourneie thitherwards: and being come thither, he found the matter to be true, and that they were vp in campe and in outragious maner spoiling the countries. But before his comming they had besieged Bailie Riogh which was The earls sons doo besiege Bailie Rioghe. the earles their fathers house, and for his treacherous dealings confiscated.

In this house the lord deputie, at his last departure from thense, had placed Thomas le Strange, and capteine Colier with one hundred footmen, and fiftie horssemen to lie in garrison; but the earls sons, thinking themselues of sufficient strength to recouer the same againe, laid siege vnto it, and inuironed it round about: but they were so resisted, that they did not onelie not preuaile; but the garrison within did make sundrie assaults vpon them, and slue at sundrie times six of their principall capteins, and one hundred and fiftie of their men. And in the end, when they saw they could not preuaile, they raised their siege, and followed their accustomed robbing and spoiling of the countrie; but especiallie vpon Mac Maister William Eughter his countrie spoiled. William Eughter, from whome they tooke sundrie of his castels, and spoiled him of his goods and cattels. The lord deputie, not slacking nor shewing his businesse, The lord deputie followeth the rebels. followed out of hand the foresaid rebels, who skipped to and fro in such sort, that in no case could he find them at any aduantage. Wherfore he did disperse his companies, and according as intelligence was giuen, he caused pursute to be made vpon them. And by that meanes, although he could not méete with the whole troope of them, whereby to haue a full aduantage vpon them; yet manie times he met with some of them, slue them, hauged and executed them, tooke their preies from them, and gained awaie their holds and castels. And at length hauing good espials, it was aduertised vnto him, that the Scots were incamped in the confins and The Scots incamped in Connagh. marches of Mac William Eughters countrie: and therevpon he forthwith marched thitherwards, and in his waie manie of them fell into his lap, who had their rewards. Vnto whose lordship resorted the said Mac William with all the force Mac William Eughter commeth with all the force he could make vnto the lord deputie. he had & could make; who in this rebellion, being the onelie man of power in Connagh, & yet not able to saue hinmselfe a hole from their inuasions, did shew himselfe most loiall, and did the best seruice that was doone vpon the rebels: and by the meanes of the said deputie, he recouered, and was repossessed of sundrie his castels, which in this rebellion had béene taken from him.

The Scots, when they heard of the approching of the deputie towards them, they The Scots forsake Connagh and returne home. raised their campe, and suddenlie dispersed themselues, and the most of them, being werie of their abode and interteinment, fled into the rout in Vlster. The residue like vnto the bare arssed rebels sculked to and fro; but in the end, they and the others were all dispersed, & durst not to appeare. Wherefore the deputie, when he had broken the galles of them, & had thus dispersed them, he by iournies returned towards Dublin, and hauing a little before receiued hir maiesties letters in the behalfe of Nicholas Malbie hir seruant, whome she commended for his sufficiencie, both Sir Nicholas Malbie appointed gouernor of Connagh. for martiall and ciuill causes: and as well for the incouragement of him, as for the nourishing of the like vertues in others of his profession; hir pleasure was to commit vnto him the chéefe charge and gouernement vnder the said deputie in Connagh, and willed that he should be forthwith established in that office, & to be sworne one of hir priuie councell, & to haue that countenance, authoritie, & interteinement as was méet, conuenient & agréeable for the place, office, & person. Which the said deputie most willinglie & gladlie performed, dubbed him knight, and made him gouernor by the name of a coronell of Connaugh: thinking himselfe most happie, that he was assisted with such a man, as who for his experience in iudgement, his discretion in gouernement, and his painefulnesse and skill in martial seruice was sufficient and compleat; and best able, partlie by force, partlie by persuasion, and chieflie by ministring of iustice, was (I saie) best able, and would frame the rude and barbarous people of that prouince to ciuilitie and good order. And thus much he aduertised vnto hir maiestie by his letters, with thankes for hir choise of so méete and apt a man. During the time of this seruice and being of the lord deputie in Connagh, the earle of Essex, a man of great nobilitie and parentage died in Dublin. The death of the earle of Essex. Great doubts were made of his death; some thinking that he should be poisoned, because he was then in the best time of his age, of a verie good constitution of bodie, and not knowne to haue beene sicke anie time before his death. But the matter examined by all the meanes that could be deuised, there was no such thing then found: but supposed, that for so much as he had a flux, which was a spise of a Dysenteria, and wherewith he had beene oftentimes before troubled, by the inspection Dysenteria. and iudgement of such physicians & others who were present, it was iudged and found that it was some cause of his death. Some thought rather that he should be The sundrie opinions of his death. Poisoning. Witchcraft. bewitched, as that countrie is much giuen to such dailie practises. But how far is that from all christianitie, all wise and godlie doo know, and euerie good christian should vnderstand. It is against the word of the Lord and all christian religion; and therefore not to be credited. It was thought and so affirmed by the most part of all men, that some inward griefe of the mind and secret sorrow of the hart had Sorrow and griefe of mind. hastened that, which no infirmitie of the bodie nor anie other deuises extraordinarie could compasse. For where that maladie is once entered, and hath seized and taken No physicke against the sorow of the mind. possession, and which by no physicke can be releeued or cured: it is but in vaine to minister the same to the bodie, which can not indure when the other faileth, no more than can an accident remaine, when the substance is gone; or else as the imbers or ashes giue heat, when the wood is burned and consumed.

He was no more honorable of birth and parentage by his ancestors, of whome some descended out of kings loines; but as singular a man for all the gifts both of mind and bodie, as that age had not manie better. Towards God he was most deuout The vertues of the earle of Essex. and religious, whome he serued according to his holie word in all truth and sinceritie, and his whole life according to his vocation he framed after the same; being not spotted with drunkennesse, couetousnesse, whoredome, incontinencie, or anie other notorious crime: a great fauourer of the godlie, a friend to the professors of the gospell, & an extreame enimie to the papists & enimies of the true religion: to his prince & souereigne most dutifull and humble, faithfull & obedient: his superiors he honored, his elders he reuerenced, his equals he loued, his inferiors he fauored: to his countrie trustie, to the commonwealth zealous, to all men courteous, and to the poore and oppressed bounteous and liberall.

In matters of policie he was verie prudent, and of a great reach: in causes of counsell sound, and of a déepe iudgement: in martiall affaires most valiant and of great courage, and of so heroicall a mind, that if his abilitie had answered his good will, he had not bin a second, neither to Lacie, nor to Courcie, nor to anie the first conquerors of Vlster to the crowne of England. For such a plot he had laid for the regaining therof, that it could not be denied, but if the same had béene followed, great good A plot for the regaining of Vlster. would haue insued in processe of time to hir maiestie, in obedience and reuenues, and a great suertie to that estate, and the like increase of benefit to the whole commonwealth. The more noble were his good and worthie attempts, the more he was crossed and contraried: but by such secret meanes, as which he did rather for the most part coniecture amisse, than hit aright: but yet such was the great valour of his mind, and the magnanimitie of his stomach, that his good meanings & attempts, for the honor of his prince, and the benefit of the commonwealth, being so contraried The earle of Essex contraried in all his attempts. and ouerthwarted, he whome no trauels, no paines, no seruice, no hardnesse could breake; the verie griefe of mind and sorrow of heart (as it was thought) did onelie consume and ouerthrow. He was also verie learned, and of great reading, and The earle verle well learned. sometimes a scholer in the vniuersitie, and had verie good knowledge in all kind of letters, as well theologicall as humane, and of a verie quicke wit to conceiue, of a good capacitie to vnderstand, and of a readie toong to vtter and deliuer in a verie good order what he had conceiued; and so well he would discourse and argue anie matter, as few scholers better, and not manie so skilfull in anie one, as he was generallie in all good vertues. A more noble man euerie waie, not England, nor anie other nation hath lightlie affoorded. And certeinlie, if it had pleased God that Lachesis had bene idle, or had spun a longer thread, that he might haue liued to haue béene imploied according to his excellent vertues, either in matters of counsell, of policie, or martiall, no doubt he would haue prooued a most worthie and beneficiall member vnto hir maiestie, and hir whole commonwealth. As his life was, so also was his death most godlie, comfortable, and vertuous, the one answerable to the other, euen as S. Augustine writeth; Vix malè moritur qui benè vixit. In all the A godlie life hath a godlie end time of his sicknesse, which was about twentie or one and twentie daies, although he were manie times tormented with greeuous pangs in the bellie: yet was he neuer heard to grudge or murmur, nor to speake anie angrie or idle word, but most patientlie His patience in his sicknes. and méekelie tooke all things in good part. After he perceiued that nature began to faile and defect, he yéelded himselfe to die, and was verie desirous that his friends and welwillers should haue accesse vnto him, and to abide by him at their pleasure. And by that meanes he had continuallie about him diuerse men of all degrees, as well of the clergie, as of the laitie, both men and women, gentlemen & seruants, before whom he did shew most apparant arguments of a godlie and vnfeined repentance of his life past, and of a most christian and perfect charitie with His repentance and charitie. all the world, fréelie forgiuing euerie offense doone vnto him, and asking the like of all others. His faith he openlie confessed, and witnessed a most vndoubted assurance He confesseth his faith. of his saluation in Christ lesus, purchased for him in his bloud and death: and manie times he would with a lowd voice saie; Cupio dissolui & esse cum Christo. He spent most part of the time, when the extremitie of his sicknesse did not let him, in praiers, and in hearing the word read vnto him, and would vse such godlie admonitions, His praieng and hearing the word. such pithie persuasions, & so graue instructions, as he neuer did, nor thought he could doo in all his life time: for he neuer séemed in all his daies to be halfe so wise, learned, and eloquent. The néerer that death drew, the more feruent he was in praier, and requested all his companie to doo the like; and the verie last words that he spake was, The lord Iesus. And when his toong gaue ouer to speake anie more, he lifted vp his hands & eies to the Lord his God, vntill most swéetlie, mildlie, and godlie he did yéeld vp his ghost, which manie times before he had commended to his Lord and God. And thus this noble man vpon the two and See more of this earle of Essex in the chronicles of England. twentith daie of September, and in the yere of our Lord one thousand fiue hundred seuentie and six, left this world, to the great sorow of his fréends, and losse of the commonwealth; but to the gaine of himselfe, who by all apparant arguments and testimonies of his vndouted faith, dooth assure vs of his euerlasting ioie, and eternall felicitie.

About thrée daies before his death, he wrot his last letters to the lord deputie, His letters to the lord deputie. being then in the remote parties of Connagh; and verie desirous he was to haue spoken with him. In which letters he gaue his lordship most hartie thanks for all the good freendships past betweene them, and wished that the good and faithfull dealings betweene them were knowne as well in England as elsewhere. Then he The effect of the earles letters to the deputie. commended to him all his seruants generallie, and some by particular name; and therein a speciall request for his sonne and heire, that though he himselfe should die to his freends, yet his sonne the earle of Essex might liue to the seruice of his prince, and the good of the commonwealth. And lastlie, he touched somewhat concerning his buriall, and herewith he sent vnto his lordship a little George and a garter, the ensignes of the order of the garter, whereof they both were knights and companions, to be a memoriall of the loue and goodwill past betweene them. And now leauing this honorable earle in his heauenlie ioie and blisse: let vs returne to the historie of this effere and effrenated nation.

The prouince of Mounster was indifferent quiet, but some repinings were betwéene The disagréements betwéene the earls of Desmond and Thomond. the earles of Thomond and Desmond, the one not abiding nor digesting the orders, which vpon sundrie complaints were made against him, which he refused to obeie, vntill Volens nolens he were pressed therevnto by the lord president: the other, who was alwaies a verie wilfull man, notwithstanding he had at Corke yéelded himselfe (of his owne frée consent) to abide the orders there made for the quietnesse of the countrie, yet now hauing taken the aduise of his disordered folowers, he would not be The earle of Desmond repineth against all good orders, and complaineth against the cesse. withdrawen from his woonted exactions, and therefore repined to beare further anie cesse; and wrote his letters to the lords of hir maiesties priuie councell in England, complaining much, and proouing nothing, and aggrauating the taking of the cesse, with most manifest vntruths. And so far he was carried in misliking the gouernment, bicause he saw his owne woonted swaie was much abated, that he would verie faine haue slipped out if he could. And it was verelie thought that he was combined in a secret conspiration with the forelorne sonnes of the earle of Clanricard, as was his brother sir Iohn of Desmond, who for his conference had with Shane Sir Iohn of Desmond committed to ward. Burke, was suspected to haue ioined with him in his rebellion; as also because he had promised him aid out of Mounster, if he would hold out, and for which he was committed to ward. Which caried the more likelihood, bicause his intention was to put awaie his owne wife, & to haue matched himselfe in marriage with Shanes sister, who was Orwackes wife, & of late forsaken by him. Neuerthelesse, the erle was fearefull to offend the state, for the president was so watchfull to espie out both Sir P Desmond putteth away his wife and marrieth another mans wife. his and all the rest of their dooings, and in such a readinesse to be at inches with them, and vpon their bones if they started out neuer so little, that he kept himselfe quiet, and came in to the said president, and deliuered in his men that were demanded, & which before he denied, being verie notorious malefactors and practisers of vnquietnesse.

And now that the whole land was (as was thought) in quiet, or at least in outward shew more quiet than in times past, the noblemen & gentlemen in the English pale, of whome least suspicion of anie euill was thought, they begin verie inconsideratlie The gentlemen in the pale begin to repine against the cesse. to repine against the cesse: who if they had entred into the due consideration thereof, they (although somewhat to their further charge) should haue mainteined it: because that the same was procured for the defense of themselues, and they onelie had the benefit thereof. For you shall vnderstand that the lord deputie, being a man of great wisdome, knowlege, and experience, when he considered the fickle state of that wauering and rebellious nation of the Irishrie, who notwithstanding they had neuer so firmly promised, sworne, and vowed all allegiance and obedience to hir maiestie: yet vpon euerie light occasion, without anie respect of faith and dutie, would fling out into secret conspiracies, and so into open rebellion; and then for the appeasing thereof, and the preseruation of hir good subiects, hir highnesse was driuen to inlarge hir garrisons, and to increase hir armie to hir excessiue charges, and all which companies were vittelled by the English pale: and further, considering that the benefit which grew hereby, was generallie extended to the whole pale, who in equitie should be contributorie to the burthen, as they were partakers of the ease, and yet manie of them, pretending to haue liberties and priuileges, claimed Liberties claimed to be discharged of the cesse. to be exempted from anie contribution at all, whereby the residue were the more gréeued, & the greater burthened, to their impouerishing, & the hinderance of their seruice: the lord deputie caused a through search to be made in hir highnesse court The records searched for liberties. of the excheker in Ireland, of all the records, for and concerning all and all manner of liberties which at anie time had tofore bin granted to anie person or persons whatsoeuer: and in the end found that (verie few ancient liberties excepted) all were vsurped, or by statute repealed.

Wherevpon to ease the oppressed, and to make the burthen to be borne more vniuersallie, and so more indifferentlie; and for the better furtherance of hir highnesse seruice: he commanded by proclamation all such liberties and fréedoms to be Liberties dissolued by proclamation. dissolued, as which either had no grant at all, or which had not that continuance of times out of memorie of man. And of this latter sort were manie made by a statute but to indure onelie for ten yeares, and all which were expired. And for this cause they neuer found fault before now that they are greeued, and therefore doo repine against cesse; and with open mouths crie out, that they were so poore that they could not beare anie cesse, and that it was against the law. And here for your better vnderstanding what cesse is, and what is meant thereby; it is a prerogatiue of What cesse is. the prince, to impose vpon the countrie a certeine proportion of all kind of vittels for men and horsse, to be deliuered at a reasonable price called the quéens price, to all and euerie such souldiors as she is contented to be at charge withall, and so much as is thought competent for the lord deputies house; and which price is to be yeerelie rated and assessed by the lord deputie and the councell, with the assistants and assent of the nobilitie of the countrie, at such rates and prices as the souldiors may liue of his wages, and the said deputie of his interteinment.

These things although they were orderlie doone, yet certeine malecontents, finding The malecotents make their supplication to the lord deputie & councell to be discharged of the cesse. themselues gréeued, bicause they should also now beare a portion, and be contributaries: first they draw their heads togither, and make there supplication to the lord deputie and councell, which was receiued verie willinglie, and offer made that conference should be had with them, how and what waie it might best be deuised to ease there griefes, & not to charge the quéene. Whervpon at a time appointed they all met, and came in persons before the deputie and councell, where the said malecontents first opened their griefes, that they had certeine old and ancient priuileges and liberties which were taken from them; then that they were compelled to yeeld to an vnreasonable cesse, which they were not able to beare, and that was will and pleasure onlie, and contrarie to all law and reason, that anie such charge should be imposed vpon them without a parlement or grand councell.

When the lord deputie and councell heard them at full, they appointed a daie, when they should come and receiue their answer. In the meane time the lord deputie and councell consulted and considered of the matter, and resolued themselues vpon an answer. And when the daie came and they appeered, answer was made vnto them by the mouth of the lord chancellor, that they had no charters nor liberties at all to be found in hir highnesse records, other than such as were expired and of no validitie. And as for the greatnesse of the cesse, the burden whereof they had alleged to be vnreasonable and not to be horne, bicause they said & auouched that it was ten pounds & twelue pounds of ech plough land; it was offered that they should be discharged, if they would paie but fiue markes for euerie plough land. And whatsoeuer they said in deniall of the paieng of the cesse, it was and is to be proued, that it was not onelie hir maiesties prerogatiue which may not be impeached; but also to be prooued by most ancient records, that euer since the time of king Henrie the fourth, for the space of eight or nine score yeares, there hath bin still from time to time, as occasion hath required, the like charges imposed by the name of cesse by the deputie and councell, and such nobilitie as were sent for and did come to the same, now in question and by them repined at. Neuerthelesse, they repined and flatlie denied that they would yéeld to anie cesse, saieng and alledging as before, that it was against reason and law, and therefore praied that they might haue his lordships libertie to make their repaire ouer into England, and to acquaint hir highnesse with their case. Wherevnto he answered, that he would neither giue any such leaue nor denie them to go. Wherevpon they assembled themselues togither againe, and by the aduise of certeine busie headed lawiers and malecontented gentlemen, who had stirred and set them a worke to conioine themselues to follow this sute, and contributed a masse of monie amongst themselues, for the charge of the said lawiers, namelie Barnabie Scurlocke, Richard Neteruill, and Henrie Burnell, who hauing béene sometimes students in the ins of the court in London, & acquainted with Littletons tenures, thought themselues so well fraughted with knowledge in the laws, as they were able to wade in all matters of the deepest points of the law. But if they had first (as it becommeth dutifull subiects) to haue looked in the booke of God, they The prerogatiue of a prince by the law of God. should haue found it written there, that it was God himselfe who first made kings and established their thrones, and gaue them most excellent preeminences next to himselfe, that they should be vnder him the supreme gouernours vpon the earth; and haue that authoritie and prerogatiue, that all inferiors and subiects should and ought in all humblenesse and dutifulnesse submit themselues vnto the obedience of them for the Lords sake; bicause so is it the will of God, without sifting of his authoritie or examining his gouernment. For there is no power (as the apostle saith) but of God, & they are ordeined of God; wherfore who so resisteth them, resisteth God, and whose resistances & disobediences the Lord himselfe bath reuenged oftentimes on the disobedient. Wherfore euerie man is to be subiect in all humilitie & obedience vnto them in all maner of ordinances, being not against God, not onlie bicause of wrath, but also for conscience sake, especiallie in matters being well considered, & which doo concerne their one benefit and safetie. If this be the infallible truth, how farre were these men ouershot, that thus would dispute the princes prerogatiue with their Littletons tenures; and measure the same with their owne rules and deuises? It had bin much better for them, & more to their commendations, if they had (as the scholers of Pythagoras) kept silence and had held their peace, vntill such time as they had beene better studied in their owne lawes: and then they should haue found it written that the prince or king is the head and most The kings pyerogatiue by the lawes of the realme. excellent part of the bodie of the commonwealth; and through his gouernance the preseruer and defender of the whole bodie, and (as the prophet termeth them) to be nourishing fathers of the people which are the rest of the bodie, and for which causes the lawes doo attribute vnto him all honor, diguitie, prerogatiue, and preeminence aboue all others; and which his prerogatiue dooth not onelie extend to his owne person, and all that which he hath of his owne, but also to all his subiects. And the lawyers themselues doo so far stretch this for a Marime, that whatsoeuer lawes be made and established either for the benefit of holie church or common profit, it is alwaies implied Salua in omnibus regis prærogatiua; and that nothing shall be intended to be preiudiciall to his crowne and dignitie. But by all likelihood these men were not so farre read; or if they had, their malice or desire of some pelting lucre, which blindeth manie of that profession, had made them forgetfull of themselues & of their duties. Well, these great lawiers beare the malecontented lords & gentlemen in hand, that their cause & sute was good and reasonable, and by the law to be warranted, & not to be doubted but the same would haue good successe. Whervpon they made vp their supplication and letters to hir maiestie, with the like letters The impaled gentlemen send into England their agents to complaine. to hir honorable priuie councell, dated the tenth of Ianuarie, 1576, and vnder the hands of Rowland vicount of Baltinglas, Ed. of Deluin, Christopher of Hoth, Peter of Trimleston, Iames of Kellew, and Patrike Naugle barons; sir Oliver Plunket, sir Thomas Nugeat, sir Christopher Chiuers, and sir William Searefield knights; Edward Plunket, Patrike Naugle, Patrike Husseie, George Plunket, Francis Nugeat, Laurence Nugeat, Nicholas Tasse, Iames Nugeat, and William Talbot, in the names of all the inhabitants within the English pale, had subscribed. And then also they deliuered in the like order their letters of atturneie vnto their said agents, and so much monie for their expenses as was thought sufficient, with their order and promise to supplie what soeuer they should need. And thus being furnished with all things to their contentments, they past ouer the seas, and made their repaire vnto the court of England, and there at time conuenient did exhibit their supplications and letters to hir maiestie and the lords of the councell, which in effect consisted in these points.

First, that where there was a cesse imposed by the lord deputie and councell vpon 1 The effect of the letters & complaints exhibited to hir maiestie and councell. the English pale for hir maiesties garrisons, they finding themselues grieued therewith, made their complaint thereof vnto the said lord deputie and councell for redresse, and could not be heard.

Secondarilie, they affirmed that the said cesse, or anie other like to be imposed 2 vpon them, was against the lawes, statutes, and vsages of that realme.

Thirdlie, that the cesse was a most intollerable and grieuous burden, there being 3 exacted out of euerie plough land ten and twelue pounds.

Fourthlie, that in the leuieng and exacting, there were manie and sundrie abuses 4 doone and committed.

When hir maiestie had throughlie read both the complaints and letters, she foorthwith The matter is referred to the councell. sent and set them ouer to the lords of hir priuie councell to be considered, and the same to be throughlie examined; who foothwith assembled themselues, and hauing read and heard the contents thereof, did compare them with the like letters sent vnto them from the said malecontented lords & gentlemen; as also with the instructions and aduertisements, which they likewise had receiued from the lord deputie and councell out of Ireland, concerning the same. And after long debating of the matter, that they might the better proue and vnderstand the greatnesse therof, did by hir highnesse commandement call before them the earles of Kildare and Ormond, the vicount of Gormanstone, and the baron of Dunsanie, who then were attendant at the court, and declared vnto them the whole matter, and the maner of these mens procéedings both héere and in that realme, whose intent and meaning was in verie déed, vnder color to séeke some reliefe, to haue taken awaie wholie the imposing of anie cesse, and so consequentlie to haue taken awaie the right & prerogatiue, which hir maiestie & predecessors haue alwaies inioied, and without which that realme could not be defended, nor themselues preserued.

These foure noblemen, when they had heard the whole matter, séemed to be sorie, and to mislike of their vnaduised procéedings: they confessing and acknowledging that cesse hath beene alwaies vsed to be taken, and they thought him not to be a dutifull subiect, who would denie or impugne the same: although they wished and did praie, that the poore inhabitants in times of scarsitie might be eased of some part of the burthen which they now presentlie did beare. When the lords of the The answers of the councell to the articles of the complainers. councell had proceeded herein so farre as they could, they deliuered vp their opinions to hir maiestie, aduertising that concerning the first article they could say nothing; but that they supposed that the dooings of hir highnesse deputie was not so strict as was complained: bicause he had written otherwise.

To the second their opinion was, that it touched hir maiesties prerogatiue, so much to be denied of that imposition, which hath béene vsed, allowed, and continued for manie yeares, and in times of hir sundrie predecessors; that now it might not be suffered to be impeached, vnlesse hir highnesse would loose and forgo hir title, right, and interest to the crowne of Ireland, or else support the whole burthen and charge to defend the same of hir owne pursse: neither which extreamities could or might in anie wise be tollerated.

To the third, that the cesse was intollerable, and not able to be borne, they thought that to be true, if ten pounds and twelue pounds should be demanded out of euerie plough land, as they complained: but they vnderstood by credible informations from the deputie and councell the contrarie, & that they were offered at fiue marks the plough land: which was supposed to be verie easie and reasonable.

To the fourth article their opinion was, that if anie such abuses were doone, it were good the same were set downe and knowne, and a redresse thereof to be ordered.

When hir highnesse had read and thoroughlie considered their opinions and resolutions, Hir maiestie offended with the complainers. and finding hir selfe vndutifullie to be handled by hir subiects, commanded by the aduise of hir councell the said agents which followed their sute, to be committed to the Fleet, and foorthwith wrote hir letters to the said hir deputie and councell, Theagents of the complainers sent to the Fleet. finding hir selfe grieued with the said hir subiects of the pale, that the reléeuing of hir armie with vittels by waie of cesse, should be auouched to be a matter against law, and ancient custome: and yet the same both in hir time and in the times of hir progenitors, hath vsuallie béene imposed, and now impugned by some such as in times past had subscribed therevnto, in preiudice of hir prerogatine, and hinderance of hir seruice. And therfore she did not onelie mislike, & was greatlie offended Hir maiestie offended with the lord deputie and councell for suffering the complainers vnpunished. with these their presumptuous and vndutifull maner of procéeding; but also found fault with the said deputie and hir councell there, that they would and did suffer hir prerogatiue in contempt of hir highnesse and authoritie to be soimpugned, & the parties not committed & punished: by which meanes the matter at the first and in the beginning might haue beene remedied. And therefore as hir highmesse had alreadie giuen order for committing them to the Fléet, for the punishment of the agents which were sent ouer with the complaints and letters, for such their instifieng and mainteining the imposition of the said cesse to be against the lawes and customes of that hir realme, and therefore séeking to impeach hir prerogatiue and roiall authoritie: but also willed and commanded him and all hir whole councell to send for those lords and gentlemen, which subscribed the letters sent vnto hir highnesse, who if they will stand to mainteine their assertions, and auow the imposition of the The complainers which subscribed to be sent and committed to ward. cesse to be against the lawes and customes of the realme, and not warrantable by hir prerogatiue, that then hir pleasure was, that these persisting and auowing to be likewise committed.

And concerning the abuses perpetrated in the maner of the leuieng the said cesse, hir commandement and order was, that whosoeuer were culpable therein, he should be punished with all seueritie. And herewith also she was contented, and had giuen order for some qualification to be yeelded vnto, as by the said hir deputie and councell should be thought méet: considering the scarsitie and the dearth which was then in the said English pale. And in case the said lords and gentlemen The complainers acknowledging their faults to be gentlie vsed. vpon better consideration will be contented to acknowledge their offenses, and submit themselues simplie, and vnder their hand-writings: that then they to receiue fauour. And as for those and such hir learned men, as were present at the debating of the matter, and did forbeare (contrarie to their dutie & knowledge) to stand in The lawyers of her maiesties fée mainteining the complaints, to be displaced. mainteinance against the said prerogatiue, to be displaced and discharged out of hir fée, and their places to be supplied by such others as by the deputies shall be though méet. Immediatlie vpon the receipt of hir maiesties letters, and the like from the councell, the lord deputie and councell by their letters sent not onelie for those malcontents, The malcontents & their abbettors sent for. which had before subscribed to the letters sent to hir highnesse and councell; but also in discretion for such others who for their disguised and cunning manner of dealings were speciallie noted to be councellors, ringleaders, and procurors of these letters to hir maiestie and the lords of hir councell: who when they were come, and then being dealt withall, touching their claime of fréedome from cesse: their answers were arrogant and wilfull, and repining against hir maiesties The proud answers of the malcontents. prerogatiue, and affirming boldlie in plaine spéeches and without anie sticking, that no cesse could be imposed but by parlement or a grand councell; and whatsoeuer was otherwise set downe, was against the law: and so stubbornelie they were bent therein, that they would not yeeld to anie conference: wherevpon they were all committed to the castell of Dublin, notwithstanding some of them (after they had The malcontents are all committed to prison. better aduised themselues) yéelded a submission and praied mercie.

Which dooings when the lord deputie and councell had foorthwith aduertised to hir highnesse & the councell in England; they nothing liking these arrogant and disloiall parts of these impaled malecontents, sent for their agents; and hauing the like conference with them, found them of like disposition, being as a fit couer to the pot, verie froward, arrogant, and wilfull: wherevpon they were remooued from the Fléet to the Tower: a place appointed for the offendors in capitall causes, and The agents for their frowardnesses sent to the Tower. for such (being impugners of hir pre rogatiue) as be supposed to offend in the néerest degrée to the highest. These things when were notified vnto the lords and gentlemen in Ireland, they were maruellouslie gréeued; but not the one nor the other would giue ouer, vntill their arrogancies and insolencies were by apparant matter and good records fullie conuinced, and condemned: for which the lord chancellor of verie purpose was sent ouer into England, who so fullie, effectuallie, and discréetlie did The lord chancellor of Ireland sent into England. resolue hir maiestie and councell in euerie point, which the parties agents could not denie.

Now in the end they considered better of themselues, and sent their humble The agents submit themselues. submission in writing vnder their hands to the said lords of hir maiesties priuie councell, confessing that they had disloiallie and insolentlie, both in words and writings offended most gréeuouslie; protesting yet that their intent was neuer to denie hir roiall prerogatiue, to vse the same as occasion should serue, but onelie to redresse certeine abuses; and therefore most humblie praied they might find some mercie, and that the hard and painfull imprisonment which they had susteined, might be a sufficient punishment for the same. Wherevpon they were released, The agents were released vpon their bonds to appeare before the lord deputie and councell. putting in bonds of one thousand pounds, that within fiue daies they should depart homewards into Ireland; and after their transportation & arriuall thither, should make their immediat repaire, without staie or lingering, to the lord deputie and councell, and there to giue their attendance, vntill by them they should be licenced to depart. At their comming home they performed the conditions of their obligations, and most humblie in like order submitted themselues to the lord deputie and councell, and then (according to an order thought good by the lords of the councell in England, and referred to the liking of the lord deputie and councell in Ireland) the same was after long trauerse ended and determined. But heere to set downe what practises, informations, & deuises were made against the said deputie, by the said malecontents, and some (by their means) of no small calling had informed that he had alienated the hearts of the subiects from ioiall obedience, that he had farmed all the whole relme, that he had wasted hir maiesties treasures and The false accusations made against the lord deputie. reuenues, that he wanted policie in his gouernement, that he should for this dealing with hir subiects be reuoked, that he did all things by his owne mind without the aduise of others, contrarie to the course of other deputies before him, that he did grant manie pardons, to the imboldening of manie which offended the more.

These and manie such other like vntruths they spred. But truth, which is the daughter of time, did manifest it to the whole world, that their ouerthrow was his credit, and his preuaile was to their reproch and shame. And albeit manie were the pangs and inward gréefes, which for a time by the meanes of their false suggestions he susteined, and with great paines he couered: yet in the end it turned to his great ioy and comfort. And here by the way, if a man without offense should fall into the consideration of this their resistance, and repining against the cesse, which was then enterprised and taken in hand; when the whole land stood in a broken and doubtfull state, and the time verie dangerous; when the earle of Desmond frowardlie kicked at the like, and all the lords in Mounster had contrarie to their owne orders and promises, denied, and commanded their tenants to denie after the manner of the English pale, to paie anie cesse; when Iames Fitzmoris being furnished with men, monie, and munition, by the pope and king of Spaine, was dailie looked for to come and inuade the land; and when the great ones hauing hollow harts, and addicted to papistrie, did dailie gape and expect for the same; when the disloiall Irishrie in Mounster and Connaugh were combined and ioined in these conspiracies; when Rorie Og, Omore, Connor Mac Cormake, Oconnor & others, animated by the forsaid conspiracies, were vp in open rebellion, and vsed most execrable outrages; when some of the best townes in Leinster did aid, comfort, and mainteine these rebels, and besides manie other circumstances concurring héerewith: might it not be well presumed (and as it was so doubted) that the cause being like, they should also be combined and linked alike? And might not the whole world indge that neither barrell was the better herring? And yet notwithstanding it fell in the end to a better effect. For the lords and inhabitants in the English pale, since the time of the conquest by king Henrie the second, and since The fidelitie of the English pale to the crowne. their first arriuall into this land, it hath not béene lightlie knowne that they had broken their faith and their allegiance, and not to rebell in anie warres against the crowne of England, and the kings of the same; sauing as now in respect to saue their pursses, rather than meaning anie breach of dutie, had ouer shot themselues: which vpon a further consideration of the truth they repented, and vpon their submission were pardoned, in hope and vpon their promise that they would neuer thensefoorth offend, nor be found faultie with the like. During the trauerse about the cesse, manie things happened in the land worthie to be reprehended (as great and sundrie were the aduertisements from out of France by such Englishmen as were there imploied) of an intention of Iames Fitzmoris to inuade Ireland, who had béene at Rome with the pope, and there was he princelie interteined, and returned from thense with a good masse of treasure, making his returne through Spaine, and by the king thereof was furnished with men, munitions, & treasures, and all things necessarie. Which things were by letters from him signified vnto the chéefest of all Mounster his secret confederats, and they being papists both in bodie & soule, desirous of change of gouernement, and to be vnder a prince of their owne superstition, did dailie languish and expect his comming. Wherefore hir maiestie and councell, hauing the like intelligences, doo also prepare monie, munitions, vittels, and men, and all other things necessarie for the withstanding of him.

Rorie Og, Omore, and Connor Mac Cormake, Oconnor, and their coparteners, contrarie to their othes, submissions, and promises, hoping for aid out of Connaugh, began anew to gather their fréends and confederats out of seuerall places, to the number of a hundred swords, which with his owne made aboue seauen score; and being animated by Shane Burke to continue a rebell, he burned diuerse mens haggards, poore mens houses, and sundrie villages, and committed manie outrages: and being not resisted, he tooke such incouragement of his successe, that leaning poore villages, he went to great towns, as to the Naas, distant from Dublin about The burning of the Naas by Rorie Og. ten miles. The verie same daie that he came thither at night, was the patrone daie of the said towne, commonlie called the church holie daie, which daie after the maner of that countrie, and not much vnlike the festiuall daies which the Ethniks and Pagans were woont to celebrate to their idoll gods of Bacchus and Venus, they spent in gluttonie, drunkennesse, and surfetting. And after they had so filled their panches, and the daie was gone, they somewhat late in the night went to their beds, hauing forgotten to make fast their towne gates, or put anie watch to ward them. Which thing Rorie Og when he knew, and hauing intelligence that euerie man was in his bed asléepe, then he in the dead night came to the towne with all his companie, who like vnto a sort of furies and diuels new come out of hell, carried vpon the ends of their poles flankes of fier, and did set as they went the low thatched houses on fier. And the wind being then somewhat great and vehement, one house tooke fier of another, and so in a trise and moment the whole towne was burned; and yet in the towne supposed to be fiue hundred persons in outward appearance, able to haue resisted them: but they being in their dead sléeps, suddenlie awaked, were so amazed, that they wist not what to doo, for the fier was round about them and past quenching, and to pursue the enimie they were altogither vnfurnished, and durst not to doo it, neither if they would they could tell which way to follow him. For he taried verie little in the towne, sauing that he sat a little while vpon the crosse in the market place, and beheld how the fire round about him was in euerie house kindled, and whereat he made great ioy and triumph, that he had doone and exploited so dinelish an act. And then after a short space he arose and departed with great triumph according to his accustomed vsage in all his euill actions, but yet contrarie to his vsage, he killed no one person in the towne. As he returned he preied and spoiled the countrie, and ranging to Rorie Og burneth the towne at Leighlin bridge. and fro, as his wauering head carried him, he came verie shortlie vnto the towne at Leighlin bridge, and there burned part of the towne.

But George Carew brother vnto Peter Carew, then constable of the said towne and fort, hauing then but a small ward to defend the violence of the enimie, and George Carew with twelue persons against 240 setteth vpon them & driueth them to flie. yet thinking it should be too great a dishonour vnto him to be bearded with a traitor, and to let him depart vnfought withall: he issued out vpon him, hauing with him onelie seuen horssemen and fiue shot, and gaue the charge vpon the said rebels, being two hundred and fortie, with such a courage and valiantnesse (and they astonied bicause it was so sudden and in the night time) that he killed some of them: and then they with the losse of those men began to flie. But at last when they perceiued his force to be but small, and too weake to resist their great number, they returned and chased him to the verie walles of the castell; where if he The castell in danger to be taken. and his small companie had not like valiant and good souldiers acquited themselues, the rebels had entred into the house; for they were within the gate and there fought, but driuen out and the gate shut. At this bickering they lost sixtéene men, and one of their chiefe capteines named Piers Moinagh, who died verie shortlie after of his hurt. Capteine Carew lost but two men and one horsse, but euerie one of the rest of his companie was hurt.

The enimie, nothing triumphing nor liking this interteinement, presentlie retired The enimie is driuen to retire and flie awaie. and departed, by which meanes the one halfe of the towne was saued. After their returne from hense, they spoiled sundrie townes and villages vpon the confines & borders of the English pale. And albeit they were verie egerlie followed and pursued, and oftentimes with losse of his companie, yet he was so mainteined, and his watch and spiall was so good, that partlie by the helpe of his acquaintance, and partlie by meanes of the water bogs and fastenesse in euerie place, he was in safegard and safetie. In this pursute made vpon him, it happened that a parlée was appointed betwéene capteine Harington and him: vnto whom Rorie Og swore and promised most faithfullie to yeeld himselfe to some conformitie and order. The capteine nothing mistrusting him, gaue too much credit to his subtill promises, and did so open himselfe vnto him, that through his owne follie Rorie tooke aduantage, Rorie Og by slight and deceipt taketh capteine Harington prisoner. and perforce tooke him and Alexander Cosbie, who was with him in hand, both which he handfasted togither, and caried them along with him as his water spaniels, thorough woods and bogs, threatening them still to kill them. This thing being knowne, great sorow and greefe was conceiued of the lord deputie, and of all good Englishmen, and dailie practises were deuised for their deliueries; and at length by treatie of friends an agreement was in a manner concluded. But before the same was fullie perfected, a draught was made by Robert Harepole constable of Catherlough, A draught made vpon Rorie Og by Harepole. to intrap and to make a draught vpon Rorie: for he knowing where the said Borie was woont to hant, and by good espials learning where his cooch and cabine was, he being accompanied with Parker lieutenant to capteine Furse and fiftie of his band, earelie in the morning, about two houres before daie, he went and marched to the verie place where Rorie laie, and beset the same. Rorie hearing an vnwoonted noise, and suspecting the worst, he came suddenlie vpon Harington and Cosbie, Capteine Harington is hurt. thinking to haue slaine them, and gessing in the darke to the place where they laie, gaue him diuerse wounds, but none deadlie; the greatest was the losse of the little finger on his left hand. Robert Harepole when he had broken open the doore of the cabin, he tooke as manic as were within prisoners: but Rorie himselfe and one Rorie Og escapeth. other priuilie in the darke stole awaie and crept among the bushes, so that he could not be found. The souldiers in the meane time, making spoile of all such goods as they found, killed all the men who were there, but saued capteine Harington and Cosbie.

Rorie Og albeit he was glad that he was so escaped, yet in a great griefe for the Captéine Harington is deliuered. losse of his prisoners, and minding to be reuenged, priuilie with all the companies which he could get, besides them which Shane Burke had sent vnto him out of Connagh, he went to Catherlough earlie in the morning, and burned a few haggards Rorie Og burneth Catherlough. of corne and a few houses, and so retired. Robert Harepole hearing hereof, foorthwith followeth them with ten or twelue horsses which he had in a readinesse, and at a foord not far off he ouertooke them, and killed sixtéene or seuentéene of his best men, and Rorie himselfe escaped verie narowlie; and so continued still in his former outrages, vntill he was intrapped and taken by a deuise of his owne to intrap others, which was in this manner. Vpon the nine and twentith of Iune 1578, 1578 he set foorth of purpose an espiall, whom he had cunninglie framed, and made apt for the purpose to go to sir Barnard Fitzpatrike lord of vpper Osserie, and to A bait laid for the lord of vpper Osserie. tell him by the waie of great friendship and in secrecie, that Rorie Og had béene of late in the countie of Kilkennie, and there had taken a great preie and spoile of pots, pans, and other houshold-stuffe, which he might easilie take if he would aduenture the matter; and if he did wiselie handle it, he might also take Rorie himselfe and all his companie, which as he said (but vntrulie) that they were but few in number. The lord of vpper Osserie, neither beléeuing nor yet mistrusting this newes, and yet forecasting the worst, did put himselfe in readinesse to follow the occasion that was offered; and taking with him a good companie of horssemer and footmen, went towards the place where the bait was laied; and being come néere vnto it made staie, or else he had béene intrapped, and sent thirtie of his men into the woods to serch for Rorie. But the baron himselfe with certeine of his horssemen and shot staied in the plaines, to attend the issue of the matter. The companie were no sooner entered into the woods, but Rorie the rebell shewed himselfe with a thirtie persons, the rest lieng in ambush; and he was of the opinion that his fame and estimation was so great, and of such value among the Irishrie, that no man durst to aduenture vpon him if he once saw his presence. But he was deceiued. For at the first sight and view of him, the lord of Osseries Kerne gaue the charge vpon him, and at their incounter one of them lighted vpon him, and with his sword Rorie Og is slaine. presentlie thrust him through the bodie: which was no sooner doone, but two or three hacked vpon him, & gaue him such deadlie wounds that he fell downe and died, the same being the last daie of Iune beforesaid; and so this bloudie caitife, deliting all in blond, perished and died in his owne bloud.

But before Rorie Og was thus brought to destruction, the lord deputie made a The lord deputie maketh a iournie vpō Rorie Og. iournie to the borders of Offallie and Lex, to haue met with the foresaid Rorie Og & his companions the Oconnors for the suppressing of their insolencie, who were growen into such a pride by taking of capteine Harington, and their strength so increased, that with most vndutifull termes they breathed out slanderous spéeches against hir maiestie, as which were not to be indured. Wherefore he beset the whole countrie & confines as he thought best, to stop their passage and to annoie them, & so he went to Kilkennie, and there by sundrie examinations found people of all degrees in that towne to haue relieued the said Rorie with vittels and all other necessaries, for his feeding and defense, with whome he tooke order according to their deserts. At his being there he sent for the earle of Desmond to come vnto him, bicause he had refused to come to the lord president when he sent for him sundrie times, and for which cause the said lord president was there to complaine vpon him, as also that he The earle of Desmōd sent for to come to the lord deputie to Kilkennie. had of his owne authoritie, without anie warrant, gathered togither a rable of lewd and vnrulie followers, which harried vp and downe the countrie, eating and spending vpon the same, contrarie to all good orders, and which was not to be suffered.

Which earle foorthwith, vpon the receipt of the said letters, came to Kilkennie to the lord deputie, and there being examined of those his vnséemelie parts, confessed some part: and for excuse he alledged and much mistrusted and doubted the president, least he would haue staied him, and haue vsed him hardlie, for which he was blamed and reprooued by the lord deputie. But in the end, when they The earle of Desmond and the lord president of Mounster are reconciled. came togither, they were reconciled and made good friends, and then he promised vpon his returne home to disperse abroad his companions, and to obeie the president as hir maiesties principall officer of that prouince, and to come vnto him at all commandements, and which things he performed. For not long after he vttered and bewraied to the said lord president the practises of Iames Fitzmoris, who by the The earle of Desmond discouereth to the lord president Iames Fitzmoris his practises. arriuall of certeine Frenchmen and Irishmen vnto Sligo, in a ship of saint Malowes, did what he could to stirre & make a rebellion in Mounster and Connagh, whereby a plot was laied for the staie of those Frenchmen, and the apprehension of the Irishmen. These were good demonstrations to the 'otter shew of the obedience and loialtie of the said earle, but in truth méere dissimulation, as afterwards it appeared.

Connagh was in some part troubled, by means of Orwarke capteine of his surname; in whose countrie there were certeine coiners of monie, and mainteined by Coiners in Connagh. him. The coronell vnderstanding hereof, he sent vnto Orwarke for them, and who denied to deliuer anie of them: wherefore to correct that his pride, disobedience, Orwarke refusing to deliuer the coiners his castell is taken, and he submitteth himselfe. and insolencie, he sent a priuat band of footmen, who distressed Orwarke, slue his men, tooke his castell, and put all the ward to the sword. Wherevpon he came with all humilitie, and submitted himselfe, and craued pardon. All the residue of Connagh was verie quiet, and increased hir maiesties reuenues to the yearelic summe of eightéene hundred pounds by the yeare, with good contentation. And now when it was thought that all things were quiet throughout all Ireland; behold sudden aduertisements were giuen both vnto hir maiestie and councell in England, and to the lord deputie in Ireland, that Thomas Stukeleie was arriued out of Italic The Stukeleie suspected to come into Ireland. vnto Cadis in Spaine, with certeine men, ships, and munitions assigned vuto him by the pope. And being accompanied with certeine strangers attending vpon him, he was come to the seas, to land vpon some part of the realme of Ireland, in traitorous maner to inuade the same, and to prouoke the people to ioine with him in rebellion. All things, as well men, munitions, monie, vittels, and all other things Great preparation made against Stukeleie. necessarie were prouided and prepared for the preuenting of them, as well by sea as by land: but in the end, aduertisement was giuen from out of Portugall, that his enterprise was directed another waie, and to another purpose, and so all things were quiet. Neuerthelesse, it appeared that he was in great fauour with the pope, and was The pope his fauour to Stukeleie. appointed to some speciall seruice against hir maiestie, if opportunitie would haue serue & all other things had fallen out as it was deuised. And for the incouraging of him, the pope besides great treasures liberallie bestowed vpon him, he gaue him Stukeleie his honour and titles. sundrie titles of honour, and made him knight, baron of Rosse and Idron, vicount of the Morough & Kenshlagh, and earle of Wexford and Catherlough, and marquesse of Leinster, and generall to the most holie father Gregorie the seuenth Pontifici maximo.

In the middle of these broiles, the vicount Baltinglasse, one of the chiefe impugners and malecontents against the cesse, wrote his letters to the earle of Ormond, then attendant at the court of England, and complaineth of great iniuries The vicount Baltinglasse complaineth to the earle of Ormond against sir Nicholas Bagnoll. and spoiles to the value of two hundred pounds in monie, besides numbers of shéepe and kine, doone vpon him and his tenants by the English souldiers, vnder sir Nicholas Bagnoll knight marshall, when they were lodged one night in his house at Baltinglasse, in the time that they serued vpon the rebell Rorie Og. Which letter was by the said earle shewed to hir maiestie, and to the lords of hir most The earle of Ormond aduertiseth the complaint of the vicount to hir maiestie and councell. honourable priuie councell. Vpon which complaint, bicause it seemed somewhat pitious and lamentable, and hir maiestie partlie persuaded (as a matter verie likelie to be true) that such gréeuous extortions suffered vncorrected, made hir gouerne ment more hatefull to that nation, than did anie of the Irish exactions: letters Hir maiestie sendeth letters in the behalfe of the vicount Baltinglasse. The vicount Baltinglasse complaineth to the lord deputie against sir Nicholas Bagnoll. were sent to the lord deputie, to take care with all diligence, that the poore oppressed might be satisfied, and the offendors also be punished, according to the quantities and qualities of their offenses.

The lord deputie, before the receipt of these letters, was complained vnto by the said vicount, and sir Nicholas Bagnoll was called to answer such hurts as were obiected against him. And vpon the replication of the vicount, sir Lucas Dillon and sir Thomas Fitzwilliams knights were appointed to examine all such witnesses, as were brought foorth for proofe of the surmises, which in the end fell out to none effect, for nothing could be prooued to anie purpose. But it appeared manifest of the contrarie, by the report and testimonie of sundrie gentlemen of verie good credit, and how that the said marshall at his first comming to that towne, had giuen great charge to euerie capteine, to foresee that no iniurie should be offred, no spoiles committed, nor anie thing to be taken by anie souldier or other person without present paiment, protesting and proclaming execution according to marshall law, vpon such as should doo the contrarie.

Likewise at his departure from thense, he made the like proclamation, that if there were anie which had anie cause of complaint for anie wrong or iniurie doone, or that anie thing were taken and not paied for, he should come and be beard, and be satisfied. And by this it dooth appeare, that the surmises were made rather to The vicount Baltinglasses complaints are vntrue. aggrauat his gréefe conceiued against the imposition of the cesse, than for anie good matter in truth. Wherefore as he and his complices preuailed little in the one, no more had he successe or credit in the other. For the matter was fullie certified vnto the lords of the councell, and a request therewith made verie earnestlie, that the said vicount might be reprooued, and also terrified to profer or practise any such vntrue and indirect dealings. By these and other the like practises of the said vicount, that bicause he did not brooke nor like of the cesse, he thought by waie of exclames to aggrauat his owne case, that thereby the lord deputie might fall into the dislike of hir maiestie, and be out of fauour, but the contrarie in the end fell out to his owne reproofe and discredit.

When the lord deputie had ended and finished all his businesse, and had set the The whole land in peace. whole realme in order and peace, being now delinered from inward and ciuill warre, and from the feare of Stukeleies inuasion, he prepared (according to hir maiesties former letters of the six and twentith of March last past) to take his passage for England, and to make his repaire to hir highnesse. And so when all things were accordinglie prepared, and the wind & weather so seruing, he deliuered vp the sword according to hir maiesties commandement the six & twentith of Maie 1578, vnto 1578 The sword is deliuered to sir William Drurie as lord iustice. sir William Drurie, then lord president of Mounster. And then being conducted by the said now lord iustice and councell, and all the nobilitie, citizens & people to the waters side, he imbarked himselfe, taking his leaue in most honourable, louing, and courteous maner of euerie man. And at his verie entring into the ship for his The departure of sir Henrie Sidneie, and of his last saiengs. farewell vnto that whole land and nation, he recited the words of the 114 psalme, "In exitu Israel de Aegypto, & domus Iacob de populo barbaro;" alluding thereby to the troublesome state of Moses in the land of Aegypt, and of his departure from out of the same: who notwithstanding he had in great wisedome, care, and policie The notable works of Moses, & yet he not accepted. gouerned the stifnecked people of Israell, had doone many miracles and woonderous works to their comfort, had deliuered them from manie great perils and dangers, had preserued and also kept them in peace and safetie, had in the end through the mightie hand of God brought them out of the hands of Pharao, and from out of the land of Aegypt, and had giuen them the sight of the land of promise: yet he found them alwaies a froward and peruerse generation, a stiffenecked and an vngratefull people: euen no lesse as this noble man, and most woorthie gouernour hath found of the people of this most curssed nation. Who notwithstanding he was a verie painfull traueller both by daie and night, in fowle and in faire weathers, The painfull trauels of the lord deputie not considered. in stormes and in tempests, in troubles and in dangers, in scarsitie and in penurie, in danger of the enimie and perill of his life: and yet continuallie studieng, deuising, trauelling, toiling, and labouring to doo them good (as he did full manie and often times) which so long as they felt the ease & comfort, so long were they contented and quiet: but otherwise most vngratefull and vnthankefull. And offering vnto him the like reward as Licurgus receiued of the most vnthankfull Lacedemonians, who when he had recouered that sauage nation to a ciuill life, and a politike gouernement, and in the end reduced them to that order and maner, as they became to be feared of all their neighbors, they in recompense euill intreated The ingratitude of the Lacedemonians to Licurgus. him in verie bad speaches, and strake out one of Licurgus his eies. But these men for thousands and infinit commodities, would not onelie haue béereft his lordship of both his eies, but also doone him a further inconuenience (if successe had happened) according to their malice.

And now here by the waie, let it not be offensiue to set downe somewhat of much concerning this woorthie and noble man for the course of his life. He was borne and descended of a noble house and parentage, his father named sir William Sidneie, The parentage of sir Henrie Sidneie. a knight of great reputation and credit in the countie of Kent, and in great fauour with king Henrie the eight, in whose time, and with his great good liking, he and others lustie yoong gentlemen of the court trauelled into Spaine and other nations, to visit and to sée the maner of the emperours and other princes courts: his mother descended of the house of Charles Brandon duke of Suffolke, vnto whom she was verie néere alied. This yoong gentleman, his father being deceassed, and he of verie tender and yoong yéeres, was brought vp in the court vnder the same maister as was king Edward the sixt, and profited verie well, both in the Latine and French toongs, for he had a verie good wit, and was verie forward in all good actions, and whereof was conceiued some good things would come of him: his countenance was verie amiable, and his behauiour verie gentle and courteous, Sir Henrie Sidneie was brought vp in the court. in whome king Henrie the eight (being his godfather) had a verie great liking, and made him be attendant and plaiefellow with prince Edward.

The prince fell in such a good familiaritie and good liking of him, that he vsed Sir Henrie Sidneie the king his companion and bedfellow. him not onelie as a companion; but manie times as a bedfellow, and so delighted in his companie, that for the most part they would neuer be asunder, neither in health, nor in sickenesse, vntill the dieng daie of the prince: who then departed The king died in sir Henrie Sidneis armes. his life in this gentlemans armes. Somewhat before his death, the king gaue the order of knighthood to this gentleman, for a memorie and a recompense of his good will and loue: vpon which daie also he did the like vnto sir William Cicill, The king dubbeth sir Henrie Sidneie and sir William Cicill knights in one daie. now lord Burghlie and lord high treasuror of all England: by meanes of which their conioined aduancement, there entred a verie feruent affection and good will betwéene them, with a reciproke answering of beneuolence each one to the other, vntill their dieng daies. This noble gentleman for his forwardnesse in all good actions, was as it were the paragon of the court, by reason of the manie good gifts Edm. Molincux. which God had bestowed vpon him euerie waie. For concerning the bodie, he was goodlie of person and well compact, and well beseene; he was comelie and of a good countenance, he was so courteous and of so good behauiour, he was so wise and so modest, so vertuous and so godlie, so discréet and so sober, as he was another Scipio: being but yoong in years, and old in behaniour, and finallie so rare a Sir Henrie Sidneie an ambassador sundrie times. man, as that age had not affoorded manie better. This man for his excellent good gifts, he was made ambassador into France, being but about one and twentie yeares of age; and twise in one yeare after that into Scotland: and by quéene Maie ioined in commission with others to attend king Philip his comming into England, for the mariage betwéene their maiesties. And now in this hir maiesties reigne, he was sent ambassador into France, to treat a peace or pacification betweene the prince of Condie and the duke of Guise.

In the beginning and about the second or third yeare of hir maiesties reigne, he Sir Henrie Sidneie lord president of Wales and knight of the garter. was made knight of the garter, and lord president of Wales: and after one of hir maiesties most honorable priuie councell. But before this, immediatlie vpon his retune from out of Spaine, he accompanied the lord Thomas lord Fitzwaters his brother in law into Ireland: where he was made treasuror at the wars, one of the principall Sir Henrie Sidneie lord treasuror at armes. He was lord iustice foure times. The plot of sir Henrie Sidneies gouernement. offices in the land: and in course of time & yeares for his excellencie in knowledge and experience in that land, he was made lord iustice foure times and was lord deputie thrée times. In which offices, how he did most honorablie acquite himselfe. his acts doo declare, and the summarie recitall shall partlie discouer and set downe. He was no sooner placed in gouernement, but first and foorthwith he laid downe his plot, wherevpon he would ground & laie the foundation of his gouernement, and according to it would he frame and direct all his actions: which plot and deuise consisteth in these points; religion towards God, obedience to the prince, the peace of the people, and the well gouernement in all things concerning the commonwealth, either in causes ciuill or martiall.

Concerning religion, he was no more carefull in his owne person, but the like Religion. also in his priuat familie, where he had dailie exercises of praiers, both earlie and late, morning & euening, neither would he haue anie to serue him, who was not affected to religion, and of an honest conuersation. Atheists and papists he detested, dronkards and adulterers he abhorred, blasphemous and dissolute persons he could not abide. And at his first being in authoritie in Ireland, & finding the whole land generallie (a few priuat places excepted) to be either of no religion, or of papisticall religion; and being openlie by a preacher out of a pulpit aduertised, that in the remote places of that land, manie a soule was borne which neuer receiued baptisme, nor knew anie Manie borne in Ireland neuer christened. christening; great was his gréefe and much was he vnquieted, vntill he had found the redresse thereof. Wherfore he aduertised hir maiestie, & most earnestlie sued & praied for redresse & reformation, which in the end was granted, & a commission sent to him for the same: which foorthwith he committed to the archbishops & bishops to execute, with whom he ioined, furthered and holpe them accordinglie to the vttermost. But yet it tooke not that good effect as he wished and willed it might. And as for ecclesiasticall liuings which were of his gift and disposition, he would neuer bestow, but vpon such, as of whome he conceiued a good opinion, both for his religion and honestie.

The prince, who was scarse knowne in manie places in that land, he brought both to knowledge and obedience. The wild he tamed, the froward he reformed, the disobedient he punished, the traitors he persecuted, the rebels he chastised, the proud he made to stoope, and that arrogant and most insolent Shane Oneile, who Shane Oneile slaine. could abide no equall, nor acknowledge a superior, by a draught was brought to his deserued confusion: &whose head for a tropheie, & for the example of Gods iusticeiaied vpon him, was set vpon a pole vpon the gate of the castell of Dublin. The whole All Vlster brought to obedience. The earle of Clanricard imprisoned. The mightie earles in Mounster brought to submission. prouince of Vlster, with all the mightie personages of the same, he brought to the queenes peace & obedience. The earle of Clanricard he tooke and imprisoned, and his vntamed springals he draue to submission, and to sweare dutie and obedience. The vncoustant earle of Desmond and all his Giraldines and followers, and the proud and vngratefull earle of Clancar, and all the Irishrie of his adherents, he made them perforce to submit themselues, and to craue pardon. The Cauenaghs, the Otooles, the Obirnes, the Ocomores, the Omnores, and a rable of other like septs, togither with Rorie Og, Pheon Mac Hew, and other their leaders and guides in Leinster he The rebels in Leinster tamed. tamed, and perforce compelled to sweare loialtie and subiection. Lastlie, the malecontents against hir maiesties prerogatiue for the cesse in the end cried Peccaui, and conformed themselues in all dutifulnesse. And when he had trauelled long in The malecontents against the cesse reformed. these affaires, which he saw could not haue continuance, vnlesse they by some other meanes might be kept vnder gouernement: he by pithie persuasions, sound arguments, great reasons, and continuall sutes to hir maiestie and councell, obteined to haue rulers and gouernors to be placed in the remote prouinces, and sound, learned, and vpright iust lawiers out of England to be sent ouer, for the direction of the gouernement, according to the lawes of England: which in the end hir maiestie most gratiouslie granted, and he most ioifullie obteined.

In Mounster therefore first he placed a coronell to breake the ise; namelie sir Humfreie Gilbert, a valiant, a worthie, and a notable man, both for his martiall seruice, Sir Humfreie Gilbert coronell in Mounster. Sir Iohn Perot, Sir William Drurie lord presidents in Mounster. and his ciuill gouernement: after him followed the like and worthie gentleman sir Iohn Perot knight: and lastlie the valiant and prudent sir William Drurie, which both were lord presidents. This man was afterwards lord iustice, and the other at these presents is lord deputie of that land. In Connagh sir Edward Fitton knight, a verie wise and a modest gentleman, late treasuror at armes, was lord president: and after Sir Edward Fitton and sir Nicholas Malbie gouernors in Connagh. him was sir Nicholas Malbie knight a valiant and expert man in martiall matters, and verie wise and of good knowledge in publike and ciuill causes: who could verie exactlie handle the sword, and vse the pen, he (I saie) was made coronell of all Connagh. And how well the foresaid rulers and gouernors did rule by the sword, with the assistance of their capteins, and how vprightlie they ministred law and iustice by the aduice of the councellors in their seuerall prouinces, the records and registers of their dooings doo at large witnesse and set foorth. The like order he tooke also at Dublin, which being the metropole and chiefe citie of the whole land, and where are hir maiesties principall and high courts, to answer the law to all sutors throughout the whole realme: and he considering that a great defect was in the administration of iustice in those courts, by reason of kinred, affinitic, and priuat affections among the chiefe iudges and officers of that countrie birth: he by his like earnest sutes to hir maiestie, procured them to be remoued, and their roomes to be supplied English lawyers placed to be iustices in the courts. with such wise, graue and learned Englishmen, as were sent from out of England to be chiefe iustices, atturneie, and sollicitor. And further also, whereas there were manie good lawes & statutes established in the realme, which hitherto were laid vp The statutes to be revewed and printed. and shrouded in filth and cobwebs, and vtterlie vnknowne to the most part of the whole land, and euerie man ignorant in the lawes of his owne natiue countrie, he caused a through view, and a review to be made, and then a choise of all such statutes as were most necessarie to be put in vse and execution: which being doone, he caused to be put in print, to the great benefit of that whole nation.

And likewise for the records, which were verie euill kept, not fensed or defended The records searched and set vp in places conuenient. from raine and foule weather, but laie all in a chaos and a confused heap, without anie regard; he caused to be viewed and sorted, and then prepared méete roomes, presses, and places for the kéeping of them in safetie, and did appoint a speciall officer with a yearelie fée for the kéeping of them: and for all such matters as were to be heard and determined in the castell chamber, before the The castell chamber dulie kept. lords, as it is in the starchamber in England; he would be for the most part present at euerie court, and alwaies would haue the assistants and persons of hir maiesties learned councellors. Neuerthelesse, he himselfe had a maruellous head to conceiue, a déepe iudgement to vnderstand, and a most eloquent toong to vtter whatsoeuer was requisit to be spoken, either in that place, or in anie other assemblie; which he would deliuer in such an eloquent phrase, and so pleasantlie it would flow from him, with such pithie reasons, sound arguments, and effectuall discourses, as that the lesse learned he was, the more strange it was that such great good things could come out of his mouth. And such was his amiable countenance, his comelie behauior, his commendable personage, that he would and did conquer their hearts, and gaine the Edm. Molincux. loue of euerie man; and the people of all sorts would and did fall in loue with him for his vprightnesse, indifferencie, and iustice, in determining of euerie mans cause. And he knowing the nature and disposition of that people, who could not abide anie long sutes in law, he was so affable and courteous, that euerie sutor should haue accesse vnto him, and foorthwith he would heare his cause, and with such expedition would cause the same to be determined, that he purchased to himselfe the vniuersall loue of all the Irishrie, who thought themselues the more happie, if their causes might be once brought to his hearing, & the more willing to leaue their Obrian law, & to imbrace the course of the English lawes. Wherevpon he deuised, and consequentlie with great policie and wisedome executed the diuision and distribution of the wild, The Irish grounds reduced into counties and shires. sauage, and Irish grounds into shire grounds and counties, appointing in euerie of them shiriffes, constables, and all such kind of officers as are vsed to be in all other counties: by which meaues hir maiesties writ had passage amongest them, and they brought to the order of the English lawes & gouernement, which neuer tofore was heard or knowne among them.

When he had doone all such things as are before recited, for and concerning the due course of gouernment by order of law: then also he bethought himselfe vpon The castell of Dublin repared. such other things as were necessarie in sundrie respects to be doone, as the castell and house of Dublin, which before his comming was ruinous, foule, filthie, and greatlie decaied. This he repared, and reedified, and made a verie faire house for the lord deputie or the chiefe gouernor to reside & dwell in. The towne of Carigfergus, being The towne of Carigfergus fortified. open to the northerne rebelles, he began to inclose with a wall and to fortifie, which for shortnesse of time he could not finish. A gaole at Molengar he builded, a verie A gaole at Molengar builded. The towne of Athenrie reedified. The bridge of Athlon new builded. necessarie thing in those parties, for restreining and safe kéeping of malefactors. The towne of Athenrie in Connagh he caused to be reedified, & the faire bridge of Athlon vpon the déepe and great riuer of the Shenin he builded with masonrie and frée stone, and raised vp the walles & battlements verie faire. By building of which bridge a passage (neuer tofore had) was made open & fiée betwene the English pale and Connagh, which more danted, apalled, and kept the rebelles in awe and obedience than any thing before had doone. Sundrie like common workes he made and did, and more would, if his residing there had continued. All which his forsaid doings, The quéenes great charges to be reléeued. no doubt, were verie chargeable to hir maiestie. And for easing whereof he (as it became him) & in verie deed had also promised and deuised how and by what means these charges might be answered, and hir highnesse be reléeued of the great and intollerable charges which she dailie was at in that land, he did by good means inlarge and increase hir reuennes and yearelie receipts to about eleuen thousand pounds Hir maiesties reuenues increased. by the yeare more than he found it, and much more would he haue doone, if he had staied there but a short time longer than he did.

Thus much brieflie of his generall actions, and concerning his priuat dealings The good vertues and siposition of Sir Henrie Sidneie. Religious. Eioquent. and conuersation. He was godlie disposed, & a zelous promoter of the tre religion, a notable orator, & out of whose mouth flowed such eloquent spéeches, such pithie sentences, such persuasorie reasons, as it was verie strange, that he by a naturall course should performe that which manie by learning could not reach nor atteine vnto. He had some sight in good letters and in histories and armories, and would discourse verie well in all things; he was affable and courteous to all men, verie familiar with most men, and strange to none; verie Affable. temperat and modest, seldome or neuer in anie distempered or extraordinaries Temperat. eholer, vpright in iustice, frée from corruption, and liberall to euerie deseruing person, Liberall. a bounteous housekéeper, and of great hospitalitie, and had all officers in verie honorable A housekeeper. order, according to his estate & honor; a thing much allowed and liked in that nation: verie familiar, and a louer of all such as were learned and were men of vnderstanding, whome he would honor and estéeme verie much gratefull to all men, and a most louing maister to all such as serued him, whom he loued full dearlie. And albeit he were a man of a great reach and iudgement, yet he would Sée more of this sir Henrie Sidneie in the English chronicles, An. Dom. 1586, noted by Edm. Molincux. not doo anie thing without aduise & counsell, for which purpose he made a speciall choise of two singular men, who were priuie to all or most part of his actions; sir Lucas Dillon knight, and Francis Agard esquier: the one a lawier, and yet not ignorant in anie thing perteining either to the marshall affaires, or to the cruill gouernement: the other a verie wise man, and of a déepe iudgement and experience in all matters of policies. And so true and trustie these were, that he named the one Meus fidelix Lucas; and the other Meus fulus Achates. And notwithstanding in sundrie and almost infinit respects, as partlie by the course of this historie it dooth appeare, he hath deserued most hartie thanks, and a gratefull remembrance for euer amongst them: yet most vnnaturallie and vngratefullie they haue requited and recompensed The ingratitude of Ireland. him. Not much vnlike the viper, who when he haib doone the act of generation with his female, which (as the writers of naturalles saie) it is doone by the mouth, she immediatlie biteth off his head, and so destroieth him; and likewise the The nature of the viper. yong, conceiued with the death of their sire or father, and nourished in the wombe of their mother, and readie now to be borne & brought foorth; they not abiding their due time, most vnnaturallie doo knaw out hir wombe and bellie to hir confusion; and so they are conceiued with the destruction of their father, and borne with the confusion of their mother. This ungratfull people (I saie) notwithstanding the innumerable benefits bestowed vpon them and that whole commonwealth, yea and the dailie purchasing of their wealth, preseruation, and This was a troublesome parlement. safetie, could ne would be euer thankfull. As besides manie examples it appeared at the parlement holden in the eleuenth yeare of hir maiesties reigne, where when lawes were to be established for their benefit, and the abolshing of certeine wicked and lewd vsages, which were among the Irishrie, they not onelie did impugue and resist that assemblie, as much as in them laie: but recompensed the good things (for their benefits established) with open war and rebellion against hir maiestie. Also, when a reasonable and a vsed cesse was to be set and leuied for the benefit The cesse impugned. of the inhabitants and dwellers in the English pale; and for the represse of their enimies which thirsted after their confusion: they immediatly repine and doo resist the same. For this is their corrupt nature, that if he did at anie time pursue the The corrupt and vngratful nature of the Irishmen. enimie for their peace and quietnesse, and did aduenture neuer so great dangers for them, were his successe neuer so good, yet would they enuie at him. If he by the aduise of the councell did determine anie thing for their behoofe, yet would they mislike it. If anie thing well meant had euill successe, they would like it; and vpon neuer so little occasion offered they would make their complaints, libels should dailie be exhibited, and accusations be deuised, with open mouths they would exclame, and nothing would they leaue vndoone which might turne to his discredit and impechment of his gouernement. But truth the daughter of time, which in the end was manifested; and when he had yéelded before hir highnesse and councell a true and a perfect account of all his dooings, and had trulie manifested the course of his gouernement, then their glittering gold was found to be worse than copper, not abiding the hammar; he according to his desert receiued thanks, and they reproch and ignominie. Wherefore great good cause had he to be glad and ioifull, that he was to be deliuered from so vngratfull a people and vnthankfull a nation. But shall The fatall destinie upon all gouernors in Ireland. a man saie the truth? It is a fatall and an ineuitable destinie incident to that nation, that they cannot brooke anie English gouernor; for be he neuer so iust, vpright, & carefull for their benefit, they care not for it: let him be neuer so beneficiall to their commonwealth, they account not of it; let him be neuer so circumspect in his gouernement and aduised in his dooings, they will discredit and impeach it. If he be courteous and gentle, then like a sort of nettles they will sting him; if he be seuere, they will cursse him; and let him doo the best he can, he shall neuer auoid nor escape their malice and spite.

This noble and worthie man, who aboue all others had best triall thereof, thought himselfe most happie when he was deliuered from them, and gone out of their Egypt, and now returned to his owne natiue countrie of Chanaan, who thenseforth sometimes attended the court, and serued hir maiestie as a most faithfull, graue, and wise counsellor: sometimes he followed his charge and calling of president in Wales, which office he did most honorablie vse and discharge. In the end, when Lachesis had spun out the thread of his life, and Atropos readie to execute hir oflice, he fell sicke at Worcester: and féeling a decaie of nature, and that he did dailie wax weaker and weaker, he yéelded and humbled himselfe to die; and holding vp his hands, and lifting vp his eies, he continued in most hartie and incessant praiers vnto God, craning with a most penitent hart, pardon for his sins, and commending his soule into the hands and mercie of God, thorough the bloud of Iesus Christ. And when his hands gaue ouer, his toong ceassed, and his The death of sir Henrie Sidneie. sight failed, he yéelded vp his spirit, and departed this life in a most godlie and christian maner the fift daie of Male, one thousand fine hundred eightie and six. His bodie was imbowelled, and his entrails were buried in the deans chapell of the cathedrall church in Worcester: his hart was carried to Ludlow, & there intoomed in the toome that his welbeloued daughter Ambrosia was buried, which he had builded in the collegiat church of the same towne; wherin he had erected a certeine monument for a perpetuall remembrance to that town & to Tikenhill, to which he was verie much affected, & made his most abode during the time of his presidencie. Edm. Molincux. And from thense his bodie by easie iournies was verie honorablie caried to his house of Peneshurst in Kent, & in his parish church there he was interred in all honorable maner, as to his estate did agrée vpon the one and twentith of Iune, in the yeare one thousand fiue hundred eightie and six, he being then about the age of seauen and fiftie yeares. And thus this noble and worthie knight, who had spent the whole course of his life in the dutifull seruice of his prince, and to the great benefit of the commonwealth, is now deliuered vnto the euerlasting seruice of the eternall God, in whose celestiall heauens he resteth in blisse and ioie with the foure and twentie elders, who there are now beholding the face of God, and praising his holie name for euer.

But to returne to the lord iustice, who being entered into the gouernement, and Sir William Drurie the lord iustice foloweth the course of his predecessor to rule in peace. finding it in some quiet state, did by the aduise of the councell follow that course as néere as he could, as which was left vnto him; and by that meanes kept the whole land verie quiet and in peace. For almost a yeare after his entrie into that office and gouernement, vntill that Romish cockatrice, which a long time had set abrood vpon hir egs, had now hatched hir chickins; which being venemous as were their sire, raised, wrought, and bred great treasons, open warres, and hostilitie through out Iames Fitzmoris an archtraitor. that land. For Iames Fitzmoris a Giraldine & cousine germane to the earle of Desmond, who not manie yeares before had beene an archtraitor, and a principall capteine of the warres and rebellion in Mounster; and wherein he was then so folowed at inches and pursued by sir Iohn Perot, then lord president of Mounster; that after manie and sundrie conflicts, he was in the end compelled and inforced to yeeld and submit himselfe, and to craue hir maiesties gratious pardon: insomuch that he came in Iames Fitzmoris submitteth himselfe and sweareth obedience. simplie into the towne of Kilmallocke, and there in the church before all the people did humble and prostrate himselfe before the said lord president, and asked pardon, swearing and promising then all dutifulnesse, truth, & obedience for euer to hir highnesse, and to the crowne of England.

Euen this periured caitife, who for his treasons and great outrages, villanies, and Iames Fitzmoris hath his pardon sent vnto him. bloudsheds, had deserued a thousand deaths, and yet in hope of amendement hir maiestie gane him his pardon, and sent it vnto him by hir seruant Francis Agard esquier: euen this man (I saie) most traitorouslie fled into France, and there comming into the kings presence, did offer to deliuer into his hands the whole realme and land of Iames Fitzmoris fleeth into France and offereth the crowne of Ireland to the French king. Ireland, if that his maiestie would giue him aid, and furnish him with men and monie, and such furniture as he should haue néed of in such an action. The king at the first gaue him good countenance, great rewards, & liberall interteinement, and accepted his offer: but when he had well considered the matter, and had further looked into the same, he changed his mind. Iames Fitzmoris, who had staied there in the The French king misliketh to deale in Ireland matters. French court about two yeares, and saw nothing go forward, & the French king waxed cold; who in the end gaue him no other answer, but that he would commend him by his letters to his sister the queene of England, for obteining of a pardon for him, and for hir good countenance towards him: he forsooke France, and made a Iames Fitzmoris séeketh to king Philip and to the pope. iournie into Spaine vnto king Philip. The king who had receiued the gift of Ireland of the pope by meanes of the bishop of Cashell, being not willing to deale therein, without his assistance & aduise; Iames Fitzmoris made his iourneie from thense to the Iames Fitzmoris his promise to king Philip and the pope. pope, vnto whom he declared that he had béene with king Philip, as dooth appeare by his letters of credit to his holinesse; and that he would deliuer and cause to be deliuered the kingdome of Ireland vp into their hands, and reduce the same againe to the holie church of Rome, if he might haue men, monie, and such furniture of munitions, & other necessaries as should be requisit in that seruice. The pope was verie glad of this sute, and liked it verie well, and did accept this offer, as also gane him The pope is glad of Iames Fitzmoris offer. good countenance and interteinement. And in the end vpon sundrie conferences betwéene the pope and king Philip, it was agréed betwéene them, that Fitzmoris should be furnished with men, monie, and all things necessarie for this seruice. Iames Fitzmoris during his being in Rome, he fell acquainted with doctor Sanders an English Iames Fitzmoris falleth acquainted with doctor Sanders and doctor Allen. Iesuit, & doctor Allen an Irish Iesuit, and both traitors to hir maiestie and crowne; and these two men being glad of such a sute, & they in great fauor with the pope, folowed the sute verie earnestlie, and promised to follow it to the vttermost in their owne persons.

Now when all things were concluded betwéene the pope and king Philip, doctor Sanders, doctor Allen, and Iames Fitzmoris made their last repaire to the pope, who foorthwith made Sanders his legat, & gaue him the holie ghost, with authoritie to blesse and cursse at his will and pleasure; and to him and the others Iames Fitzmoris is furnished with ships and all necessaries. he gaue then also his blessing: and therewith his letters of commendation to king Philip, who according to the conclusion made betwéene them both, he was furnished with all things méet and necessarie for them. Wherevpon when time serued they imbarked themselues, and their companie in thrée ships well appointed for the purpose, and arriued at Smereweeke, aliàs saint Marie wéeke, in the beginning of Iames Fitzmoris landeth at Saint Marie wéeke in Ireland with foure score Spaniards. Iulie 1579, néere the Dingle a cush in Kerrie in Ireland: where he landed, and all his companie, being about the number of foure score Spaniards, besides a few Englishmen and Irishmen, and there builded a fort in the west side of the baie for their safetie: and drew their ships close vnder the said fort.

The two doctors, when they had hallowed the place after their popish maner, promising all safeties, and that no enimie should dare to come vpon them, and trouble them: neuerthelesse they were beguiled. For at that instant, there was in Kensale a Deuonshire gentleman and a man of warre, named Thomas Courtneie, and he hearing of the landing of this Iames Fitzmoris, and of the popes traitorous legats, Iames Fitzmoris ships are taken awaie by one Thomas Courtneie a gentleman of Deuon. was contented, and by the persuasion of Henrie Dauels, being then in those parts; and hauing a good wind, did come about and doubled the point, came into the baie of Saint Marie wéeke or Smerweeke; and finding the three ships of Iames Fitzmoris at anchor, was so bold in the waie of good speed to take them. And after that he had staied there a while in that seruice, he tooke them all along with him: whereby Iames Fitzmoris and his companie lost a péece of the popes blessing, for they were altogither destituted of anie ship, to ease and reléeue themselues by the seas, what need soeuer should happen. As soone as they were thus landed, newes was sent and carried abrode foorthwith to Iames & Iohn brethren to the earle of Desmond, and so consequentlie to the whole countrie. These two brethren, who had long looked for Sir Iames and sir Iohn of Desmond the earles brethren come to Iames Fitzmoris. the arriuall of this their cousine, and archtraitor, assembled all their tenants, folowers, and friends; and out of hand made their present repaire vnto him: whose commings and companies he accepted verie thankefullie, sauing that he had not a thorough and a full liking of his cousine sir Iohn of Desmond. Which when sir Iohn perceiued, he deuised how he would salue that sore, as most wickedlie afterwards he did.

The earle of Desmond at this time was in reedifieng of a castell, which he had in The erle hearing of the landing of Iames Fitzmoris giueth ouer his buildings. the confines of Brenne Agonessis countrie, who assoone as he heard of the arriuall of his cousine Iames Fitzmoris, he foorthwith did discharge and dismisse his whole companie of workemen and labourers, pretending in outward shew what he neuer meant, that he was to withstand and resist his cousine and all his companie, and foorthwith maketh his repaire into Kerrie, and there assembleth all his followers and force, as The earle of Desmond pretending some seruice against the rebeis sendeth to the earle of Clancar to ioine with him. though he would doo great things and worke miracles. And foorthwith likewise he sent his letters to Mac Artie More earle of Clancar, & willeth him in all hast to assemble all the force he could make, and to make his spéedie repaire to him, for vanquishing (if they could) of the enimies now landed at S. Marie weeke. The earle of Desmond in the meane time bad receiued a péece of the popes blessing, and his heat was abated. But the erle of Clancar returned his answer, that he would come vnto him The earle of Clancar attendeth the earle of Desmond. with all spéed, and lie in campe with him where he would, as néere to the Dingle as he might: and accordinglie he came to the place appointed. Which Desmond séemed to like well though it were against the splene, neuerthelesse when he saw the forwardnes Desmond liketh not Clancars readinesse. of Clancar, albeit he would not, nor yet well could in open termes fall out with him, yet he deuiseth matters wherevpon he might haue some occasion to dislike with him, & to make him wearie of his companie. Which when Clancar perceiued, Clancar departeth from Desmond. and saw the vnwillinguesse of Desmond to doo anie seruice against the rebels, but rather inclined towards them, he tooke the best opportunitie he could, and departed awaie from him, and dismissed his companie.

The lord iustice, who was at Dublin, as soone as he was aduertised of Iames Fitzmoris The lord iustice prepareth to march into Mounster. landing, he maketh all the preparation he can, & marcheth with all the quéenes force towards Mounster, dispatching also a messenger to hir maiestie of these toward broiles and rebellion. But before he could prepare all things, as to such a great action did apperteine, he sent Henrie Dauels an English gentleman before him, Henrie Dauels sent to the earle of Desmond. that he being verie well acquainted with the earle of Desmond and his brethren, should practise with them to prepare themselues to be in a reaulinesse to assist his lordship, for the resisting against those enimies. Who being accompanied with one Henrie Dauels persuadeth Desmond to serue against the rebels. Arthur Carter prouost marshall of Mounster, made his spéelie repaire to the earle of Desmond & his brethren being in Kerrie, and aduertised vnto them the lord iustices pleasure, as also as much as in him laie did persnuasle them to the like, who as then had all his force and souldiers about him. From theuse he departed to the fort, whereof when he had taken the view, & saw the force as yet not so great but might be easilie as yet ouerthrowne; he returned backe to the earle, and gaue him aduise to draw all his force and companie towards the fort, persuading him to assaile it while it was but weake, of small force, and easie to be taken, and that in so dooing it should be greatlie to his honour. But the earle being not of so good a mind, or Desmond refuseth to giue the onset vpon Iames Fitzmoris. bent to doo so good a péece of seruice, answered; that he would not aduenture to take so great an enterprise in hand with so small a companie as he then had. Then Dauels went to sir Iames and to sir Iohn of Desmonds the earles brethren, and persuaded them to aduise their brother the earle, either to doo that seruice which would be to his great honour and commendation, or else that they would take it in hand; which if they would also refuse it, that then the earle would spare to him a companie of his Gallowglasses, and about thrée score of his shot, and he would ioine with capteine Courtneie who laie then within the baie with his mariners, & he would giue the assault by land, and the other should doo the like by sea.

But the earle, being mooued hereof, would not yéeld to this motion, but answered The earle refuseth to doo anie seruice. that his shot was more méet to shoot at foule than fit to aduenture such a peece of seruice, and his Gallowglasses were good men to incounter with Gallowglasses, and not to answer old soldiers. Wherevpon when he saw the bent and disposition of the earle, that he minded not to annoie, but rather to ioine, aid, and helpe the traitors: he togither with the prouost marshall tooke their leaue of the earle, and minded to returne backe vnto the lord iustice, to giue his lordship to vnderstand how all things stood, & Henrie Dauels departeth from Desmond. what successe he had had in his message. And by the waie they laie that night at Traleigh, which is about fiue miles from castell Maine, and laie that night in one Rices house, who kept a vittelling house and a wine tauerne, the house being both strong and defensible, but so little that their companies and seruants were dispersed, and laie abroad in other places where they might have lodging. But sir Iohn of Desmond, Sir Iohn of Desmond followeth Dauels and corrupteth the porter. whose hart was imbrued with a bloudie intent, followed him, but somewhat late, and came to the towne of Traleigh, and immediatlie set spies vpon Dauels, as also had corrupted the man of the house which kept the gate, that he should leaue the doores open. Henrie Dauels mistrusting no hurt, and least doubting of that tragedie which was so néere at hand, especiallie to be done by him, whom of all the men borne in that land he least doubted, & best trusted, gat him to his bed; & Arthur Carter the prouost marshall with him. Now about the dead of the night, when they were in their déepe sléepes, sir Iohn according to his wicked deuise came to the house, the castell doore being left open for the purpose, with all his companie, euerie one being armed and their swords drawne, and went forthwith vp into the chamber where Dauels & his companie were in their beds fast asléepe, but with the noise they were suddenlie awaked. When Dauels saw sir Iohn of Desmond armed and his sword drawn, he was somwhat astonied at that sight, and rising vp in his bed said vnto him (as he was ever woont to saie verie familiarlie) "What sonnel what is the matter?" But he answered him; "No more sonne, nor no more father, but make thy selfe readie, for die thon shalt." And foorthwith he & his companie Henrie Dauels most cruellie murthered. strake at him & his companion, both naked in their shirts, and most cruellie murthered them both. Then they searched the whole house & spared none, but put all to the sword, sauing a boie named Smolkin, who laie in the chamber, and had béene a continuall messenger betweene Dauels and this Iohn Desmond. This boie séeing his maister to be thus murthered ran vpon Iohn of Desmond, and held him by The faithfulnesse of a boie to his maister. the armes as well as he could, crieng; "What wilt thou kill my maister?" But he answered; "Go thy waies Smolkin, thou shalt haue no harme." But the boie seeing blowes still to be giuen, cast himselfe downe vpon his maister, crieng: "If thou wilt kill him then kill me also." And so saued him as well, and so long as he could. But it auailed not, for slaine and most cruellie he was there murthered.

This Henrie Dauels was a gentleman, borne in Deuon, and descended of a verie Henrie Dauels what he was, and of his conditions. ancient and a worshipfull house, and being but a yoonger brother, and hauing but a verie small portion left vnto him, when he came to some yeares and knowledge, he gaue himselfe to serue in the warres. And king Henrie the eight, hauing then warres against the French king, he entred into France to séeke his aduenture: and there he had verie good interteinment, and prooued to be a verie good souldiour. After whose warres he serued in Scotland, and was in garrison at Barwike: and from thense he was remooued into Ireland, where he serued vnder sir Nicholas Herne knight conestable of Leighlin, and seneshall of Wexford; and so well he behaued himself there, that he was commended for his good seruice towards the prince, well beloued of his countriemen, and in maruelous fauour of the Irish people; for no seruice was too hard for him in the kings causes; and so well he was acquainted with the countrie, as no man better knew and had the skill to serue than he could there. As for The loue of Dauels to his countrimen. his countrimen, he was so déere and louing towards them, as he was more like a father than a fréend, and more like a fréend than an vnacquainted countriman: for he was an host and a harborer to euerie one of them, of what estate and condition so euer he were of. For were he rich or poore, a gentleman or a begger, he was fréendlie to euerie one; and no man did or could lacke that interteinment, that he was by anie manner of waie able to giue and affoord: which a number of Englishmen tried and found to their great comfort, and to his euerlasting fame.

And as for the Irishmen, the longer he liued the better befoued among them: for as he would not iniurie them, no more would he suffer them to be oppressed or iniured: a great housekéeper amongst them, which they maruelouslie estéemed. When he was in office among them, he was vpright and iudged righteouslie; if out of office, louing & fréendlie to euerie man, and by that means so well (as no man better) beloued and trusted. For what he had once said and promised, that would he The credit of Dauels word. surelie keepe and performe, and thereof it came into a bie-word in the countrie where he dwelled, that if anie of them had spoken the word, which was assuredlie looked to be performed, they would saie; Dauels hath said it: as who saith, it shall be performed. For the nature of the Irishman is, that albeit he kéepeth faith for the most part with no bodie, yet will he haue no man to breake with him. But Henrie Dauels, he was so carefull of his word, that if he once promised, he would not breake it for anie mans pleasure; and by that means he was so well beloued, that his verie horsseboies had frée passage euen through the enimies, if he were knowne to be Dauels man. And that which is more, as the writer hereof speaketh vpon knowledge, that if anie Englishman had anie occasion to trauell in that countrie thoroughout Leinster or Mounster, if he had but a horsseboie of his, he should not onelie passe fréelie thorough the countries without impeachment, but should haue also verie good and fréendlie interteinment. Among the noblemen he was greatlie estéemed, and was in great fauour with the earles of Ormond and Desmond: who although they were for the most part at iarres and contentions, yet Henrie Dauels was in such fauour, as he could and did passe to and fro in the greatest matters of importance betwéene them: wherein he bare so indifferent a hand, as both parties imbraced him for his vprightnesse and indifferencie. The erle of Ormond himselfe Ioned him so well, as no Englishman better; and all his brethren found such a fréend of him, and such interteinment with him and especiallie sir Edmund Butler, that at all needs and in all distresses they were sure to haue him to their fréend; and manie times it stood them in good stéed.

And as for the earle of Desmond, though he were a verie vncerteine and a mutable man, yet Henrie Dauels could prenaile with him; and were his furie neuer so hot, and he neuer so hastie, yet could he appease and quiet him. And as for sir Iohn of Desmond the earles brother, such was his profession and outward affection towards him, of a most firme freendship; that it was thought to be impossible, that the loue and goodwill betweene them could by anie meanes be dissolued. For in what distresse so euer sir Iohn of Desmond was (as he was in manie) Henrie Dauels did Henrie Dauels alwaies a fast fréend to sir Iohn of Desmond. alwaies helpe him, and at sundrie times redéemed him out of prison, yea out of the castell of Dublin, when he was committed for capitall crimes, and became suertie for him in great sums of monie, and became pledge bodie for bodie for him; Dauels pursse was at his commandement, his house at his deuotion, and what he had at his disposition. And so farre this good will grew betweene them, that Iohn of Desmond, as one knowledging himselfe most bounden to him, did call him father; euen as the other called him sonne. And now sée, when treason and treacherie was entred into him, how contrarie to all faith, fréendship, and humanitie, the sonne most vnuaturallie bereft the father of his life, and most cruellie murthered him. Wo worth to so wicked a villaine, that so bereft the prince of so faithfull a subiect, the gouernors of so trustie a seruitor, the commonwealth of so good a member, of a man most dutifull to his superiors, vpright in iustice, trustie in seruice, expert in the warres, faithfull vnto his freend, louing to his countrie, fauoured of all men, hurtfull to no man, of great hospitalitie to all good men, good to all men, a father vnto the distressed, and a succorer of the oppressed; finallie such a rare man of his degree and calling, as few like haue béene found in that land; and yet against all pittie and mercie, most cruellie murthered by a traitor to God and his prince, euen to the gréefe of the traitors of his owne brood. But here it falleth out that is of old said; Saue a murtherer or a theefe from the gallowes, and he shall be the first that shall cut thy throte.

When this bloudie murtherer had executed this crueltie vpon his good freend, he foorthwith made his repaire to Iames Fitzmoris, and to his doctors and companie in great brauerie, recompting vnto them what a noble act and a valiant seruice he had doone in murthering of an honest, faithfull, & friendlie gentleman, saieng; I haue now killed an English churle (for so maliciouslie the Irishmen terme all Englishmen) The brags of Iohn Desmond for killing of Dauels. & said to his cousine Iames; Now thou maist be assured of me and trust me, for now that I haue begun to dip my hand in blood, I will now stand to the matter with thee to my vttermost. Iames Fitzmoris when he had heard him at full, although both he His crueltie misliked. and his doctors, and the whole companie of the Spaniards did reioise and were glad of his death, yet Iames did blame and abhorre the maner of his death, blaming and reproouing him verie much, that he should murther him in his bed, being naked and scarse awaked out of his sléepe, which he said was too cruell, bicause he might otherwise haue had aduantage vpon him either by the high waies or otherwise to his commendation. Howbeit, doctor Sanders terming his bloudie murther to be a sweet The popes doctors doo allow and commend the murther. sacrifice before God, did both allow it, and gaue him plenarie remission of all his sinnes. The earle himselfe likewise, when he heard hereof, he was maruelouslie gréeued and offended with his brother, and gaue him such sharpe spéeches and reproofes, as it was thought they would not so soone haue beene fréends againe: but wicked dooings amongst the wicked establish and confirme them in their wickednesse. At this present time, there was with the earle (as verie often he had béene) one Appesleie an English capteine, who could doo verie much with him, and vpon the hearing of the death of his good friend Henrie Dauels, he began to doubt and mistrust of himselfe and of his owne assurance. Wherefore he goeth to the earle, and dissembling his griefe, persuadeth him to draw his companie togither, and to remooue from thense to his house of Asketten, which is about fourtéene miles from The earle of Desmond remooueth to Asketten. Limerike, and there to abide the comming of the lord iustice, and to ioine with him in this seruice against the enimie. The earle, who minded nothing lesse than so to serue, dissembled the matter, and followed this counsell, and remooued from thense to Asketten, where he laie close and did nothing, but still séemed in speeches and outward shewes to mislike with Iames Fitzmoris and all his companie; and yet dailie his best followers and soldiers flocked and repaired to Iames Fitzmoris, manie of The earles chiefe men turne to the enimie. them for zeale to the popish religion, wherin they were as deuout as the popes legates and the Spaniards: but manie of them knowing the earles intent, did it for feare and auoiding of his displesure. The Spaniards, who had continued there in the fort and elsewhere, and not finding the repaire of the souldiers, nor yet anie other thing answerable to that seruice as it was promised them, began to mislike it; The Spaniards like not their cōming. and distrusting of anie good successe, did repent and were sorie, wishing themselues at home againe: but such was their case, that they could not shift for themselues to escape neither by sea nor by land; and therefore necessitie so compelling, they resolued themselues to abide the brunt.

Iames Fitzmoris, perceiuing their discontented minds, had conference with them, Iames Fitzmoris persuadeth the Spaniards to patience. & persuaded them to be of a good comfort, for they should verie shortlie haue a greater supplie and companie which he dailie looked for, and all things should be had according to their owne minds: aduertising them that in the meane time he was to take a iournie to a place of thrée or foure daies iournie from thense, called the holie rood or crosse in Tipporarie, and there to performe a vow which he had before Iames Fitzmoris pretendeth a pilgrimage. made when he was in Spaine, praieng their patience. But in verie truth his intent was to trauell into Connagh and into Vlster, and in both his waies, his neerest waie was through Tipporarie, and there to flocke and draw vnto him all and so manie of the rebels as he could wage to ioine with him, whereof he made no doubt, but assured himselfe to find as manie readie to go as he willing to haue. And so taking his iournie with thrée or foure horssemen, and a dozzen Kernes, he passed through the countie of Limerike, & came into the countrie of sir William Burke his verie néere cousine and kinsman, and who before in the last rebellion did ioine with him, to the great danger of his life and losse of all his goods.

And when he came so farre in his iournie, being now about thrée score miles from S. Marie wéeke, his cariage horsses (which they terme garons) waxed faint, and could not trauell anie further: wherefore he commanded some of his men to go before, & looke what garrons they first found in the fields, they should take them and bring Iames Fitzmoris stealeth garrons. them vnto him. And as it fell out they espied a plow of garrons plowing in the field, which they foorthwith tooke perforce from the poore husbandmen two of them, and caried them awaie. Wherevpon according to the custome of the countrie, the hobub or the hue and crie was raised. Some of the people followed the tract, & some went to their lords house, which was sir William Burke being néere at hand to The Burkes follow the preie. aduertise the matter, who hauing three or foure of his sonnes and verie tall gentlemen at home with him, they tooke their horsses and a few Kernes and two shot with This was a draught made by the lord president. them, and followed the tract, and ouertooke them at a fastenes fast by the woods side, where they found Iames Fitzmoris, whome before they knew not to be come into those parties, to make head to answer them. But when he saw that it was his Iames Fitzmoris maketh head to resist. cousine Theobald Burke and his brother and his companie, who had beene his companions in the late rebellion when sir Iohn Perot was lord president of Mounster, he spake ouer vnto them, and said; "Cousine Theobald (who was the eldest son to his father) two carriage horsses shall be no breach betweene vs two; and I hope that you which doo know the cause that I haue now in hand, you will take my part therein, Iames Fitzmoris persuadeth the Burkes to rebellion. and doo as I and others will doo:" and so continuing some spèeches, did what he could to draw him and all his companie to be partakers in this rebellion. But he answered that he and his father had alreadie dealt too much that waie with him, and that he will neuer doo the like againe: for his father, he, and all his brethren, had sworne to be true, obedient, and faithfull to the quéenes maiestie, and which oth they would neuer breake: cursing the daie and time that euer they ioined with him in so bad a cause against hir maiestie, and therefore required to haue his garrons againe, or else he would come by them aswell as he could.

Iames Fitzmoris standing vpon his reputation, thought it too much dishonorable vnto him to depart with that which he had in hand; and therfore vtterlie denied the deliuerie, and therevpon each partie set spurre to the horsses and incountered the one the other. The skirmish was verie liot and cruell, and Theobald Burke & one of his yoonger brethren were slaine, & some of their men. Iames Fitzmoris likewise and his companie had the like successe, for he himselfe was first hurt and wounded, and then with a shot striken thorough the head, and so was slaine, with sundrie of Iames Fitzmoris slaine. his companions: wherein he found that the popes blessings and warrant, his Agnus Dei, and his graines had not those vertues to saue him, as an Irish staffe or a bullet Some thinke that this péece of seruice was a draught made by sir William Drurie lord iustice. had to kill him. Thus was hir highnesse most happie, and that whole land most happiest, that they were deliuered from so wicked and bloudie a traitour, and that the great & venemous hydra was thus shortened of one of his heds. For otherwise it was to be doubted that if he had lined, he would haue bin the cause of much bloudshed, and all the rebels in that land would haue ioined with him. For he was of verie good credit & estimation through the whole land, he was of a verie good The conditions of Iames Fitzmoris. gouernement, and of a great reach; but a déepe dissembler, passing subtill, and able to compasse anie matter which he tooke in hand, familiar to all men, and verie courteous, valiant, and verie expert in martiall affaires, but so addicted to poperie and that baggage religion, that he became a most horrible traitour to hir maiestie, and a mortall enimie to euerie good man: and so far he was imbrued herein, that a man might saie that he was borne to the same end, euen to be a traitor and a rebell to God, to his prince, and to the whole commonwealth.

After that he was thus dead, and the same made knowen to the lord iustice, he gaue order that he should be hanged in the open market of Kilmallocke, & be beheaded & quartered, & the quarters to be set vpon the towne gates of Kilmallocke, Iames Fitzmoris his quarters set vpō the gates of Kilmallocke. for a perpetuall memoriall to his reproch for his tresons and periuries, contrarie to his solemne oth taken in that errour. Hir maiestie, when she was aduertised of this péece of good seruice of sir William Burke and the losse of his eldest sonne, she wrote hir letters of the good acceptation of his seruice, comforted him for the losse of his son, and in recompense did create him baron of the castell of Connell by hir letters patents dated the fourth of Maie, the twentith yeare of hir reigne, & gaue Sir William Burke being made a baron sowned for ioy & shortlie after died. him the yearelie pension of a hundred marks, to be paid at hir maiesties exchecker yearelie during his life, wherof he tooke so sudden ioy that he sowned, and séemed to be deal.

When newes of the death of Iames Fitzmoris was brought to the fort at S. Marie weeke, great sorow was amongest them all, they being all amazed and wist not what The Spaniards amazed with the deth of Fitzmoris. to doo, especiallie the Spaniards who depart could not, and to submit themselues they would not, and yet they were of the mind to giue ouer and to intreat for a licence to depart. Which purpose they would haue followed, if that sir Iohn of Desmond Sir Iohn of Desmond supplieth Iames Fitzmoris roome. had not taken the matter in hand: for he hauing imbrued himselfe so vnnaturallie in bloud, and doubting the same would neuer be pardoned, did follow the matter. The lord iustice (as is aforesaid) immediatlie vpon the newes of the arriuall of Sir William Drurie lord iustice maketh a iournie into Mounster. these Spaniards, and of the death of Henrie Danels, made his preparation of all the forces which hir maiestie had in that land, which was but foure hundred footmen and two hundred horssemen, a verie small companie for so great seruice towards: yet considering that the victorie consisteth not in the arme of man, nor in horsse or mule, but onelie in the good gift of God; he marcheth foorth in his iournie, hauing in his companie of Englishmen sir Nicholas Bagnoll knight marshall, sir Nicholas Malbie coronell of Connagh, Iaques Wingfield master of the ordinance, and Edward Waterhouse one of hir maiesties seruants, Edward Fitton, Thomas Masterson, and others. And of the Irish lords he was accompanied with the earle of Kildare, sir Lucas Dillon chiefe baron, the vicount Mountgarret, the baron of vpper Osserie, and the baron of Dunboine, who had of themselues two hundred horssemen, besides footmen and Kernes: and so they marched forward by iourneis vntill they came to Kilmallocke, where not farre from the towne they all incamped: & then he sent The lord iustice incampeth neere to Kilmallocke. from thense a messenger to the earle of Desmond, and so likewise to all the principall gentlemen of the best accompt in those parties, to come vnto him.

The earle in outward appéerance seemed verie willing to come, but vntill he had receiued some promise of fauour from the lord iustice, he still lingered and trifled the time and came not. But in the end his lordship being verie well accompanied The earle of Desmond cometh to the lord iustice to the campe. with horssemen and footmen, he went to the campe, and presented himselfe before the lord iustice, and made a shew of all dutifulnesse, obedience, & fidelitie, whereas indéed no such thing was ment. For though his bodie were there, his mind was elsewhere: for whiles he was in the campe, sundrie trecheries were practised by him; yet they were not so secretlie doone but they came to light, & were discouered to the lord iustice. Wherevpon he was committed to the custodie of the knight The earle of Desmond is cōmmitted to ward. The earle of Desmond dooth humble himselfe and sweareth to serue trulie. marshall. Whiles he was in his ward, and fearing least some greater matters would be reuealed against him, he praied accesse to the lord iustice; and then he humbled himselfe verie much, and promised and sware vpon his honour & allegiance, that he would faithfullie and to the vttermost of his power serue hir highnesse against the rebels. Whose humblenesse and promise the lord iustice by the aduise of the councell did accept, and so inlarged him: which was in the end the vtrer confusion of the earle himselfe and all his familie, and in the meane time great troubles, causes of much bloudshed, and vndooing of all Mounster.

Whiles the lord iustice laie thus in campe about Kilmallocke, newes was brought vnto him, that sir Iohn of Desmond was incamped with a great companie of the Iohn of Desmond incampeth at Slewlougher. rebels vpon the borders of Slewlougher. Wherevpon his lordship remooued and marched thitherwards, the earle then promising that he would in person incounter and fight hand to hand with his brother. Now when they were come to the place of seruice, the earle being best acquainted with the countrie, gaue aduise to the lord iustice, that he should diuide the armie into two parts, and the lord instice should take one waie, and he the earle would take another waie: which aduise was followed. But bicause that place of the present seruice is adioining to a great wood, and wherein were manie fastnesse, the lord iustice did diuide the rest of his companie into two other parts, and so euerie of these three companies tooke waie into the wood & serched it throughout, but there they found no bodie. For sir Iohn had some secret knowledge of the lord iustices comming, and so was gone before.

The dale being spent to small purpose, & the night drawne towards, be incamped that night in the same places where the rebels had lien before, & there he remained somewhat longer than he thought: bicause he would spend and wast the forrage of that countrie, which was one of the chiefest places of reliefe that the enimies had. And from thense he went backe againe towards Kilmallocke, where he incamped himselfe at a place called Gilbons towne, which lieth in the plaines betwéene Limerike and Kilmallocke towards Emeleie and Harlo; & there he continued about nine wéekes in continuall toiling and trauelling to and fro, in all such seruices as was dailie offered to be doone vpon the enimie, from which he had no rest neither day nor night. Whervpon for the better seruice he diuided his hands, and tooke out of the Irish companies one hundred, and deliuered them to the guiding of capteine Iohn Herbert, a man of verie good seruice, and one other hundred to capteine Prise.

These two capteins had made spiall vpon certeine rebels, which shrowded themselues in the great wood called the blacke wood, vpon whom they made a sallie, and did verie good seruice vpon them. But as they were to returne to the campe, which laie beside Getenbre castell, the said Iohn of Desmond, who laie in ambush Sir Iohn of Desmōd lieth in an ambush for the English capteins and discomfiteth them. for them, met and incountered them, where was a sharpe fight betwixt them, and the two capteins with the most part of their companie slaine: & Iohn of Desmond himselfe was there hurt in the nose. The losse of those two capteins and their men was a great weakening to the lord iustice his armie; his enimies being strong and manie: and his companie weake and few, sauing at that instant the souldiers sent out of Deuon and Cornewall arriued at Waterford to the number of six hundred men, vnder The Deuonshire souldiers arriue at Waterford. the leading of capteine George Bourchier, capteine Peter Carew, capteine George Carew his brother, and capteine Dowdale, whose comming at so present a distresse was both ioifull and also gladsome.

And néere about this time, it was aduertised vnto the lord iustice, that Iohn of Desmond was at Connell, which was about sixteene miles from the campe: and his lordship being well furnished & prepared, and he minding to doo some peece of seruice vpon him, made verie secretlie a iourneie thither: but Desmond wanting not his good espials, had an inkling and a knowledge thereof, and so shifted himselfe awaie, wherevpon the lord iustice returned to his campe. The queens maiestie and councell, being alwaies mindfull of hir Ireland, and by reason of the newes that the enimies were dailie stronger and stronger, she sent ouer sir Iohn Perot late president Sir Iohn Perot sent to serue on sea. of Mounster, with six ships well furnished and appointed, whereof he was admerall; and William Gorge master porter of the tower and a pensioner, viceadmerall: and all these arriued vnto the citic of Corke. Whereof the lord iustice being aduertised, was verie glad, and did appoint one hundred vnto sir William Stanleie, who before was capteine of certeine horssemen, and one other hundred be assigned vnto capteine Hind. And séeing now some good seruice towards, and to incourage certeine gentlemen to be the more willing to follow the same, called before him George Bourchier, William Stanleie, Peter Carew, and Edward Moore, and vsing vnto Knights dubbed in the field. them verie good spéeches, to incourage and persuade them to doo hir maiestie good seruice in these hir affaires, and in hope they would performe the same, he dubbed them knights: who accordinglie did acquit themselues, and some of them with the losse of their liues ended their daies in this seruice.

And he further also for his owne part, the more hée bethought himselfe of the great seruice and charge laid vpon him, the more carefull he was to doo what the same required: where, in his owne person he so toiled and trauelled, and so ouercame himselfe with studieng, watching, labouring and trauelling, that he ouerthrew his owne health, and was no longer able to indure the same: but being ouercome by sicknesse, Sir William Drurie falleth sicke & goeth to Waterford. and driuen to yéeld therevnto, was determined to haue dissolued his campe, and so to haue returned to Waterford, and there to staie for a time. But the capteins séeing the necessitie of the present seruice, persuaded him not to dissolue the armie, but to take some order herein for hir highnesse seruice, and he to sequester himselfe for a time for his health. Vpon whose aduises he prepared himselfe to trauell towards Waterford, and for the continuance of the seruice did commit the gouernement Sir Nicholas Malbie made gouernor of Mounster. to sir Nicholas Malbie, who was then gouernour by the name of coronell of Connagh; and then by easie iourneies hée came to Waterford, and there he found himselfe euerie daie more weaker than other, and in the end did distrust his owne recouerie.

And yet mindfull of hir maiesties seruice, he to incourage other therein, sent & Knights dubbed at Waterford. called before him William Pelham esquier, William Gorge esquier viceadmerall of the six ships, Thomas Perot sonne and heire to sir Iohn Perot, and Patrike Welsh maior of the citie of Waterford, and gaue vnto them the order of knighthood, vsing the like persuasions as heretofore he had doone vnto others in the like case. And albeit he were of a good heart and courage, yet that was no sufficient physicke to recouer his helth of bodie, but that still decaied. And douting verie much of his recouerie, he sent to Dublin to the lord chancellor, and to the ladie Thame his wife, for their speedie comming vnto him, who accordinglie satisfied his request. But he inioied their companie a verie short time: for he died within two daies after their Sir William Drurie lord iustice dieth. comming, being the last of September 1579, and after his death his bodie was caried vnto Dublin, where it was buried.

But here by the waie (which should before haue béene said) as he came towards Waterford through Tipporarie, the countesse of Desmond met with him, and brought The countesse of Desmond giueth hir son to be a pledge for his father. with hir hir onelie sonne and heire to the earle; and being a sutor in the behalfe of hir husband, presented him to the lord iustice to be a pledge for the truth and fidelitie of the earle hir husband. For after the time that he was set at libertie in the campe néere Kilmallocke, he neuer repaired any more to the lord iustice, but stood vpon his owne kéeping; notwithstanding by his letters he professed all loialtie and obedience, which he neuer meant. For in verie truth he was (notwithstanding his dissembling) a verie ranke traitor, as in open fact and action did verie shortlie appeare, to his owne deserued confusion.

But to returne to sir Nicholas Malbie, who immediatlie vpon the departure of sir William Drurie vnto Waterford, according to the office & charge laid vpon him, be set in hand foorthwith to follow and performe the same. For he was able to do it being of great experience in martiall affaires, hauing béene seruitor that waie vnder sundrie kings, & in strange nations; as also was verie wise, lerned, and of great The commendation of sir Nicholas Mabie. knowledge in matters of policie, hauing béene a student in good letters, and a great traueller in sundrie nations, & therein did obserue the maner of the seuerall gouernments in euerie such place as where he trauelled. He had vnder him in the whole an hundred and fiftie horssemen, and nine hundred footmen, to command; and diuiding them according to the seruice then in hand, he sent sir George Bourchier, capteine Dowdall, and capteine Sentleger, vnto Kilmallocke with three hundred footmen, and with fiftie horsmen, there to lie in garrison, and a speciall place méet for the same, & which the enimie most speciallie coueted to possesse. But the more his care was that waie, the like was their diligence, vigilancie, & care of the other waie to kéepe the same. Then with the residue of the companie he marched himselfe to the citie of Limerike, where he staied and remained for a time to refresh his souldiors.

During his abode and being there, it was thought good by him and his capteins, The gouernor sendeth for the earle of Desmond. to send vnto the earle of Desmond for his repaire vnto him, and to haue conference with him, to vnderstand his bent and aduise for hir maiesties seruice against the enimies. The earle hauing receiued the gouernours letters, gaue verie good woords, The earle giueth onelie words and dissembleth. & promised much, but performed nothing. Wherefore he was againe and againe sent for from time to time, but he came not, but laie still at his house of Asketten, which is about fourtene miles from Limerike. For albeit as yet he was not in anie actuall rebellion, yet it was not vnknowne but that he was secretlie combined with his two brethren, which as open traitors were in open rebellion and in armes against hir maiestie. Which the earle, suspecting the same might be laid vnto his charge, would not aduenture himselfe to come in person to the gouernor; but still fed him with faire words and friuolous answers. Wherefore the gouernor thought good to spend no more time in vaine to looke for him, but left Limerike, and went into the fields, where he incamped himselfe, and so set forwards to doo some seruice vpon the enimie, hauing then in his companie six hundred footmen vnder the ensigns of sir William Stanleie, capteine George Carew, capteine Fisher, capteine Furse, capteine The gouernor remoueth from Limerike to Connilo. Piers, & capteine Hind; and he himselfe and capteine Apeslie reserued one hundred horssemen betweene them. Now being aduertised that a great companie of the rebels were incamped in Connilo vnder their capteine Iohn of Desmond, he marched towards them. And being come néere to an abbeie or monasterie called Monaster Neuagh, seuen miles from Limerike, there appeared a great companie in a plaine field both of horssemen and footmen, in estimation two thousand or there abouts, marching in battell araie, and had cast out their wings of shot, and placed eueric thing verie well and orderlie.

When the gouernor perceiued and beheld this, being verie glad that some péece of seruice was towards, he likewise conferreth with his capteins, and by their aduises setteth his companie in like good order, and brought them into a quadrant proportion, The gouernor marcheth to incounter with Iohn of Desmond. setting out his flankers in seuerall places according to the seruices, & appointed yerie good leaders for the same: but his cariages he placed in the rereward, with shot sufficient for their safegard. Now when all things were thus ordered, he marched forwards to the enimies. Iohn of Desmond, when he saw that he must fight or flie, and that brags would not beare out the matter, by the councell of doctor Allen, who had the holie ghost at commandement, to giue them the victorie, caused the popes banner to be displaied, and then marching forwards in verie good order, The popes banner displaied. hee tooke a plaine ditch in the open field: and minding to abide the fight, disposeth his horssemen, footmen, Galowglasses, and his shot for his best strength and aduantage.

The gouernor setteth onwards, & giueth the onset vpon them with his shot, who The battell betwéene the gouernor and sir Iohn of Desmond. valiantlie resisted the first & second volées, & answered the fight verie well, euen to the couching of the pikes, that the matter stood verie doubtfull. But the Englishmen so fiercelie & desperatlie set vpon them afresh with the third volée, that they were discomfited and had the ouerthrow giuen them, and fled. Iohn of Desmond, as a The Irish lost the field. woorthie Xerxes, who (as the historiographers write of him) was Primus in fuga, postremus in bello, sat vpon his horsse all this while and gaue the looking: who soeuer turned first, he was the first that was gone: for he put spur to the horsse & fled awaie as fast as he could, shewing a faire paire of héeles, which was better to him than two paire of hands. In this fight were manie slaine, of which doctor Allen was one, and Doctor Allen is slaine. three score others of good account. And in the chase, there were slaine and hurt, which died shortlie after, about two hundred men. This doctor Allen was an Irish man borne, and the chiefest cause of this fight. For he trusting to the Spaniards, whom he knew to be verie skilfull, and also dreaming the victorie Doctor Allen incouraged the campe to fight. by his inchantments to be at his commandement, incouraged Iohn of Desmond forwards: and in the campe in the waie of good spéed would néeds saie masse, and as the prophets of Baal in the time of king Achab, he offered to his God Mazim, and cried out for his aid, but none would come; for his God was asléepe and could not heare. Notwithstanding, he stood so much vpon the credit of his offrings and sacrifices, that he assured them of a victorie, and that he himselfe would be the first that should that daie giue the first blow; but whether he so did or not, there was he slaine: where he had the iust reward of a traitor, who most wickedlie and disloiallie forsooke the dutie and allegiance, which by the word of God he did owe vnto hir highnesse, and deuoted himselfe a professed Iesuit to the Romish antichrist, and an open traitor vnto his lawfull prince. The earle of Desmond himselfe was not present The earle of Desmond was in view of the fight. in this fight, but he and the dissembling baron of Lexnew stood in the view & sight of it, vpon a little hill in a wood about a quarter of a mile from thense: but the whole companies were there, and had part of the breakefast.

This baron of Lexnews eldest sonne, named Patrike, was seruant to hir maiestie and sworne, and serued in the court; but had leaue of hir maiestie to come into Ireland The baron of Lexnews son, seruant to the quéene and sworne, beareth armes against hir. to see his father: but he was no sooner come, and entred into his fathers house and home, but he forsooke his faith and oth to hir highnesse, and became a wicked rebell, and most traitorouslie bare armes against hir, and so continued a ranke traitor to the verie end. Wherein appeareth the nature of himselfe, and of the brood of that cursed generation, among whome there is neither faith, nor truth. And No faith nor regard of an oth among the Irishrie. therefore they maie be verie well resembled to an ape, which (as the common proucrbe is) an ape is but an ape, albeit he be clothed in purple and veluet: euen so this wicked impe. For notwithstanding he was trained vp in the court of England, sworne seruant vnto hir maiestie, in good fauour and countenance in the court, and apparelled according to his degrée, and dailie nurtured and brought vp in all ciuilitie: he was no sooner come home, but awaie with his English attires, and on with his brogs, his shirt, and other Irish rags, being became as verie a traitor as the veriest knaue of them all, & so for the most part they are all, as dailie experience teacheth, dissemble they neuer so much to the contrarie. For like as Iupiters cat, let hir be transformed Iupiters cat. to neuer so faire a ladie, and let hir be neuer so well attired and accompanied with the best ladies, let hir be neuer so well estéemed and honored: yet if the mouse come once in hir sight, she will be a cat and shew hir kind: but to the historie.

When the battell was ended, & the retreat sounded, the gouernor incamped himselfe fast by the riuer side of the monasterie aforesaid, and there laie that night. About midnight, when all things were quiet, & euerie man was at his rest: euen then the often named earle of Desmond sendeth a messenger The earle of Desmonds dissembling, & his counsell. with letters of congratulation vnto the gouernor, bearing him in hand that he was verie glad and ioifull of his good successe and victorie and like an hypocrite pretending verie good will to hir maiestie, gaue him aduise that for the auoiding of hir great charges, he should dislodge himselfe from that place; which as he thought was not best for an armie to lie in. The gouernor answered his letters with the like, and requested him to come vnto him, that they might haue conference togither, and ioine in this hir maiesties seruice, and wherein he would be glad to follow his aduise in anie thing that might further hir highnesse seruice: but to withdraw himselfe and his companie from thense, vnlesse he could giue him a good reason, he would not yéeld to his motion, nor take his warrant for anie warrantise. The earle of Desmond sheweth himselfe to be an open rebell. And therefore he remained thensefoorth in the same place thrée or foure daies, expecting still the earles comming: but he so little meant anie such thing, that henseforth he became a rebell in open action, and in armes against the gouernor, finding nothing in the earle but dissembling, and to vse delaies and faire spéeches to gaine time to serue his turne, remoued from thense to a towne of the earles named Rekell, and there incamped himselfe. They were no sooner settled, but The gouernor remoueth to Rekell. the scoutmaister, hauing beene abroad, declareth to the gouernor that he had discouered a great companie of horssemen and footmen which were within a mile of the campe, & therewith was the alarum made, & sundrie horssemen & shot according to the direction of the gouernor issued out, & met with the enimies, and skirmished with them, of whom they killed manie, and tooke some prisoners.

These men, being examined, declared that the earle was now in the fields and in The earle of Desmond in open rebellion. armes, and so had beene euer since the last ouerthrow of his brother Iohn of Desmond; and likewise declareth the whole bent of the earle and his brother. This péece of seruice being doone, and the night drawing néere, the watch was charged, and euerie man tooke his rest. But the earle and his brother minding to doo The earle of Desmond secretlie in the night stealeth to the gouernors campe to intrap it. some mischiefe, they watched, and in the dead of the night then following, taking aduantage of the time, when men were wearie and in their sléepes, came with all their companies, and meant to haue set vpon the whole campe. But they came too short and missed of their purpose: for the campe was too well warded for them to take anie aduantage. The gouernor considering the intent of the enimies was to doo what they could to remoue him from that place, which could not be kept but to the great damage of the enimies sundrie waies, and that the same was a verie A garison placed at Rekell. necessarie place for a garison and a ward, whereby to stop the continuall intercourse of the enimies, which by the means of a bridge ouer that water, they had a continuall recourse to & fro that waie: he before his departure from thense did plant & place a ward in the castell adioining to the bridge, which did from that time annoie the enimies verie much: and then from hense he marched towards the earles house of Asketten, and by the waie he met with sundrie of the earles companie, and skirmished and fought with them to the losse of manie of them.

This house of Asketten is a verie strong castell, standing vpon a rocke in the verie Asketten the earle of Desmonds chiefest house. midst of the riuer, and the chiefest house of the earles, wherein he had a strong ward: but he himselfe at this present time and his brother Iohn were assembled vpon a little hill on the further side of the riuer, standing there vpon their whole force. The gouernor hoping of some good seruice towards, drew all his companie into the abbeie house of Asketten, not far from the castell house; and there conferring with the capteins what were best to be doone, it was agréed and thought good, that a letter or two more should be written to the earle, and to persuade A letter sent to the earle of Desmond to persuade him to submission. him to submission. The gouernor, who was a verie good secretarie, and could pen a letter verie excellentlie well, did draw a letter, vsing manie good words, termes, and reasons to persuade him to conformitie and obedience to hir maiestie: & that he should not be the occasion of the vtter tall & end of so noble a house, which descended from Roestus the great prince of South-wales by his mother Nesta, daughter vnto the said Roesius, as Giraldus one of the same familie The house of Desmond. writeth. And herewith by the waie of a parenthesis, it dooth not appeare by anie sufficient authoritie, vnlesse a sonet and a deuise of a noble man be a sufficient authoritie, that the Giraldines came out of Italie; but perhaps out of Normandie: and the first of them placed in England had some interteinement and liuing at Windesor, and thereof was called Giraldus de Windesora: and he gaue not the armes of Richard Strangbow earle of Chepstow, as some haue written: but as he was a gentleman of himselfe, gaue the armes incident to his owne house, which is argent a salter gules.

For certeine it is, he was and is a verie ancient gentleman, whose ancestors were planted and placed in that land by king Henrie the second, and haue euer since continued in this land in much honor, wishing, aduising, and persuading, that if there were anie feare of God, obedience to the prince, or regard of himselfe, and of his name and familie; that he would reclaime himselfe vnto dutie and obedience: and that the honor of his ancestors might not be buried in his treacheries and follies. These The earle of Desmond will not be persuaded. letters being well penned were sent vnto him. But notwithstanding the most pithie, true, and effectuall reasons and arguments were sufficient to haue persuaded anie honest or reasonable man: yet was his Pharaos heart so hardened and indurated in disobedience, rebellion, and treacherie, that nothing could make him to yéeld and relent: but leauing his former and woonted dissimulations, returneth the messenger with a flat deniall that he will not yeeld anie further obedience to hir highnesse. The earle of Desmond fortifieth his castels. And foorthwith to confirme the same, he fortifieth his strongest and best houses and castells: as namelie Asketten with his chosen followers and men of best trust; the castels of Carigofoile and Strangicullie with Spaniards and some Irishmen. The go uernor, vpon the receipt of the earles answer, and minding to frame his seruice accordinglie; news was brought him that sir William Drurie lord iustice was dead, who deceassed at Waterford vpon the third of October 1579, which was a dolefull Sir William Drurie dieth. hearing to all good Englishmen, and a great hinderance vnto hir highnesse seruice.

This sir William Drurie was verie valiant, wise, and a gentleman of great experience, The conditions and manners of sir William Drurie. descended of a verie ancient and a worshipfull house, being a yoonger brother, but the birthright excepted, nothing inferior to his elder brother anie kind of waie in the gifts of wisedome, valiantnesse, knowledge, and experience of matters politike or martiall. In his youth he was a page, and serued in the court; and as in yeares, so in knowledge of all courtlie seruices he did grow and increase, and became to be as gallant a courtier as none lightlie excelled him. He was verie deuout, and a follower vnto the then lord Russell lord priuie scale, and after earle of Bedford, who gaue him good countenance and interteinment: for vnder him he serued in France at Muttrell and Bullongnois, and after the warres ended, he went to Calis, and His seruice at Bullongne. oftentimes being there he issued out, and did manie good seruices about Cambraie and in Artois: and in the end about Bruxelles he was taken prisoner. Not long after he He is taken prisoner. was redéemed and ransomed, and then he would néeds serue at the seas, and hauing gotten a ship well appointed for the purpose, he aduentureth that seruice. The He serueth at seas. beginning of it was so hard, that in nine daies he was in a continuall storme, and in great despaire for euer to recouer: neuerthelesse, whom the sword could not make afraid, the seas could not dismaie; but was euer one and the same man, of a good mind and great corage: and the storme being past, he followed the seruice which he had taken in hand, and became to be an excellent maritimall man, and verie expert in all seruices at the seas. When the time of this his seruice was expired, he returned into England; & attending vpon the earle of Bedford, he accompanied him in the seruice against the rebels of Deuon, at the commotion or rebellion in the third His seruice at the commotion in Deuon. yeare of the reigne of king Edward the sixt one thousand fiue hundred fortie and nine, and did there verie good seruice. After which in course of time, he went to serue at Berwike, where his valor and behauior was such, that he was made prouost His seruice at Berwike. He is prouost marshall. He is dubbed knight. marshall vnder the earle of Sussex being lord lieutenant, and for his sundrie notable good seruices he rewarded him with the degrée of knighthood.

Not long after that, there was a péece of necessarie seruice to be doone in Scotland by the said earle vpon the quéenes commandement; but he was verie sicke, and at that time he could not performe the same: wherfore he deputed in his place this worthie knight, whome he then made generall of the armie: and He is generall of the armie, and dooeth a good péece of seruice in Scotland. with such forces as were thought méet he entreth into the seruices appointed vnto him, being accompanied with the earle of Lennox, sir Thomas Manners, sir George Carie, and sir Robert Constable, with sundrie other capteins, to the number of twelue hundred footmen. And his commission being to serue at Edenborough, which then by the reason of the diuision among the noblemen, about the murthering of the earle of Murreie, he tooke, spoiled, and burned sundrie forts and castels: and in the end besieged and tooke the towne and castell of Edenborough, and deliuered the same, according He besiegeth and taketh Edenborough castell. as he was commanded, to the vse of the king: and so he returned againe to his old charge, with great praise and commendation, as in the chronicles of England and Scotland is at large recorded.

In verie short time after, hir maiestie hauing good experience of the valor of this knight euerie waie, as well for his valiantnes in martiall affaires, as for his wisedome in ciuill gouernement, she calleth and draweth him from his office and charge at Berwike, Sir William Drurie sent into Ireland to be lord president of Mounster. and remooueth him into Ireland, there to be imploied in the office of a lord president, and assigneth vnto him the gouernement of the whole prouince of Mounster, where he shall haue sufficient matter and occasion to vse both the sword & the law, iudgement and mercie. And hauing receiued hir highnes commandement in this behalfe, he maketh his voiage & repaire into Ireland: & being now settled in his roome and office by the right honorable sir Henrie Sidneie lord deputie, he acquiteth himselfe verie well euerie waie, being as seuere a iudge and earnest persecutor of the wicked and rebellious, as a zealous defender of the dutifull and obedient, to the great good liking of hir maiestie, the terror of the wicked, the comfort of the good, and the benefit of the commonwealth. After some time of his triall in this office, and sir Henrie Sidneie lord deputie being reuoked into England, he who had serued well Sir William Drurie is made lord iustice of all Ireland. in part, is called now to serue in all: and from a particular president is called to be a generall gouernor: and is in place of the departed deputie made lord iustice. He was no sooner entred into the office, but forthwith the rebellion and warres of the The rebellion of the Desmonds in Mounster. Desmonds began in Mounster vnder Iames Fitzmoris, and the Italians latelie come from the pope, and vnder the earle of Desmond and his brethren, who had long breathed and looked for this time. For the pacifieng, or rather subduing of this wicked rebellion, he tooke such continuall trauels and troubles, & so brused his bodie, that being not able to hold out any longer, he fell sicke & died (as is beforesaid) The death of sir William Drurie. in the citie of Waterford, and from thense his corps was remooued to Dublin, and there buried: his bodie resting in peace, his soule in euerlasting blisse, and his fame in this world for euer immortall.

Sir Nicholas Malbie, who was chéefe gouernor of Mounster, now that his commission by the death of sir William Drurie was expired and ended, gaue ouer to follow The campe is dissolued and dispersed into garrisons. anie actuall warres or ciuill administration in Mounster; but remooued himselfe and the whole campe vnto Lougher, and there dispersed them abrode in townes and villages to lie in garrison, and vpon their owne gards, vntill it were knowne who should haue the sword, and be the principall officer. Amongest the capteins thus dispersed into seuerall places, sir William Stanleie, and capteine George Carew were assigned to lie at Adare. The traitors & rebels, hearing of the death of the worthie Sir William Stanleie and capteine George Carew are assigned to Adare. knight of whose prowesse and valiantnesse by the sword, & of whose wisedome & vprightnes in gouernement, they had good triall; yet not abiding to be alienated from their old leauened and wicked vsage, they were not a little glad that he was dead, euen as the other were most sorowfull for the losse & lacke of him. Wherefore now they pull vp their spirits, & confer togither how they may in this inter-reigne win the spurs, and be vtterlie deliuered from the English gouernement. Wherefore it is agreed among them, that vpon euerie seuerall garrison of the most principall capteins, they The garrisons are besieged and inuironed by the Irishrie. would seuerall companies to watch & keepe them in their holds, that they should not issue out, but to their perill. Some therefore are appointed at Kilmalocke, some at Carigofoile, some at Asketteh, and some at one place, and some at another. And at Adare, where these two gentlemen sir William Stanleie & George Carew laie, sir Iames of Desmond brother to the earle with foure hundred Kerns and fiftie horsses Sir Iames of Desmond besiegeth Adare. was appointed to serue and watch; which he did so carefullie & narowlie, that none durst to peepe nor looke out but in danger of some perill. But when vittels waxed short within doores, the souldiors, who could nor would be pined, gaue the aduenture to fetch that which was without doores: and as want of vittels did increase, so did their issuings out vpon the enimies grow and increase. And so often were their sallies and incountrings with the enimies, that in the end they finding & feeling The Irishmen leaue to inuiron the garrison. the courage of the Englishmen, they had alwaies the worst side; and at euerie bickering euer lost some of their companie. Wherevpon they raised their siege, gaue place to the garrisons, and returned to the earle of Desmond. For albeit as yet they wanted a generall gouernor to rule aboue all, yet the captens were not to séeke, nor yet failed to doo the seruice which vnto them did apperteine, either for seruice or safetie. And among all the rest sir William Stanleie and capteine George Carew (as is before said) lieng in garrison at Adare, and vpon an occasion minding to doo a peece of seruice, verie earlie, and before the breake of the daie, they tooke a bote The knight of the valleie his countrie spoiled. or a cote trough, which could not hold aboue eight or ten persons at a time, and passed ouer their soldiors vnto the other side of the riuer, which lieth betwéene Adare and the Kerrie, minding to haue burned & wasted all the lands and countrie belonging & apperteining to the knight of the valleie, who then was in actuall rebellion The knight of the valleie a rebell. against hir maiestie, with the earle of Desmond and his brethren, where they then laie at a castell named Balliloghan, the chiefest & strongest place which the enimie had in that place and countrie, and this was furnished with a strong ward of the Spaniards. After that these two capteins had burned and spoiled the countrie, and put to the sword whomsoeuer they thought good: in their returne before they could recouer the riuer, sir Iames of Desmond, the knight of the valleie, and the foresaid Sir William Stanleie and capteine George Carews seruice at Adare. Spaniards with all their forces, to the number of foure hundred footmen and thirtie horssemen, gaue the charge vpon these two ensigues verie fiercelie, they hauing not in their companie aboue six score persons to the vttermost. These two capteins answered the charge, and most valiantly skirmished with them at the push of the pike without intermission aboue eight hours, and killed of them aboue fiftie shot and Kernes; and sir Iames himselfe with others gréeuouslie hurt and wounded, without the losse of anie one of their owne men, sauing sundrie were shrewdlie hurt and wounded. At length these two capteins recouered their bote, and caused all the souldiors to be transported; they themselues being the verie last that passed ouer, and the enimies doubting of the safetie, stood afterwards vpon a better force.

The lords of the councell at Dublin in the meane time, considering the distressed state of the whole land for want of a principall officer, did assemble themselues, and tooke aduise for the choise of some one wise man, méet and fit for the gouernement. Sir William Pelham chosen to be lord Iustice. 1579 And in the end they resolued vpon sir William Pelham, whom they chose to be lord iustice. And vpon sundaie being the eleuenth of October 1579, he receiued the sword and tooke his oth in Christs church of Dublin: there being present the lord chancellor, the archbishop of Dublin, the earles of Ormond and Kildare, and the whole councell: besides a great number of barons, knights, and gentlemen. The sermon being euded, he returned to the castell, before whome sir Nicholas Bagnoll knight, marshall of Ireland, by his office did beare the sword before him, & the whole companie there did attend him: being come to the castell, he was receiued with the shot of all the great artillerie. As soone as he was entered into the chamber of presence, and the Sir William Pelham hauing taken the sword, dubbeth the lord chancellor knight. sword there deliuered, he called the lord chancellor before him: and in consideration of his good seruices in causes of councell, and of hir maiesties good acceptation of the same, be rewarded & honoured him with the degrée of knighthood, by the name of sir William Gerard.

Likewise, he called Edward Fitton the sonne and heire of sir Edward Fitton, late treasuror of Ireland, and dubbed him knight. After diuner the counsell sat, consulting vpon causes of the estate: and for quieting of the realme, letters were sent vnto all the noblemen and gentlemen of anie countenance and calling, persuading them to the continuance of their loialties and dutifull obedience. And for the gouernement of the prouince of Mounster, in absence of the lord iustice, a patent was sealed and deliuered to the earle of Ormond: who hauing the keeping and custodie of the The earle of Ormond made gouernor of Mounster. yoong lord Girald sonne and heire to the earle of Desmond, was by a warrant willed to deliuer him to capteine Mackworth, and he to bring or conucie him to the castell of Dublin. Likewise, a warrant vnder the brode seale was sent to sir Warham Sentleger, Sir Warham Sentleger made prouost marshall of Mounster. to be knight or prouost marshall of all Mounster. These and other things doone concerning the kéeping of the English pale in quiet: the lord iustice, who had a speciall eie to the troublesome state of Mounster, prepareth to make presentlie a iournie into Mounster. But first it was concluded and agreed, The lord iustice maketh a iournie into Mounster. The lord chancellor sent into England. that the lord chancellor should passe ouer into England, with letters of aduertisement to hir maiestie and councell of the present state of Ireland, and of his lordships iournie towards against the rebels: who had also in commission to vtter by speech what was to be aduertised & answered vpon hir maiesties demands and councels. When all things were prepared for his iournie, he appointed the erle of Kildare to defend the borders northward, and his lordship marched southward toward Mounster, taking with him the three bands latelie come from Berwike, vnder the leading of capteine Walker, capteine Case, and capteine Pikeman: with so manie others as he thought méet and necessarie for that seruice. And when he came in his waie to Kilkenuie, being the nineteenth of October, there he remained two daies The lord iustice keepeth sessions at Kilkennie. and kept sessions, whereat he sat in person, and determined manie matters, and did cause Edmund Mac Neile a notable traitor, & sundrie other malefactors, to be executed to death: and also he made a peace and reconciliation betwéene the earle of Ormond and sir Barnabie Fitzpatrike, baron of vpper Ossorie: betwixt whome was The earle of Ormond and the baron of vpper Osserie reconciled and made frends. a mortall hatred. And bonds were taken betwéene them for restoring ech one to the other the preies, which either of their men had taken. During his abode and being in Kilkennie, the earle gaue his lordship verie honourable and good interteinment.

From this towne he departed the two and twentith of October, and by iournies he came to Cashell, where the earle of Ormond with a band of two hundred and thirtie men came and met him. And here the lord iustice sent his letters of the foure and twentith of October to the earle of Desmond, for his repaire vnto him, for the appeasing The earle of Desmond is sent for to come to the lord iustice. of the quarrell and controuersie betwéene him & sir Nicholas Malbie, referring vnto him to come either to Cashell or to Limerike. And from this towne he rode to Limerike, and about a mile before he came to the citie, sir Nicholas Malbie and sundrie other capteins & gentlemen met his lordship; and for his welcome gaue him a braue volée of shot: and so brought him to the citie, where the maior in all dutifull maner receiued him, and presented him with a thousand well weaponed and The lord iustice honorablie receiued into Limerike. appointed men of the same citie. The next daie he departed thense, and went to a towne name Fanings, where sir Nicholas Malbie presented vnto his lordship a letter, which he receiued from Vlike Burke: the same being the letter of doctor Sanders sent vnto the said Vlike, and with most pestilent reasons persuaded him to rebellion. Doctor Sanders wicked letters to Vlike Burke. And to this towne came the countesse of Desmond from hir husband, with letters of hir husband to the lord iustice, in excusing his not comming vnto him.

The lord iustice séeing the earle to vse but delaies, tooke aduise of the councell which was with him, what was best to doo. And in the end it was concluded, that the earle of Ormond should go vnto him, and to conferre with him vpon such articles as were deliuered, and now sent by him vnto the said Desmond, and to require his resolute answer.

The earle of Ormond, according to the order, went to the said Desmond, and deliuered vnto him both the letters and the said articles, and required his resolution and answer. Which when he had ouer read and considered, he returned his answer The earle sendeth letters but commeth not. by a letter dated at Crogh the thirtith of October 1579, vsing therein nothing but triflings and delaies, requiring restitution for old wrongs and iniuries, and iustifieng himselfe to be a good subiect, though he doo not yeeld to the foresaid articles. During the time of this parlée, the lord iustice was remooued to Crome, where he expected the returne of the erle of Ormond, and to that place sir William Stanleie & capteine George Carew came vnto his lordship with their two hundred footmen.

The earle of Ormond being returned, & hauing little preuailed with Desmond, notwithstanding his sundrie persuasions, there were other letters sent vnto him to induce The second letter sent to the earle of Desmond for his comming in. him to the consideration of himselfe and his estate: but when no reason, no persuasion, nor counsell could preuaile; then it was thought good by the lord iustice & councell to procéed to their former determination, and to proclame him a traitor. The lord iustice remooued from Crome to Rathkill, and he was no sooner incamped, but alarum by the traitors was raised: which was answered foorthwith by the lord iustice and the earle of Ormond: & in that skirmish thrée or foure of the traitors were slaine, of which the earle of Desmonds butler was one, the earle himselfe being The earle of Desmonds butler taken and slaine. then incamped within a mile of his brothers: and notwithstanding his iustification to be a good subiect, he dailie accompanied and conferred with them. The lord iustice séeing that neither counsell nor delaie of time could auaile with the earle of Desmond, then by the generall consent of the nobilitie, the councell, gentlemen, and the whole The earle of Desmond proclamed traitor. armie, a proclamation was openlie published against the said earle and all his confederats, in the highest degrée of treason at Rathkill the second of Nouember 1579. The effect of which treasons and proclamation was as here vnder followeth.

The earle of Desmonds treasons articulated.
  1. THE the erle of Desmond hath practised most vnnaturallie the subuersion of the whole state.
  2. 2
  3. That he practised to bring in strangers, and practised with foren princes to bring and allure in strangers to inuade this land.
  4. 3
  5. That he fostered and mainteined doctor Sanders, Iames Fitzmoris, and others beyond the seas to worke these feats.
  6. 4
  7. That albeit to the vtter shew of the world, he seemed at the first to dislike with them at their landing: yet were they secretlie interteined by the said earles permission, throughout all his countie of palantine in Kerrie.
  8. 5
  9. That when his brethren most traitorouslie had murthered Henrie Dauels and others at Traleigh, he did let his said brethren slip, without reprooning or blaming of them, and had also commended speciallie the slaughter of Edmund Duffe an Englishman, who at the said murthering laie in the next bed vnto Dauels.
  10. 6
  11. That when the strangers at Smerwéeke had no waie to escape by sea, at the comming of sir William Drurie, he gaue place vnto them for their escape by land, and gaue his tenants and followers libertie, to aid, helpe, and mainteine them.
  12. 7
  13. That contrarie to the commandement giuen vnto him by the lord iustice, he returned into Kerrie, and caused the strangers to leaue the fort, and to repaire to the towne of the Dingle and to other places which were at his deuotion, & had there interteinements.
  14. 8
  15. That he distributed the ordinances and artillerie of the forts vnto the rebels, as dooth appéere by a note found in the port mantieu of doctor Allen latelie slaine in the incounter executed by sir Nicholas Malbie.
  16. 9
  17. That he hath set at libertie such strangers as he kept colourablie as prisoners, and hath appointed them to gard his houses and castels.
  18. 10
  19. That he hanged most abhominablie Richard Eustace, Simon Brian, and others the quéenes subiects, for whome he vndertooke to the late lord iustice to be safelie brought vnto him.
  20. 11
  21. That he sent sundrie of his principall men, seruitors, and followers, and his houshold seruants, as also his chiefe capteins, which vnder the popes banner displaied most traitorouslie in the fields, did assaile sir Nicholas Malbie knight hir maiesties lieutenant of all Mounster, at Mounster Euagh, and which banner Nicholas Williams the earles butler did that daie carie.
  22. 12
  23. That he hath vtterlie refused manie persuasions, friendlie counsels, sundrie messages, and all the good means vsed and wrought to reduce and to bring him to obedience.
  24. 13
  25. That he hath not onelie refused to deliuer vp doctor Sanders and the Spaniards, which doo dailie accompanie him; but hath broken downe his castels, burned his townes, and desolated his countries aforehand, to the intent hir maiesties forces and subiects shall not be succoured nor refreshed.
  26. 14
  27. That he dailie looketh for a further aid and a new supplie of foreners, & dailie solliciteth the chiefe men of the Irish countries to ioin with him in this his most execrable and rebellious enterprise.
  28. 15
  29. That be openlie protested & sent a message to the lord iustice that he would disturbe the whole state of Ireland.
Wherfore they did pronounce, proclame, and publish him to be a most notorious, detestable, and execrable traitor, and all his adherents, against hir maiesties crowne and dignitie, vnlesse within twentie daies after this proclamation he did come in, and submit himselfe. Vnto which proclamation there subscribed the earle of Ormond, the baron of Dunboine, the bishop of Waterford, the vicount Mountgarret, sir Nicholas Malbie, sir Edmund Butler, Edward Waterhouse, Theobald Butler, Edward Butler, and Piers Butler.

This proclamation was foorthwith sent and dispersed to Dublin, Waterford, Corke, The proclamation against Desmond is sent to all the cities in Ireland. Limerike, and other principall townes to be in like order proclamed. Immediatlie and within an houre after this proclamation, the countesse of Desmond came to the campe; but the campe was before dislodged from the towne, and all his countrie foorthwith consumed with fire, and nothing was spared which fire & sword could consume. From this place the lord iustice remooued to Pople Brian, wherevpon the third of Nouember he tooke a generall muster of the whole armie: and then he deliuered to the erle of Ormond two hundred and fiftie horssemen, and also eight ensignes of footmen, of the which companie George Bourchier went to Kilmallocke, and sir William Stanleie and capteine George Carew to Adare. And then he remooued and tooke his iournie vnto Limerike, being accompanied with the earle of Ormond, who the next daie left the lord iustice and returned to his charge. After which departure of the lord iustice, the proclamed traitor of Desmond and his brothers, not able anie longer to shrowd his treacheries, went with all his forces to the towne of Youghall, The towne of Youghall taken & spoiled. where against his comming the gates of the towne were shut, but yet it was thought but colourablie: for verie shortlie after, without deniall or resistance, the earle and all his troope of rebels entered the towne and tooke it, and there remained about fioe daies, rifling and carrieng awaie the goods and houshold stuffe to the castell of Strangicallie and Lefinnen, the which then were kept by the Spaniards.

The earle of Ormond, assoone as he was aduertised hereof, he caused a barke well A barke well appointed at Waterford is sent to Youghall. appointed to be dispatched from Waterford, & to come to Youghall: the capteine of which bark was named White, a man of that countrie birth, verie valiant and of a stout stomach. Assoone as he was come to the wals of the towne, and had anchored his ship, he recouered from the rebels certeine ordinances of the said townes; The ordinances recouered from the rebels. and being put to vnderstand that the seneshall of Imokellie was comming towards the towne, he set all his men on land; and setting his men in good order, he entered into the towne at the watergate, and marched in good order through the towne, till he came where the rebels were togither, and then more rashlie than consideratlie, gaue the charge and onset vpon them: but the number of them being great, and his but a handfull to them, he was in verie short time inclosed and ouerlaied, and White, capteine of the barke is slain. there slaine, and with much adoo did a few of his companie recouer their ship againe. The lord generall and gouernour in the meane time, not slacking his businesse, did assemble and muster all his companie, & being accompanied with sir George Bourchier, sir The earle of Ormond maketh a rode into Connilo, and killeth a number of the rebels. William Stanleie, capteine Dowdall, capteine Furse, and others, made a iourneie into Connilo, which was then the chéefest place of trust that the earle had, both for safetie and strength, and for vittels and forage, and there his greatestforce and strength of his souldiors were seized in the townes and villages. And they then little thinking and lesse looking for anie such ghests, were vnawares and vpon a sudden intrapped and taken napping, and the most part of them taken and slaine, and the villages for the most part burned and spoiled. The earle of Desmond at this present time was there, but not knowne in his castell called the New castell, and escaped verie narrowlie. This péece The earle of Desmond in danger to be taken. of seruice being doone, the lord gouernour marched towards Mac Willies countrie, and being to go through a certeine passe, he met with the seneshall, vpon whome he gaue the charge, who answered the same verie valiantlie, and the skirmish was verie hot, in which the seneshals brothers and sundrie of his men were slaine; and the like also befell vpon the lord gouernours men, though not so manie, amongest whome capteine Zouches trumpetor was one; which so grecued the lord generall, that he commanded all the houses, townes, and villages in that countrie and about Lefinnen, which in anie waie did belong to the earle of Desmond, or of anie of his fréends and followers, to be burned and spoiled.

From this he tooke his iourneie towards Corke, and in his waie at Drunfening he tooke a preie of one thousand fiue hundred kine or cowes, which were all driuen and sent vnto Corke, at which citie assoone as his lordship was come, and had rested a small time, then by the aduise of the capteins he diuided and bestowed his companie into sundrie garrisons and places conuenient, as which might best answer the seruices. And his lordship being accompanied with capteine Dowdall and capteine Furse, he went to Cashell, and by the waie he tooke the maior of Youghall, whome foorthwith he examined, and for his treasons and treacheries, in that he would yéeld vp the towne vnto Desmond, and had before refused a band of English men, which was appointed to lie in garrison in that towne, for the defense thereof, and had promised that he would kéepe and defend the same against all men; he carried him along with him vnto Youghall, and there before his owne doore hanged him. The maior of Youghall hanged before his owne dores. The lord gouernour when he came into the towne, found it all desolate, rifled and spoiled, and no one man, woman or child therein, sauing one frier, whome he spared, bicause he had fetched the corps of Henrie Dauels from Traleigh, and had caried it to Waterford, where it was buried in the chancell of the cathedrall church. And his lordship much pitieng the desolate estate of the towne, did take order for The towne of Youghall all desolate. the reedifieng of the wals and gates, and placed therein a garrison of thrée hundred footmen vnder capteine Morgan and capteine Piers, who did verie good seruice in The inhabitants reuoked to dwell and inhabit the towne. the countrie, and by good means drew home the people and old inhabitants, and impeopled the towne againe. And the lord gouernour departed thense, and followed his seruice, as time, place, and opportunitie did serue; and taking aduise with the capteins for some speciall seruice, and remembring that the Spaniards had hitherto lien in rest and quietnesse, in garrison at Strangicallie, and hitherto nothing doone or said vnto them; it was agréed betwéene his lordship and the capteins, to doo some seruice vpon them, and to trie their value; wherevpon they marched thither and laid siege thervnto.

The Spaniards, who kept alwaies good watch, and had also verie good espials abrode, they were foorthwith aduertised that a companie of souldiers were drawing The Spaniards lieng in Strangicallie forsake their fort and in fléeing are slaine. and marching towards the said castell, and when they themselues saw it to be true, and had discouered them, they began to distrust themselves, and to doubt of their abilitie how to withstand them. Wherefore abandoning & forsaking the castell, they passed ouer the water, thinking to recouer the woods and so to escape that present danger. But sir William Stanleie, capteine Zouch, capteine Dowdall, capteine Piers, capteine Roberts, and all their companies did so egerlie follow and pursue them, that in the end they ouertooke them, and slue all or the most part of them, and so tooke the castell, wherein the lord gouernour placed a ward. Likewise when he laie at Adare, and vnderstanding that the erle of Desmond was abrode, the garrison minding to doo some seruice vpon him, they issued out. Whereof he hauing some intelligence, notwithstanding his companie was but small in comparison of the others: yet he laie in an ambush to méet them in their returne; and vpon an aduantage he gaue the The earle of Desmond lieth in an ambush. onset vpon them, and gaue a verie hot charge, in which the souldiers of the garrison were so hardlie assailed, that they brake the most part of their pikes, and were inforced with their swords and with the stumps of their staues to stand to their de fenses; which they did so valiantlie, that the earle in the end with the losse of his men was driuen to giue ouer and to flée.

The like seruice did sir Henrie Wallop, who then laie at Limerike, sir George Bourchier, capteine Dowdall, capteine Holingworth, and all the residue of the capteins in their seuerall charges and garrisons, who though of themselues they were verie forward; yet the lord gouernour neuer slept his time, but was alwaies in readinesse, The diligent seruice of the earle of Ormond. being the first with the formost, and the last with the hindermost. In the moneth of August 1580, he remooued and dislodged himselfe from Adare, and marched to Boteuant a house of the lord Barries, where a péece of seruice was appointed them to be doone: but suddenlie such a sicknes came among the soldiers A sicknesse in the campe. which tooke them in the head, that at one instant there were aboue thrée hundred of them sicke, and for three daies they laie as dead stockes, looking still when they should die, but yet such was the good will of God, that few died; for they all recouered. This sickenesse not long after came into England, & was called the gentle correction. Now the companie being thus recouered, his lordship minding to follow a péece of seruice, diuideth his companie into two parts, the one he tooke himselfe, and tooke the waie by the Iland; & the other he appointed to go directlie vnto Traligh, and there they met and diuided their companies into thrée parts, & so marched to Dingle a cush. And as they went they draue the whole countrie before them vnto the Ventrie, & by that means they preied and tooke all the cattell All the countrie is preied. in the countrie to the number of eight thousand kine, besides horsses, garrons, shéepe, and gotes, and all such people as they met they did without mercie put to the sword. By these meanes the whole countrie hauing no cattel nor kine left, they were driuen to such extremities, that for want of vittels they were either to die and perish for famine, or to die vnder the sword. Neuerthelesse, manie of them vnderstanding that sir William Winter viceadmerall of England was newlie arriued with the quéenes ships at the Ventrie, and that he had receiued a commission Sir William Winter giueth protections. to vse marshall law, they made their repaire vnto him, and obteined protections vnder him. Which the souldiers did verie much mislike, the same to be somewhat preiudiciall to hir maiesties seruice: bicause they persuaded themselues, that if they had folowed the course which they began, they should either haue taken or slaine them all.

Sir William, viceadmerall of England, vpon the newes reported to hir maiestie Sir William Winter kéepeth the seas. that a new supplie was prepared to come into Ireland from out of Spaine, was commanded to kéepe the seas and to attend their comming, and as occasion serued to doo his best seruice vpon them. Who when he had so done certeine moneths, his vittels waxed scant; and séeing no such matter, and also that the winter was drawing onwards, thinking nothing lesse than that the Spaniards would so late in the yeare arriue thither, he hoised his sailes and returned into England. But he was mistaken & deceiued: for not long after they came and landed at Smerwéeke, as hereafter shall be at full declared. And now leauing the soldiers in their garrisons, let vs returne to the lord iustice, who when he departed from Limerike the fift of Nouember The lord iustice with the Berwike bands goeth into Thomond. The lord iustice is verie honorablie receiued into Gallewaie. 1579, being accompanied with the Berwike bands, he went into Thomond, where the earle and his sonne with two bad horssemen met his lordship: and from thense he trauelled by iournies vnto Gallewaie, where he was verie honorablie receiued. And to the end to incourage them to persist and continue in dutifull obedience, he confirmed vnto the corporation certeine branches and articles, wherof some before this were granted vnto them in the time of sir Henrie lord deputie, and some now newlie set downe and granted, which in effect were these as followeth.

The charter of Gallewaie with new liberties confirmed.
  1. FIRST, that no writ of subpœna shall be warded out of the chancerie against anie inhabitant in Gallewaie, vntill the partie which sueth out the writ, haue put in good and sufficient suerties before the lord chancellor, or the maior of Gallewaie to prosecute the same with effect.
  2. That no new office nor officer be erected in the towne of Gallewaie by anie deputie or gouernour, otherwise than as they in times past haue vsed to doo.
  3. That the maior by the aduise of foure aldermen, and other foure discreet men of the towne vpon good considerations may grant safe conduct and protection to English rebels and Irish enimies.
  4. That the merchants of the towne which shall buie anie wares or merchandize of strange merchants, shall put in good and sufficient bands before the maior that he will well and trulie make paiment vnto the said merchant stranger for his debt and dutie.
  5. That if anie inhabitant in the towne doo vse anie vndecent & vnreuerent speach to the maior, that he shall be punished according to the qualitie of the fault and offense.
  6. That the maior, bailiffes, and inhabitants shall inioy, vse, and exercise all their ancient liberties, vsages, and customes.
  7. That in all actions tried before the maior, the partie condemned shall paie reasonable costs, and the said maior shall not take anie fee for anie sentence, called Oleigethe.
  8. That no dead bodie shall be interred or buried within the towne and walles of Gallewaie.
  9. That when anie strange merchants come to their port and hauen, that the same be serched and viewed for weapons and munitions, and that none aboue the number of ten persons of the said ship shall come into the said towne.
  10. That no stranger be suffered to take the view of the strength of the towne, nor to walke on the wals.
  11. That the maior from time to time doo take the muster and view of all the able men, and of their furniture and armour.
  12. That all unserviceable people in time of seruice be sent out of the towne.
  13. That sufficient vittels from time to time be prepared to serue the towne for ten moneths at the least before hand.
  14. That a storehouse be prouided alwais in the towne for a staple of vittels to be kept there at all times.

From thense his lordship by sundrie iournies came to Athlon and so to Dublin; William Noris newlie come out of England méeteth the lord iustice. where about thrée miles before he came to the citie, William Noris newlie arriued out of England, and accompanied with certeine gentlemen, met him with a hundred and fiftie horssemen, well furnished and well horssed with English geldings, euerie man wearing a red cote with a yellow lace, who attended his lordship into the citie, and from thense he was assigned and sent vnto the Newrie, where he died verie shortlie after vpon the fiue and twentith of December 1579. His hart was consumed, Capteine Noris sent to lie at the Newrie. his splene corrupted, and his braine mixt with filthie matter. His bands were diuided and deliuered to either capteins. And immediatlie vpon his entrance into the citie, he sent for Iaques Wingfield master of the ordinance, and by order he was commanded as prisoner to kéepe his chamber for his contempt, bicause he did not attend the lord iustice into Mounster as he was commanded; but vpon his submission after foure daies he was released. And vpon the death of Francis Agard esquier, sir Sir Henrie Harington is made seneshall of the Obirnes. Henrie Harington, who had married one of his daughters and heires, was by vertue of certeine letters from out of England, appointed to be seneshall of the Obirnes, as his father in law before was. The earle of Desmond and his two brethren sent a proud The proud letters of the earle of Desmond. and an arrogant letter vnder their hands, dated the nine and twentith of Nouember 1579, to the lord iustice, aduertising, that they were all entered into the defense of the catholike faith, with great authoritie both from the popes holinesse and king Philip, who haue vndertaken to defend and mainteine them, and therefore persuaded the lord iustice to ioine with them.

The lord iustice, hauing set the pale in some order, & hauing committed the The lord iustice entreth a new iourneie into Mounster. same to the gouernement of the erle of Kildare, he made a new iourneie into Mounster, and departed out of Dublin the eightéenth of Ianuarie 1579, with such companies and forces as he thought good for that seruice, and tooke his iourneies along by the sea coasts; and being come to Waterford, there he kept sessions, & sat in person at the same. And from thense taking Tinneterne in his waie he came to The lord iustice kéepeth sessions at Wexford. Wexford, the fiue and twentith of Ianuarie 1579, by water from Ballihacke in certeine biues verie well appointed by the maior of the citie. And before he came thither, sir William Stanleie, sir Peter Carew, and capteine George Carew, and cap teine Piers, issued out of the citie with their foure bands, and neere to the shore in the view of his lordship, they presented him with a iollie skirmish, and so retired themselues, to make ward against his landing. The bulworks, gates, and curteins of the citie were beautified with eusignes and shot in warlike maner, and then all the shot of the ships in the hauen, and a great ranke of chambers vpon the keie, togither with the shot of the souldiers, were discharged, and gaue his lordship a lustie and a great thundering peale.

At his landing the maior and aldermen araied in their scarlet gownes met him, The lord iustice receiued honourabliein to Waterford. and presented vnto his lordship the sword and the keies of the gates, which foorthwith he redeliuered vnto them againe, and the sword the maior bare and caried before his lordship. He went first to the church, and by the waie vpon two seuerall stages made for the purpose, there were two orations made vnto him in Latine; and at his returne from the church, he had the third in English at the doore of his lodging. And to this citie the earle of Ormond came vnto him, and they being togither, letters were sent from sir William Morgan of aduertisement, that the traitors were come downe about Dungaruon and Yoghall. Whervpon one hundred horssemen vnder capteine Zouch, and Sentleger, and foure hundred footmen vnder sir William Stanleie, sir Peter Carew, capteine George Carew, & capteine Piers were dispatched to serue against them.

The lord iustice from Waterford, vpon notice of the trouble dailie increasing, sent a commission of the eleuenth of Februarie, to sir Warham Sentleger to be provost marshall, authorising him to procéed according to the course of marshall law against all offendors, as the nature of his or their offenses did merit and deserue; so that the partie offendor be not able to dispend fortie shillings by the yeare in land, or annuitie, The articles of a cōmission for the marshall law. or be not woorth ten pounds in goods: also that vpon good causes he maie parlée and talke with anie rebell, and grant him a protection for ten daies: that he shall banish all idlers & sturdie beggers: that he shall apprehend aiders of outlawes and théeues, and execute all idle persons taken by night: that he shall giue in the name and names of such as shall refuse to aid and assist him: that in dooing of his seruice, he shall take horsse-meat and mans-meat where he list, in anie mans house for one night: that euerie gentleman and noble man doo deliuer him a booke of all the names of their seruants and followers: that he shall put in execution all statutes against merchants and other penall lawes, and the same to sée to be read and published in euerie church by the parson and curat of the same: and that he doo euerie moneth certifie the lord iustice how manie persons, and of their offenses and qualities, that he shall execute and put to death: with sundrie other articles, which generallie are comprised in euerie commission for the marshall law.

The lord iustice, after that he had rested about thrée weekes at Waterford, he remooued and went to Clomnell, where the earle of Ormond met him, being the fiftéenth of Februarie 1579, and from thense he went by iourneies vnto Limerike, where the chancellor of Limerike vpon suspicion of treason was committed to prison, The chancellor of Limerike sent to ward for treason. and his lodging being searched, manie masse bookes and other popish trash, togither with an instrument of the earle of Desmonds libertie palantine of Kerrie was found. He was after indicted, arreigned, and found guiltie, but in the end pardoned. And the bishop likewise was vpon some suspicion committed prisoner vnto his owne The bishop committed prisoner to his owne house. house.

And out of Limerike he marched the tenth of March to Rathkell, where within one houre the erle of Ormond came vnto him, and there consulted for the manner of the persecution of the enimie. Which when they had agréed vpon, they passed the next morning ouer the bridge of Adare, and by the waie they burned and spoiled the countrie, and went to Rathkell. Now when they had amended the bridge which the rebels had destroied, and made passable, they passed ouer the same into Connilo, where the lord iustice and the earle of Ordmond diuided their companies, and as they marehed they burned and destroied the countrie, and they both that night incamped within one mile at Kilcolman. And there it was aduertised, that Nicholas Parker lieutenant vnto capteine Fenton, comming from Limerike with fiue horssemen, and thrée shot, which were of the garrison at Adare, he was set vpon at Rathkell by a hundred traitors, which did discharge sixtéene or eightéene Nicholas Parker verie valiantlie defendeth himselfe. shot at him, and sundrie darts, before he espied them: but he and Iames Fenton the capteins brother, and Guidon, so bestirred themselues, that they gaue the enimie the repulse, and slue their leader, with fiue or six others, and so came safe to the campe, but with the hurt of one of their horsses.

The souldiers likewise in the campe were so hot vpon the spurre, & so eger vpon the vile rebels, that that day they spared neither man, woman, nor child, but all was committed to the sword. The same daie, a souldier of the marshals incountered with two iustie Kernes, the one of them he slue, and the other he compelled to carrie his fellows head with him to the campe: which when he had doone, his head also was cut off and laid by his fellowes. The next daie following, being the twelfe of March, the lord iustice and the earle diuided their armie into two seuerall companies by two ensignes and thrée togither, the lord iustice taking the one side, and the other taking the other side of Slewlougher, and so they searched the woods, burned the towne, and killed that daie about foure hundred men, and returned the same night with all the cattell which they found that daie.

And the said lords, being not satisfied with this daies seruice, they did likewise the next daie diuide themselues, spoiled and consumed the whole countrie vntill it was night. And being then incamped néere togither, the baron of Lexnew came to the earle of Ormond, whome the earle in the next morning brought before the lord The baron of Lexnew submitteth himselfe. deputie, where he in most humble maner yéelded, and submitted himselfe to his lordships deuotion, promising and presenting his seruice with all dutifulnesse. And then, when after great trauels they had maruellouslie wasted and spoiled the countrie, they appointed to march to Carigofoile, and to laie siege to the same: for in it laie the greatest force of the Desmonds, and which was garded and kept by the Spaniards. This castell standeth in the riuer, and at euerie full sea both it The castell of Carigofoile is besieged. and the bannes about it are inuironed with the said flouds and flowing waters. Assoone as they were incamped, the lord iustice approched the castell so néere as he could, to take the view thereof, that accordinglie he might consider the most fittest places for the laieng of the shot for the batterie: and then he commanded capteine George Carew to take out certeine shot, and to go with him in this seruice. Now The lord iustice and capteine Carew take the view of the castell. The castell besieged. the Spaniards hauing espied them, spent manie shot vpon them, and where the lord iustice verie hardlie escaped with his life, and from being slaine with a musket shot. When his lordship vpon this view had determined what he would doo, he caused the canon shot to be planted in the place most fit for the batterie, for otherwise the fort was not to be assaulted.

In the same were sixtéene Spaniards and fiftie others vnder one Iulio an Italian, who at the request of the countesse of Desmond vndertooke the kéeping of it, and The proud brags of the Spaniard. who reported himselfe to be a verie notable enginer: & standing vpon his reputation, he plied the campe with continuall shot, putting out an ensigne and railing with manie bad speeches against hir maiestie; declaring also that they kept it for the king of Spaine and so still would, vntill further aid were sent from him: and which in verie déed was dailie looked for. Before the canons and other battering péeces could be vnladen, they spent the time, occupieng the one the other with such deuises as they thought good for the seruices. And the Spaniards, hauing the ad uantage, did by their often shot hurt and kill some Englishmen, namelie a souldior of sir George Bourchiers, one of sir Henrie Wallops, & one of capteine Zouches: and sir William Stanleie comming with his companie to the trenches to take the ward of capteine George Carew, which kept the watch that night past, was hurt with a musket shot out of the castell in the necke. Assoone as the ordinance was vnladen and planted, they began forthwith to, batter the fort with thrée canons, a The castell is battered with shot. culuering, and a demie culuering; and in short time they so beat it, that the house fell and filled the ditches: by meanes whereof the same became to be assaultable.

Capteine Macworth, who had the ward of that daie, entred into the vtter banne Capteine Macworth first entreth the castell. by a doore that the souldiors had broken, and was maister of it presentlie. The Spaniards thervpon retired to a turret that was vpon the wall of the barbican, & some sought other places to hide and to saue themselues, but that part of the castell was beaten downe: and then capteine Macworth recouered the possession of the whole, The castell of Carigofoile is taken. and did put fiftie to the sword, of which nineteene were found to be Spaniards; and six others he tooke, whereof one was a woman, which were executed in the campe. None were saued that daie but onelie the capteine Iulio, whome the lord iustice kept for certeine considerations two or thrée daies: but in the end he was hanged as The bragging Spaniard is taken and hanged. 1580 the rest were before him. The next daie, being the first of Aprill one thousand fiue hundred and fourescore, the ordinances were remoued and caried to the ship, which with all such souldiors as were sicke and hurt were sent to Limerike, to be relieued and cured. This castell, one of the princpallest and chiefest forts thus recouered, there resteth onelie the house and castell of Asketten: and the lord iustice, and the earle of Ormond thought nothing more necessarie, than euen forthwith to march to Asketten, and to incampe there and to besiege it, euen as they had doone to this fort The castell of Asketten appointed to be besieged. of Carigofoile. Where when they came, the two lords diuided themselues, the one taking the one side, and the other taking the other side of the water: and vpon the third of Aprill they incamped at the said castell, the lord iustice lieng in the abbeie, and the earle of Ormond vpon the further side of the riuer.

The lord iustice viewed the place, and found no waie possible to place anie watch or ward néere to the castell, by reason of the great disaduantage of the rockes which Sir William Stanleie and capteine George Carew besiege the castell of Balliloghan. The warders forsake the castell. laie altogither vpon the castell. While the campe laie there, sir William Stanleie, capteine George Carew, and capteine Walker went to giue siege vnto the castell of Balliloghan, a strong house of the Desmonds, and which was warded vntill this time against hir maiestie. The ward had no sooner the sight and view of these three ensignes, but that they fired the house and fled: but they were so narrowlie pursued, that the leader of them and some of his companie were ouertaken and slaine. Whilest the siege laie at Asketten, sir Henrie Wallop treasuror at warres came from Limerike to the campe the fourth of Aprill 1580: and the verie same night following, being a verie darke and close night, the warders of the castell fearing the example of the execution doone at Carigofoile, and doubting the sequele of the lord iustice preparation made for the batterie to be laid against it, did abandon and forsake the The warders of Asketten forsake the castell and by a traine set it on fire. castell verie secretlie about midnight, leauing a traine of pouder to set it on fire, which consumed & burned a great part of the same: but the principall towers remained vntouched. The warders by fauor of all the darke night escaped into the woods.

This castell thus recouered, the earle of Desmond had neuer a castell in all Mounster The castell of Asketten is taken. which was warded against hir maiestie: but all were now at hir deuotion. The lord iustice being possessed of Asketten, he appointed a strong garrison to reside there, and placed sir Peter Carew, and sir Henrie Wallops companie in the castell; and capteine George Carew, and capteine Hollingworth to be in the abbeie, and so A ward placed at Asketton. vpon the fift of Aprill he dislodged with the rest of the armie, and went vnto Lime rike: commanding the capteins to cut down the woods on both sides of the riuer, that the botes might passe fréelie to and fro. At his comming to Limerike, all The armie is dispersed, and the garrisons are sent to their places appointed. things now séeming to be at peace, the earle of Ormond returned home to Kilkennie, & certeine of the councell which had followed in this iourneie rode to Dublin: and sir Nicholas Malbie departed into Connagh. And notwithstanding that the most part of the armie was now dispersed into garrisons: yet the seruices of euerie of them neuer abated. For alwaies as the time of seruice required, the Irishmen were issued out vpon, and most commonlie had the worst side. And the lord iustice himselfe taking an occasion to visit the ward at Adare, he passed by water, and capteine Case went by land, and after a time spent in searching the woods, they returned with a preie of one thousand and two hundred kine, and verie good store of shéepe, besides the slaughter of manie traitors.

At his being and during his abode in Limerike, vpon the fifteenth of Maie, he receiued hir maiesties commission vnder the broad seale of England to be lord iustice (where before he held the same by the election and order of the councell) and therewith also one other commission, for creating of sir William Burke baron of castell A commission to create sir William Burke to be baron. Connall, with a yearelie pension of one hundred markes during his life. And from this time, the lord iustice spent this summer in Mounster, trauelling to and fro through out the whole prouince: he himselfe and euene other capteine in his seuerall garrison dooing such seruice vpon the rebels as by occasion was offred. The lord iustice vpon the fifteenth of Iune, after that he had marched a few miles in Mac Aulies countrie, spoiling, defacing, and burning the same, he passed through the boggie mounteine of Slewlougher into Kerrie, and there he discouered a great preie of the countrie; and pursuing the same, by the voward of his horssemen, and he himselfe in person tooke about two thousand kine, besides store of shéepe and garons, with part of the traitors masking apparell. The earle of Desmond, the countesse The earle of Desmond and his wife and doctor Sanders in perill to betaken. his wife, and doctor Sanders little thinking of this matter, escaped verie hardlie; and their priest for hast was faine to leaue his gowne behind. The like seruice he did the next daie, being the fiue and twentith of Iune at Castelmange. But at this A mutinie among the souldiors for lacke of vittels. time, a great mutinie began amongest the souldiors vnder sir George Bourchier, capteine Macworth, and capteine Dowdall, by reason of their wants. but his lordship with such lenitie and courtesie handled the matter, that they departed from him well satisfied. Likewise sir Cormac Mac Teige shiriffe of the countie of Corke did Sir Cormac Mac Teige dooth a péece of seruice vpon sir Iames of Desmond. notable seruice vpon sir Iames of Desmond; which sir Iames vpon the fourth of August made a roade into Muskroie, and tooke a great preie from the foresaid sir Cormac. Wherevpon his brother Donnell assembleth his brothers tenants and countrie and followed the preie, and recouered the same; sir Iames, who thought it to be too great a dishonor and reproch to depart with anie thing which he had in hand, withstanding the matter.

Wherevpon they fell at hand-fight. In which conflict and fight the said Donnell behaued himselfe so valiantlie, and his companie so Iustilie stucke to the matter, that the preie was recouered, and sir Iames himselfe mortallie wounded and taken prisoner, Sir Iames of Desmond in taking of a preie is taken prisoner and executed. and all his force, being aboue a hundred and fiftie persons, were slaine and ouerthrowne. He that tooke him was a smith, and seruant to sir Cormac, who foorthwith handfasted him: and for anoiding of certeine inconueniences, he kept him close, and secretlie hid him in a certeine bush in the fastnesse there, and bound him so fast and sure, that he could not escape nor run awaie. And when all the companie was gone, then he tooke him and carried him to sir Cormac his maister, who kept him in safe custodie, vntill, by letters of commandement from the lord iustice and councell, he did deliuer him vnto sir Warham Sentleger then prouost marshall, and to Sir Iames of Desmond sent to sir Warham capteine Raleigh; who (according to a commission in like order to them addressed) was examined, indicted, arreigned, and then vpon iudgement drawen, hanged and Sentleger & to capteine Raleigh, and was executed to death. quartered: and his bodie being quartered, it was togither with the head set on the towne gates of the citie of Corke, and made the preic of the foules. And thus the pestilent hydra hath lost an other of his heads.

This seruice of this knight was maruellouslie well accepted, and first from the lord iustice and councell, and then from hir maiestie he receiued verie fréendlie and thankfull letters. This man was a yonger house vnto Mac Artie Reough, and they both a yonger house vnto Mac Artie More now earle of Clancar, aud whose ancestors (as is said) were kings before the conquest of Mounster. They are all men of great power, and greatlie estéemed in those parties. But this sir Cormac, in dutie and obedience to hir maiestie and hir lawes, and for his affection to all Englishmen, surpasseth all his owne sept & familie, as also all the Irishrie in that land. For albeit a méere Irish gentleman can hardly digest anie Englishman or English gouernment, & whatsoeuer his outward appearance be, yet his inward affection is corrupt and naugbt: being not vnlike to lupiters cat, whome though he had transformed Iupiters cat. into a beautifull ladie, and made hir a noble princesse; yet when she saw the mouse, she could not forbeare to snatch at him; and as the ape, though he be neuer so richlie attired in purple, yet he will still be an ape. This knight, after he did once yéeld himselfe to hir maiesties obedience, and had professed his loialtie, he euer The loialtie of sir Cormac Mac Teige. desired to ioine himselfe vnto the companie of the Englishmen, and became in time a faithfull and fréendlie man vnto them, liued according to hir maiesties lawes, and did so good seruice at all times when it was requisit and required, as none of that nation did euer the like. And if at anie time he were had in suspicion, he would by some kind of seruice purge & acquite himselfe, euen as he did in this present seruice in taking of sir Iames of Desmond, to his great praise & commendation, and to his acquitall against the reprochfull reports of his aduersaries. And sir William Fitzwilliams in the time of his deputiship, hauing had a verie good triall of his fidelitie, truth, and good seruice, did giue vnto him the order of knighthood, and made him Sir Cormac Mac Teige made knight. shiriffe of the countie of Corke: euen as the lord iustice now did commend this his seruice vnto hir maiestie by his letters of the twelfe of August, a thousand fiue hundred and eightie, and praieng that the same might be so acceptablie receiued, as that the enobling of him might be both an ornament to his house, an incoraging vnto others to doo the like, and a testimonie against others of his sort, who haue neglected a number of occasions (at greater aduantages) to haue doone the like seruices.

The death of Iames of Desmond, and the quartering of his bodie did maruellouslie dismaie the earle himselfe, sir Iohn his other brother, and doctor Sanders, and all their confederats. And by reason of the continuall persecuting of the rebels, who could haue no breath nor rest to reléeue themselues, but were alwaies by one garrison or other hurt and pursued; and by reason the haruest was taken from them, their cattels in great numbers preied from them, and the whole countrie spoiled and preied; the poore people, who liued onelie vpon their labors, and fed The miserie of the people. by their milch cowes, were so distressed, that they would follow after the goods which were thus taken from them, and offer themselues, their wiues, and children, rather to be slaine by the armie, than to suffer the famine wherewith they were now pinched. And this great calamitie made also a diuision betweene the earle of Desmond and his brother sir Iohn, either of them excusing that whereof they were both guiltie. The earle himselfe (without rest) fléeth from place to place, and The sute of the countesse of Desmond. findeth small comfort, and séeing no other remedie, sent his ladie and wife vnto the lord iustice, who in great abundance of teares bewraied the miserable estate of hir husband, hir selfe, and their followers, making (with most lamentable requests) sute, that hir husband might be taken to submission.

Sir Iohn of Desmond, being in the like distresse, he togither with doctor Sanders Sir Iohn of Desmond minded to ioine with the vicount Baltinglasse. gaue the aduenturc, to passe for their refuge to the vicount Baltinglasse, then being in the countie of Kildare. The garrison which laie at Kilmallocke, making an issue out by night to doo some seruice, by chance met the said Iohn and Sanders in the darke night: and not knowing them did set vpon them, and of foure of them they tooke two, the one being a frier named Iames Haie and standardbearer to the late Iames Fitzmoris, who vpon his examination confessed that the earle of Desmond was author of all these warres, and the other was Sanders man, who was slaine; and Sir Iohn of Desmond and doctor Sanders in flieng, were in danger to be taken. the frier was reserued, but sir Iohn and the doctor by the benefit of the darknesse verie hardlie escaped, & cut off from their iourneie. The lord iustice being at Newcastell, and being aduertised that the earle of Desmond and Sanders were in Kerrie, he foorthwith sent for the garrisons of Adare and Asketten to come to him, and for the garrison of Kilmallocke to méet him at the place, daie and time appointed, for a speciall peece of seruice then to be doone. Whose commandement being doone and obeied, they tooke their waie into Kerrie, and there they had taken the earle, The earle and his countesse in danger to haue béene taken. and his countesse, and doctor Sanders, had not a false brother bewraied the matter, and yet for hast they left their breakfast behind them halfe dressed. Neuerthelesse, they tooke two preies, the one of fiftéene and the other of eighteene kine; and the next daie they tooke another preie of two hundred kine, slue diuerse traitors, and tooke two friers, whose gownes were too long for them to follow the earle and the popes nuntio, they being poore bare footed friers, and he a lustie horsman: and then his lordship returned to Asketten, where he left maister Parker conestable of the place; and from thense he went to Limerike, where he receiued news by master Zouch, and after by letters from the lord Greie lord deputie, of his arriuall to Dublin. And then his lordship minding to make his spéedie repaire to Dublin, did set the countrie in some good order, and by the aduise of the councell at Limerike, he appointed sir George Bourcher coronell of all Mounster, and instructions were Sir George Bourcher coronell of Mounster. deliuered vnto him, both for certeine speciall seruices to be doone, & also for the generall gouernement of the whole prouince; & had left vnto him the charge (vnder his gouernement) of the whole forces in Mounster; which of footmen were two thousand eight hundred & twentie; and of horssemen thrée hundred fourescore and This force is both of the princes paie, and of the lord of the prouince. fiftéene: the whole, thrée thousand two hundred and fiftéene men. Likewise he had sent the like instructions to sir Warham Sentleger, and the erle of Clancar. And these & other like things doone, he tooke his iourneie through Conaugh for the like establishing of the countrie, & came to Dublin the sixt daie of September, one thousand fine hundred fourescore and one; and the next daie he deliuered vp the sword to the lord Greie, as to the lord deputie of Ireland, in saint Patrikes church in presence of the councell, noble men, and gentlemen, which were for the same purpose there assembled.

And within six daies after the lord Greie his arriuall, it was giuen his lordship to The vicount of Baltinglasse lieth in the Glinnes with the rebels. vnderstand, that the vicount of Baltinglas, and Pheon macke Hugh, the chiefe of his sex of the Obrins, were lieng in the Obrins countrie, and were now of great force and strength, by meanes of the companie of capteine Fitzgirald, kinsman to the earle of Kildare, who had a band of footmen committed vuto him in the beginning of this rebellion, for the defense of the countie of Kildare, which bordereth fast by the Obrins. And he nothing regarding now, either the dutie of a subiect, or his owne credit, most traitorouslie reuolteth from his lawfull prince, and conioineth himselfe with traitors and rebels. And with these he practiseth and persuadeth to resist and make head against hir maiesties forces; because they could not (as he said) withstand or preuaile against them: who without anie reward promised, were easilie persuaded, because they would be persuaded, and were most willing to exercise anie maner of outrage. All these thus combined, drew one string, & incamped themselues in the fastnes of the Glinnes, about 20 miles from Dublin, where they kept all their goods & cattell. This fastnesse was by nature so strong The strength of the fastnesse in the Glinnes. as possible might be: for in it is a vallie or a combe lieng in the midle of the wood, of a great length, betweene two hils, & no other waie is there to passe through. Vnder foot it is boggie and soft, and full of great stones and slipperie rocks, verie hard and euill to passe through; the sides are full of great & mightie trees vpon the sides of the hils, & full of bushments and vnderwoods.

The lord deputie, being not yet acquainted with the custome of the countrie, nor with the Irish seruices, and thinking himselfe in honor to be touched, and the whole armie to be discredited, if a companie of traitors should lie so néere vnto him, and not be touched nor fought withall, resolued himselfe to haue a péece of seruice to be doone vpon them. Wherfore he with all his whole armie marcheth vnto the said Glinnes, & giueth order to sir William Stanleie, sir Peter Carew, sir A seruice appointed to be doone against the Obrins. Henrie Bagnoll, capteine Awdleie, and to Iohn Parker, lieutenant to capteine Furse with all their footmen, and to Francis Cosbie capteine of the kerne, and George Moore an old veteran of Berwike, coronell of all the footmen, to take this seruice vpon them. But Coshie, who had béene a long seruitor, and knew what to that kind of seruice did belong, did foresée the danger which would follow hereof, and so declared it to his companie: notwithstanding to auoid the reproches which might be laied to his charge, followed the said seruice, and vpon the next daie, being the fiue & twentith of August, they entered the Glinnes.

The lord deputie being accompanied with the earle of Kildare, Iaques Wingefield, capteine George Carew, capteine Denie, and others on horssebacke staied vpon the mounteine side hard by the wood. The archtraitor Fitzgirald, hauing The lord depurie staied vpon the mounteins. some secret intelligence of the seruice towards, he bestoweth and placeth all his men with their peeces amongst the trées, and there couered themselues, vntill the Englishmen were entered and passed into the fastnesse, about halfe a mile or more, and could not easilie returne: and he hauing them at aduantage vpon euerie side of the hill, with great furie assaileth them with his shot, and in verie short time did kill the most part of the voward, both capteins and souldiors. The residue which followed, being in despaire to recouer what was lost, and distrusting themselues, fled at all hands, and ran backe as fast as they could in so bad a waie. And yet such was the nimblenesse of the traitors, and their skill of seruice in such places, that they were like to haue béene killed; if the lord deputie, and the horssemen had not rescued them: vpon whose comming they retired into their fastnesse.

In this conflict, George More, capteine Audleic, Francis Cosbie, and sir Peter The Englishmen slaine in the Glinnes. Carew coronell, were then murthered and slaughtered; which sir Peter was verie well armed, and with running in his armor, which he could not put off, he was halfe smothered, and inforced to lie downe: whome when the rebels had taken, they disarmed him, & the most part of them would haue saued him, and made request for him, they thinking that more profit would grow among them by his life than benefit by his death. Notwithstanding, one villaine most butcherlie, assoone Sir Peter Carew slaine. as he was disarmed, with his sword slaughtered and killed him; who in time after was also killed. Before the entrie into this seruice, Iaques Wingfield being acquainted with this kind of bold and rash hardinesse, and foreséeing the euill successe Iaques Wingfield his wisdome towards his nephues. which was feared would insue, persuadeth with his two nephues, sir Peter and capteine George Carew, to staic and to forbeare to aduenture into the woods, But sir Peter could not listen therevnto, nor be persuaded; but would néeds go in. His brother would haue doone the like, but his vncle perforce kept him, saieng; "If I lose one, yet I will keepe the other:" and so by that meanes he was by Gods goodnesse saued and preserued.

This blacke daie was a dolefull and a gréeuous daie to the lord deputie and all his companie: notwithstanding, hoping of a hard beginning would follow a better ending tooke the matter as patientlic as he could, and made his returne vnto Dublin, abiding the comming of the lord iustice; who as soone as he was returned, then the lord Greie was sworne, and had the sword deliuered vnto him. The earle of Ormond in this meane time, being verie desirous to doo some seruice vpon the Spaniards, being nothing afraid of their force and multitude, marcheth towards the fort, and incampeth at Traleigh, where the scout the same night espied a light in the enimies campe, and by reason of the darke night, the companie of them seemed to be the greater: which caused the gouernor to be more watchfull and circumspect. Wherefore in the morning, like a wise and a politike capteine, setteth all his companis The earle marcheth in order of battell to the fort. in battell araie, & so marcheth forwards in his strength & verie good order ouer the strand of Traleigh towards the fort, euerie man being at a full resolution to doo his best seruice that day against the enimie. When these strangers had knowledge of the approching of the lord gouernor, and his companie, albeit their fort was verie strong, both by nature and by art; yet they distrusted themselues, and The Spaniards leaue their fort. forsooke the fort, and by the guiding of the Irishrie, they remoued themselues from thense to Glanningell, whome the gouernor pursued, & ouertooke some of them, vpon whome he gaue the onset, and skirmished with them: diuerse of them he The earle followeth the Spaniards and putteth them to the foile. slue, and manie he tooke, whome he caried along with him: the residue of them fled into the fastnesse of Glanningell, which is a verie strong place and couert, by reason of the great woods and of the mounteines adioining. Wherevpon the daie being spent, and no seruice for that time to be doone anie further, the lord gouernor incamped there that night, fast to their enimies nose, to trie him what he would, or durst doo.

Assoone as he was incamped, he calleth the prisoners (who were taken) before The companie of the Spaniards not aboue seuen score. him, and they confessed that they were in number, not aboue seuen hundred men; but had brought with them pikes, caliuers, munitions, and all kinds of artillerie, sufficient for fiue thousand men: because they knew that the Irishmen were of bodies sufficient, but that they lacked furniture and training; & in these two things they minded to furnish them: and further also they said, that they had sent backe two of their ships into Spaine, to aduertise that they were safelie arriued, and how that they were interteined: requesting that the supplie appointed before their comming from home, might with all spéed be sent awaie, and for which they did dailie looke: because it was throughlie concluded betwéene the pope and king Philip, to make a through conquest of all Ireland; and so consequentlie as time should The determinations of the pope and king Philip, to make a through conquest of Ireland. serue, to doo the like with England. And moreouer, that they had brought with them a great masse and store of monie and treasure, which according to their commission they had deliuered to the earle of Desmond, sir Iohn his brother, & to doctor Sanders the popes nuntio; and more is promised to be sent.

After these things thus doone, it was giuen to the said gouernor to vnderstand, that the same night there were three hundred souldiors of the enimies companie returned & gone backe to the fort. Wherevpon he returned also, and followed The earle of Ormond in campeth at the fort. them the next morning, and came to Dingle, where he incamped as néere to the fort as he could; and there choosing to himselfe capteine Dowdall, capteine Piers, and certeine shot, he drew so neere to the fort as he had the whole discouerie and sight of the fort and companie therein, which séemed to be easie to be gotten, if he had anie shot and munitions for the same. But as neither the scholer without The earle for lacke of munition could not preuaile against the fort. his booke, nor the artificer without his tooles, can doo anie thing in his profession: no more can the souldior fight without his meet weapons, nor serue without his necessaries: and therefore for want of things necessarie for this batterie, the lord gouernor was driuen to returne, and to leaue the fort.

The Spaniards perceiuing this, or mistrusting some other matter, made a sallie The Spaniards issue out and giue a skirmish. of thréescore men; and the gouernor seeing their aduantage, thought to follow the aduise of his capteins, and not to haue dealed at all with them. But one Andrew Martin more bastic than aduised, and more rash than wise, procured a skirmish with them, in which he was slaine; and the lord gouernor compelled of force to answer the skirmish. But it was not long, but that he sounded the retract; and being not able to annoie the enimie, nor preuaile at the fort, he returned backe againe, and by iourneies he came to Rekell: where he met the lord deputie, vnto The lord deputie commeth to Rekell, and is there met by the earle of Ormond. whom he yéelded vp all his companie, and his commission, and then made prouision of his men, and for victuals, to follow the said lord deputie. The lord deputie had now in his companie about eight hundred men, horssemen and footmen, vnder the leadings of capteine Zouch, capteine Walter Raleigh, capteine Denie, who had also capteine George Carews companie vnder his ensigne, capteine Macworth, capteine Achin, and others: and then he marched towards the fort where the Spaniards and Romans were setled.

Capteine Raleigh, notwithstanding that the lord deputie had raised his campe at Rekell, and was gone towards the fort, yet he taried and staied behind, minding to practise some exploit. For it was not vnknowne vnto him, that it was a maner among the Irish kerns, that whensoeuer anie English campe was dislodged and remooued, they would after their departures come to those camps to take what they there found to be left. Thus therefore lieng, and kéeping himselfe verie close, taried and abode the comming of the said kerns; who suspecting no such trap to be laid for them, came after their maners and old vsages to the said place, and there tooke their pleasure, who when they were in their securitie, the capteine and his men came vpon them, and tooke them all. Among them there was one, who caried and was laden with withs, which they vsed insted of halters: and being demanded what he would doo with them, and whie he caried them; gaue answer, that they were to hang vp English churls; for so they call Englishmen. "Is it so (quoth the capteine) well, they shall now serue for an Irish kerne:" and so commanded him to be hanged vp with one of his owne withs; the residue he handled according to their deserts.

The lord deputie incamped himselfe as néere the fort as he could. And at this The lord deputie marcheth to the fort, and besiegeth it. present was sir William Winter also newlie returned from out of England: but he arriued at Kinsale, and his vice admerall capteine Bingham came into the baie of saint Marie weeke or Smerewéeke, and not long after, sir William Winter himselfe followed. And by these means the said lord deputie was so well furnished of all things necessarie, that he at land, and sir William Winter at sea besieged the fort. But before anie assault giuen, he first summoned the fort; requiring of them who The fort is summoned. they were, what they had there to doo, by whom they were sent, and whie they fortified in hir maiesties land, & required therewith to yéeld vp the fort. But they answered that they were sent some from the holie fatther, which had giuen The answer of the fort. that realme to king Philip; and some from king Philip, who was to receiue and recouer that land to the holie church of Rome, which by hir maiesties means was be come schismaticall, and out of the church, with other reprochfull speeches: and that therfore they were in that respect to kéepe what they had, and to recouer what they yet had not. Wherevpon the lord deputie sent to sir William Winter, to haue conference with him, how, in what sort, and by what waies they were to worke for the dispossessing of these strangers from their fort, and how their artillerie and munitions might be best placed and laied for the batterie; and betwéene whom it was then determined how all things should be doone.

Whiles they were thus in speeches, and consulting of the matter, the Spaniards The Spaniards make a sallie vpon the Englishmen. thinking to take some aduantage, made a sallie vpon the Englishmen: which was forthwith answered by capteine Denie (who as then had but a doozzen shot) and by Michaell Butler lieutenant to capteine Raleigh: & these so valiantlie behaued themselues, and so worthilie followed the fight, that they made the Spaniards with more hast than with good speed to returne againe to their fort. The same night following, sir William Winter, according to the conclusion betwéene the lord deputie and him, he did cause to be vnloden certeine culuerings, and like péeces of ordinance out of hir maiesties ships, which then laie in the rode of Smereweeke, and then there being a great banke betweene the shores side and the fort, through which the ordinance were to be caried, they did in the same night cut through that The diligent seruice of the mariners. banke, caried their ordinance through it, and mounted them in the place appointed, before the breake of the daie, and before it was open daie the batterie was readie to be giuen. A péece of seruice (the place and time considered) thought woorthie great commendations. The lord deputie likewise had doone the like vpon the land The fort is beset vpon the land side. side, & so being on both sides in readinesse to follow the seruice, his lordship summoned them by the shot of a péece of ordinance, offering vnto them mercie if they would yéeld. But they knowing nothing what was doone that night, answered as before, that they would kéepe what they had, and would increase what they could get. Wherevpon they began to batter the fort on both sides, both by land and by water. This first daie of batterie was captaine Raleighs ward daie. But the Spaniards made their brags, that they cared not for this; and to set a good face vpon it, some of them sallied out, and offered the skirmish, but verie faintlie and fearefullie: and so both vpon the first daie, the second daie, and the third daie, little was doone, but onelie the continuance of the batterie. The fourth daie was capteine Zouches ward daie, vnder whom was a lustie yoong gentleman named Iohn Chéeke, who drew so néere the fort, that he looked ouer the purport Iohn Chéeke is slaine. into it, which being séene and perceiued, one of the Spaniards leuelled a péece at him, & with his shot strake him in the head, wherewith he died. About the end of these foure daies, the trenches for the full batterie were drawne and brought so néere vnto the fort, that now they left to dallie anie longer with the fort, but verie hotlie and sharpelie they battered at it on both sides. The Spaniards, who had staied The fort is battered on euerie side. themselues vpon the hope of some further supplie, to come out of their countrie, and thinking of some better aid of the erie of Desmond, & of his brethren, than yet they had receiued; and séeing also the batterie to be such as they could not be able to withstand and hold out, they desired a parlée with the lord deputie, who vtterlie The Spaniards desire a parlée. denied it: saieng, that his seruice was against traitors and rebels, with whom no spéeches nor parlées are allowed. And forsomuch as they (though strangers by birth) otherwise did confederat with them in such a traitorous action, they were in the like predicament with them. Then they requested that they might haue libertie to depart with bag & baggage, which also would not be granted. Then they requested that certeine particular men among themselues might haue their frée passage, and certeine other conditions: but my lord refused both this, and all other conditions, requiring an absolute yéelding, or nothing at all. When they saw that they could not preuaile anie waie, then at the length they hanged out a white flag, and with one voice they all cried out Misericordia, misericordia, and offered to yéeld both themselues and the fort, without anie condition at all. Which thing when it was aduertised to his lordship, he sent capteine Iaques Wingfield master of the Capteine Wingfield is sent to the fort. ordinance to the fort, and to make triall whether this their offer were true and vnfeigned: who when he came to the fort, he was receiued in, and foorthwith the capteine of the fort came vnto him, and in all humble maner yéelded himselfe to be brought, and to be presented vnto the lord deputie: and at the commandement of the said Iaques Wingfield he disarmed himselfe, and caused all his companie to doo the like, and to bring all the armour in the fort into one place; and there they laied their pikes acrosse vpon the same. Which being doone, the said capteine Wingfield came out of the fort, and brought the capteine with him, promising him safe conduct to the lord deputie. But by the waie, his lordship sent some to receiue him at his hands, and willed the said Iaques Wingfield to returne againe to the fort.

In this fort sir Iames Fitzgirald knight, and lord of the Decies, was a prisoner by The prisoners in the fort deliuered. the order of the earle of Desmond, and one Plunket an Irishman, and one Englishman, which came and accompanied the traitors out of Spaine. The knight was set at libertie, but the other two were executed. When the capteine had yéelded himselfe, and the fort appointed to be surrendered, capteine Raleigh together with capteine Macworth, who had the ward of that daie, entered into the castell, & made a great slaughter, manie or the most part of them being put to the swoord. And when all things were cléere, the lord deputie came to the fort, and hauing doone what pleased him, his lordship returned, and manie of the capteins he saued. The fort foorthwith was rased, the armor and munitions were dispersed abroad, and all things doone as it pleased the lord deputie, he sent the coronell and campemaister ouer into England by capteine Denie, and dismissed the armie, and sent euerie capteine to his garrison. And his lordship went from thense to Dingham, which is a long scattering waste towne, and in it foure or fiue castels, which the earle of Desmond had caused to be defaced in the beginning of this rebellion.

And heere the earle of Ormond met with the lord deputie with a new supplie Capteine Zouch made the gouernour of Desmond. of his owne men, being readie to haue followed the seruice if need had so required. In this towne the lord deputie made capteine Zouch gouernor of Kerrie and Desmond, and appointed vnto him thrée hundred men, and accompanied him with capteine Cash, who had one hundred men, and capteine Achin, who had fiftie horssemen, and commanded these to lie in garrison in that towne, or where they thought good. And these had to them giuen all the victuals which were found in the fort. And from hense his lordship went to Limerike, and came thither the Capteine Berkeleie came into Ireland, and laie at Asketten. seauen and twentith of Nouember, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand fiue hundred & eightie. At which time there arriued out of England six new bands of soldiers, vnder the leading of capteine Berkleie, capteine Cruse, capteine Herd, and capteine Tanner, all which his lordship bestowed in seuerall garrisons, and in such places as were most meet for seruice; capteine Berkelie onelie of the capteins remained in Mounster, and was placed in the house of Asketten, the cheefest castell of the earle of Desmond with two hundred men. The others went into Connagh, where the wicked sonnes of the earle of Clanricard were now vpon their keeping. For notwithstanding that the Spaniards were ouerthrowne, and thereby a sufficient warning was giuen to the rebels, to bethinke themselues, that if they did persist in their rebellions, the like would also insue vpon them: yet see how that the venemous Hydra had no sooner lost one of hir heds, but in stéed of one, sundrie and manie others are sproong vp. For at the verie instant, the bastardlie brood Connagh, Leinster and Mounster, are all vp in rebellion. of the earle Clanricard, the vicount of Baltingglasse, associated with the Obrins, Omores, and Keuenaughs in Leinster, & with sundrie others of that wicked nation, conspire, and are vp in open rebellion; and so now at this one instant, Mounster, Connagh, and a great péece of Leinster are in arms and actuall rebellion: onelie Vlster (which was woont to be the woorst) is now the best and most quietest.

The lord deputie being at this present in Limerike, & aduertised of these troubles, The earle of Ormond is the gouernour of Mounster. setteth all things in order for the seruice in Mounster, and committed the whole gouernement of that prouince vnto the earle of Ormond, and then he returned vnto Dubline, where he tooke order for Connagh & Leinster. And about this time there arriued out of England 150 horssemen set out at the charges of the The cleargies band doo arriue into Ireland. cleargie of England, vnder the leadings of William Russell sonne to the earle of Bedford, and of Brian Fitzwilliams, which were dispersed according to the seruice. The lord deputie being returned vnto Dubline, the earle of Kildare, and the baron The earle of Kildare, and the baron of Deluin had in suspicion, and are committed to ward. of Deluin his sonne in law, were had in suspicion to be partakers and secret dealers of these rebellions, and thervpon were committed to ward vnder the custodie of Iaques Wingfield maister of the ordinance. Immediatlie vpon whose apprehensions, the lord Henrie Fitzgirald, sonne and heire to the said earle, and of the age about seauentéene yeares, being persuaded by his fosterfathers and followers, he fled into Ophalia whereof he was baron, and there (as it was said) he was taken by the Oconhours, The earls son is kept by the Oconhours. and kept against his will for his safetie, vntill they did heare further what should be become of the earle.

This thing being aduertised to the lord deputie, he coniectured that this was but a surmised and colorable kind of dealing, to bleare his lordships eies: wherefore by order and good aduise he first willed the earle to send for his sonne, who did so. But his messenger returned with an answer, that the yoong lord was willing to come, but the Oconhours, who were in doubt what should be become of the earle, would in no wise suffer his sonne to depart, vnlesse they might haue good assurance for his safe returne againe vnto them. The lord deputie not liking these kind of fond excuses and disordered dealings, sent the earle of Ormond then being The earle of Ormond is sent for the yoong lord Fitzgirald. in Dubline, to deale with the Oconhours, who being accompanied with sir Edmund and Piers his brethren, Nicholas White maister of the rolles, capteine George Carew, capteine Macworth, and sundrie other capteins and gentlemen, made their repaire to the borders and marches of Ophalia; whense after much talke to no purpose, they all returned without the yoong lord. Neuertheles afterwards the Oconhours when they had better considered of the matter, and had had some conference with Hussen and others the earles men, and mistrusting that some further troubles would insue, euen as the earle of Ormond had partlie threatened them; and doubting also least the staieng of the sonne might be preiudiciall to the father; then in all hast did send the yoong lord to the erle of Ormond, who caried him to Dubline, The yoong lord is sent to the earle of Ormond The earle of Kildare and his sonne and sonne in law are sent into England. and delinered him to the lord deputie: and his lordship foorthwith sent him to the ward, where he remained with his father, vntill they both and the baron of Deluin were sent into England, where the earle and the baron were sent to the Tower, and the yoong lord committed to the custodie of the earle of Bedford. The earle died after in London, and his bodie was caried into Ireland, and there The earle died in London. buried amongest his ancestors.

Capteine Walter Raleigh, lieng in garrison at Corke, and nothing liking the outrages, Capteine Raleigh complaineth against the sufferance of the rebels. bodrages, and villanies dailie practised by Barrie, Condon, and others vpon the good subiects and hir maiesties garrisons, whereof sundrie complaints had béene made, and small redresse had, he rode himselfe to Dubline vnto the lord deputie, and made his complaints thereof, alledging that the outrages of the Barries and his consorts were such, that vnlesse they were proclamed traitors, and with all diligence followed and pursued, the euent therof would be verie euill, to the aggréeuance of good subiects, & to the incouragement of the wicked: whose insolencie and pride was growne to such a heigth, that the swoord with extremitie was the onelie meane now to redresse the same.

The lord deputie and councell, when they had heard and well considered this, Capteine Raleigh hath a commission, & the inlargement of a band of horssemen to pursue the enimie. they sent him backe againe with a commission vnto himselfe, to seize and enter vpon the castell and house of Barrie court, and all other the lands of the said Barrie: and likewise to pursue and follow him in the best maner as he thought good: and for his better seruice to be doone herein, he had certeine horssemen in wages also giuen vnto him, and added vnto his ensigne of footmen whervpon he returned. But before he was come backe to Corke, the case was altered; for the matter was so ordered and handled by such as there and then were in authoritie, and so manie delaies were vsed to hinder the good seruice purposed, that his commission auailed him verie little or nothing, for the castell of Barrie Moore was committed and deliuered to the custodie of the mother of the said Dauid Barrie, and by hir set ouer vnto him hir sonne: and who foorthwith burned and defaced the said castell Dauid lord Barrie burneth and spoileth his owne house. being his principall house, as also wasted the whole countrie, and became more woorse and outragious than he was before. This capteine making his returne from Dubline, & the same well knowne vnto the seneschall of Imokellie, through whose countrie he was to passe, laie in ambush for him to haue intrapped him betwéene Capteine Raleigh is laid for by the seneschall. Youghall and Corke, lieng at a foord, which the said capteine must passe ouer with six horssemen, and certeine kerne. The capteine little mistrusting anie such matter, had in his companie onelie two horssemen and foure shot on horssebacke, which was too small a force in so doubtfull and dangerous times: neuerthelesse he had a verie good guide, which was the seruant of Iohn Fitzedmunds of Cloue, a good subiect, and this guide knew euerie corner and starting hole in those places.

The capteine being come towards the foord, the seneschall had espied him alone, his companie being scattered behind, and verie fiercelie pursued him, and crossed The seneschal followeth capteine Raleigh. him as he was to ride ouer the water, but yet he recouered the foord and was passed ouer. The Irishman who was his guide, when he saw the capteine thus alone, and so narrowlie distressed, he shifted for himselfe and fled vnto a broken castell fast by, there to saue himselfe. The capteine being thus ouer the water, Henrie Moile, The distressed state of Henrie Moile. riding alone about a bowes shoot before the rest of his companie, when he was in the midle of the foord, his horsse foundred and cast him downe; and being afraid that the seneschals men would haue folowed him and haue killed him, cried out to the capteine to come and to saue his life; who not respecting the danger he himselfe was in, came vnto him, and recouered both him and his horsse. And then Moile coueting with all hast to leape vp, did it with such hast and vehemencie, that he quite ouer leapt the horsse, and fell into a mire fast by, and so his horsse ran awaie, and was taken by the enimie. The capteine neuerthelesse staid still, and did abide for the comming of the residue of his companie, of the foure shot which as yet were not come foorth, and for his man Jenkin, who had about two hundred pounds in moneie about him, and sat vpon his horsse in the meane while, hauing his staffe in one hand, and his pistoll charged in the other hand. The seneschall, who had so fiercelie followed him vpon spur, when he saw him to stand The cowardnesse of the seneschall. and tarrie as it were for his comming, notwithstanding he was counted a man (as he was indeed) of great seruice, and hauing also a new supplie of twelue horssemen and sundrie shot come vnto him; yet neither he nor anie one of them, being twentie to one, durst to giue the onset vpon him, but onelie railed and vsed hard speeches vnto him, vntill his men behind had recouered and were come vnto him, and then without anie further harme departed.

It happened that not long after, there was a parlee appointed betwéene the lord gouernor and the rebels; at which the seneschall was present, and stood much vpon his reputation. Capteine Raleigh being present began to charge him of his cowardnesse before the earle of Ormond, that he being twentie of his side, to him alone, durst not to incounter with him. Wherevnto he gaue no answer. But one of his men standing by said; that his maister was that daie a coward; but he would neuer be so forgetfull againe, if the like seruice were to be doone, and in manie great terms exalted his maister the seneschall for his valiantnesse and seruice. The earle of Ormond hearing those great spéesches, tooke the matter in hand, and offred vnto the seneschall, that if he and sir Iohn of Desmond there present, and thrée or foure others, the best they could choose, would appoint to The chalenge made by the earle of Ormond to the seneschall. meet him; capteine Raleigh, and such foure others as they would bring with them, they would come to the same place, and passe ouer the great riuer vnto them, and would there two for two, foure for foure, or six for six, fight and trie the matter betwéene them; but no answer was then giuen: whervpon the white knight was afterwards sent vnto him with this chalenge, but the rebels refused it. Not long after this, there were spéeches made, that the earle of Ormond was to depart from this long and wearie seruice into England, & capteine Zouch should in his place be the generall. Betéene the remoouing of the one, and the placing of the other, sir William Morgan, capteine Raleigh, and capteine Piers had a commission to be Capteine Raleigh a commissioner in Mounster. gouernors of that part of Mounster, where they spent all that summer, and laie for the most part at Lismore, and in the countrie and woods thereabouts, in continuall seruices vpon the enimies from time to time, as occasion and oportunitie serued.

And when the summer was spent, capteine Raleigh returned with all his band vnto Corke, being in number eight horssemen and foure score footmen. And as he passed through the countrie, it was aduertised to him, that Dauid Barrie an archtraitor was at Cloue with a great troope of sundrie hundreds of men. Wherevpon Capteine Raleigh followeth vpon Barrie. he thought good to passe that waie through the towne of Cloue, minding to trie the valor of Dauid Barrie, if by anie meanes he might méet with him. And euen at the verie towns end he found Barrie and all his companie, and with a lustie courage gaue the onset vpon him. But Barrie refused it, and fled. And then this capteine passing from thense, in his iorneie he espied in a plaine néere adioining to a woods side, a companie of footmen by themselues, vpon whome with six horssemen Capteine Raleigh in danger to be killed. he gaue the charge: but these being cut off from the wood wherevnto they were flieng, and hauing not succor now to helpe & relieue themselues, they turned backe, & conioning themselues togither to withstand this force and onset made vpon them, in which they behaued themselues verie valiantlie, and of the horsses they killed fiue, of which capteine Raleigh his horsse was one, and he himselfe in great danger, and like to haue béene slaine, if his trustie seruant Nicholas Wright a Yorkshire man borne had not bin. For he perceiuing that his maisters horsse was The good seruice of Nicholas Wright. galled and stricken with a dart, and plunged so much, that to his séeming he was past seruice; the said Nicholas willed and called to an Irishman there, whose name was Patrike Fagaw, that he should looke to his capteine, and either to rescue him, or to giue charge vpon the enimie. Wherevpon the said Fagaw rescued his cap teine, & the said Nicholas Wright forthwith gaue the onset vpon six of the enimies and slue one of them. And therewith came one Iames Fitzrichard an Irish gentleman with his kerne to the rescue of the capteine, but his kerne was slaine, and himselfe in danger. For Wright not looking on them followed the enimie verie egerlie, and recompensed the losse of one with the slaughter of others. Which capteine Raleigh perceiuing cried out to his man, saieng; "Wright, if thou be a man, charge aboue hand & saue the gentleman." Who at his maisters commandment pressed into the middle of the enimies, and slue one of them, and so saued the gentleman: and in which skirmish his horsse leg was cut vnder him. Diuerse footmen were slaine of the enimies, and two were taken prisoners, whome they carried with them to Corke.

At his lieng in Corke there were sundrie péeces of scruices doone by him, all which doo verie well deserue to be for euer registred. And amongst all others this one point of his scruice deserueth both commendation and perpetuall remembrance. The lord Roch is had in suspicion, and is sent for. The lord Roch was growen into a suspicion that he was not sound of his loialtie. Wherevpon capteine Raleigh by commandement was to fetch him and his ladie to Corke vnto the generall. This thing was not so priuilie determined, but that the seneschall and Dauid Barrie had knowledge thereof, and minding verelie to take the capteine at some aduantage, they had assembled a great companie of themselues to the number of seuen or eight hundred men to haue met with him either comming or going. The capteine perceiuing and forethinking how dangerous his enterprise was against so noble a man in that countrie as the lord Roch was, who was verie well beloued, commanded vpon a sudden all his men one and other, both horssemen and footmen, which in the whole were not aboue foure score and ten persons, to be in a readinesse vpon the paine of death betwéene ten and eleuen of the clocke of the same night. At which time euerie man being in a readinesse, he tooke Capteine Raleigh commeth to the lord Reches house. his iorneie and marched toward the lord Roches house called Ballie in Harsh, which is about twentie miles out of Corke, and came thither somewhat earlie in the morning. At his comming he went foorthwith to the castell gate.

The townsmen when they saw their lords house and castell thus suddenlie beset, they doubting the worst, did arme about fiue hundred of themselues. Wherevpon capteine Raleigh placed and bestowed his men in battell raie in the towne it selfe, & marched againe to the castell gate, with certeine of his officers and gentlemen of his band, as by name Michaell Butler, Iames Fulford, Nicholas Write, Arthur Barlow, Henrie Swane, & Pinking Huish; and they knocked againe at the gate. And after a while there came three or foure of the said lord Roches gentlemen, & demanded the cause of their comming, vnto whome the capteine answered, that he was come to speake with my lord: which was offered he should, so that he would bring in with him but two or thrée of his gentlemen, which the capteine was contented with, yet in the end (but with much adoo) he came in with all these few persons before named. When the capteine was once come within the castell, and Capteine Raleigh being receiued into the castell getteth in all his men. had entred into some spéeches with the lord Roch, he so handled the matter by deuises and meanes, that by little and little, and by some and some, he had gotten in within the iron doore or gate of the courtlodge all his men. And then hauing the aduantage, he commanded his men to stand and gard the said gate, that no man should passe in or out: and likewise charged euerie man to come into the hall with his péece well prepared, with two bullets. The lord Roch when he saw this, he was suddenlie amazed & stricken at the hart with feare: but dissembling the same, he set a good face vpon the matter, and calling for meat, requested the capteine and his foresaid gentlemen to sit downe, & to kéepe him companie at dinner. After dinner, the capteine falling into speeches with the said lord Roch, declared plainlie vnto him the cause of his comming, and shewed that he and his wife were accused to be traitors, and that he had a commission (which he shewed vnto them) to take and carie them along with him to Corke: which he was to pernorme, and so would. The lord Roch alledged manie excuses for himselfe and for his wife, saieng in the end that he neither could nor would go: the capteine answered, that if they would not go with a good will, they should perforce go against their will. The lord Roch séeing that there was no remedie, he yéelded: and then The lord Roch yéeldeth to go with capteine Raleigh. the capteine minding to lose no time, willed him to command and cause all those of the towne, and all such as were about the house, to attend and be in redinesse to aid him, and to set him foorth in his iorneie: which he did, and verie willinglie shewed himselfe to abide and obeie the capteines commandement, saieng that he would answer the matter well inough, and discharge whatsoeuer should be laid to his charge, for he knew himselfe to be cleare. And so he made himselfe and his wife redie to take the iorreie in hand, as the capteine did appoint and command: and towards night they did set forward to Corke. But the night fell out to be verie tempestuous and foule, and therewith so darke, that no man could sée hand or foot, nor yet discerne one another; and the waies also were so fowle, so full of balks, hillocks, pits, and rocks, that the souldiors thereby were maruellouslie troubled and incombred, some stumbled among the stones, some plunged into holes, and some by their often fals were not onelie hurt, but also lost their armour, and were maruellouslie spoiled: and besides that, they were among and in the middle of the enimies, who laie in sundrie ambushes, thinking verelie to haue intercepted them, and to haue set vpon them: but the darke night which was cumbersome to themselues, was a shadow to shrowd them from their enimies. And in the end, though with much trouble, they came to Corke in safetie, sauing one soldier named Iohn Phelium, who by his often falling and stumbling among the stones and rocks, did so hurt one of his feet, that he could neuer recouer the same, but did in the end consume and rot awaie.

The capteine being come to the towne somewhat earlie in the morning, he was receiued in, and presented his prisoners to the generall, with no little admiration that he had escaped so dangerous a iorneie, being verelie supposed of all men that he could neuer haue escaped. The lord Roch being brought to be examined, did The L. Roch acquiteth himselfe. so well answer for himselfe, that in the end he was acquited, and taken for a true and a good subiect, and which in time was well tried and knowne. For not he The L. Roch and his sonnes good seruices. himselfe onlie, but all his sons and followers, did attend and performe all such seruices as were laid vpon them; and in which, thrée of his sonnes were killed by the enimie in hir maiesties seruice.

Capteine Zouch (as is afore said) laie at the Dingham, among whose companie there fell a dangerous and an extreme sicknesse: few or none escaped it, howbeit manie died therein. And in which distresse it was aduertised him, that the earle of Desmond and Dauid Barrie was assembled at Aghado with thrée thousand men; and he being verie desirous to doo some seruice vpon them, drew all his full force of horsemen and footmen vnto Castelmange. And then by the aduise of his capteins Achim and Cash, he suddenlie made an onset vpon his enimies, before they wist of anie such thing, and slue a great companie of them, and draue the erle to such a Capteine Zouch putteth the earle of Desmond in danger to be taken. push, that he in his shirt was driuen to shift for himselfe, in the middle of his gallowglasses, and by that means he escaped. The earle nothing liking this coorse successe, sought a better place of safetie, and remooued himselfe to Harlow wood, and passed by the waie to Kilmallocke. Which when the garrison there did vnder stand, they pursued and followed him, namelie capteine Bourchier, capteine Dowdall, capteine Makworth, and capteine Norris, thrée miles togither vpon the plains betweene Kilmallocke and the wood, and slue manie of the rebels. And capteine Dowdall who was acquainted verie well with that wood, and in it had serued sundrie times, he would néeds, and did enter into the wood, where he met with the earle of Capteine Dowdall preieth the erle of Desmond Desmond now the second time, and gaue the onset vpon him, killed a great number of his men, tooke from them their cariages, and droue awaie a great preie of kine, The seneschall preieth the garison of Lismore. and brought them to Kilmallocke to the garison. Neere about this time the seneschall came to Lismore, and preied that countrie, and drone awaie their cattell. Which when the garison heard, and were aduertised thereof, they issued, and followed the preie to recouer it; but they were so incountered and skirmished withall, that they lost the preie, and fiue and twentie of their men were slaine. Diuerse skirmishes were dailie doone vpon the enimie, and manie iorneies made vpon them to their great damages and hurts.

In the moneth of August next following, in the yeare of our Lord one thousand fiue hundred eightie and one, the lord deputie made a iorneie into Mounster, where when he had taken an account of all their dooings and seruices, he established capteine The lord deputie establisheth capteine Zouch gouernour of all Mounster. Zouch to be gouernour of all Mounster, and generall at armes; and then his lordship returned through Conagh vnto Dublin. This now new gouernor, being accompanied with capteine Raleigh and capteine Dowdall, trauelled from place to place to see all things in good order: but the certeine place of their resting was at Corke, where for the most part they laie in garison: making in the meane time sundrie iorneies, as occasion of seruice did require. And they being in Corke, newes was brought vnto the gouernour that there was a great quarell fallen out The L. Barrie and the seneschall fall out. betwéene Dauid Barrie and the seneschall, and that they were mortall enimies, and at a deadlie food; and they laie both in Dunfrinnen side, not far from the blacke water. The earle of Desmond and Iohn his brother laie in Patrike Condons countrie, being on the further side of the said water, who were verie sorie for this quarell, and would haue come vnto them, but the waters were so great, they could not; yet they sent their messengers to and fro among them for some pacification, but it was to no effect. Capteine Dowdall vpon these newes sent out an Irish man which he Capteine Dowdall maketh a spiall vpon the seneschall. had, and who was a notable spiall, named Richard mac Iames, and willed him to séeke out where the seneschall was, to the end that he might make a draught vpon him. This Richard drawing himselfe to the companies of the rebels, and lieng among them in their cabins where they laie in the woods, he fell in companie, and then entred into a great familiaritie of one which was a messenger from the Desmonds vnto the seneschall, and he thinking nothing but that this Richard was one of the said companie, began to discourse vnto him the businesse which he had there to doo: and told him that the next daie following, sir Iohn of Desmond did appoint to come thither, and to make a peace and an agréement betwéene Barrie and the seneschall. Sir Iohn of Desmond appointed to make a league betwéen Barrie and the seneschall. When as Richard mac Iames had heard at full all his spéeches, then he intreated him that he would go to Corke with him, which in the end the fellow was contented so to doo. And in the next morning they went togither to Corke, and at their comming thither, did declare vnto capteine Dowdall the whole matter, and he foorthwith aduertised the same to the gouernour: who albeit he did not altogither beléeue what was told, yet he agréed that it was best that some seruice should be doone The gouernor Zouch and captein Dowdall make a secret iourneie. vpon them, and concluded that himselfe and capteine Dowdall should doo the same, vnder the colour that they were to make a iourneie vnto Limerike, and so they caused it to be said: for in no wise would they be knowne of that which they had determined. And hauing prepared all things necessarie for this seruice, the same night they left the charge of the garison vnto capteine Raleigh lieutenant: and themselues taking their leaue, as though they were bound for Limerike, they marched out at the gates, and by breake of the daie they came to castell Lions, the weather being verie mistie and thicke, and in the castell they found but one poore man, who told them that Dauid of Barrie was gone but a little before them vnto Humacquilliam. The gouernour and the capteine being verie eger, and desirous to doo some seruice, they followed the tract of the horsse a good prettie waie; but the capteine mistrusting that no good seruice would be doone, that waie, persuaded the gouernour that he should rather enter and search the woods, which were fast by, where as he thought some good seruice would be doone whose aduise the gouernour followed: and they had ridden but a little waie, but they saw two horssemen come riding toward them, but as soone as they had séene the said gouernour and capteine, they returned backe againe.

Then the capteine told him that there was a bog in the wood, and his aduise and counsell was, that some of his shot should be sent to stand betwéene the bog and the wood; which being doone, they followed those two men so short, that they were driuen to forsake their horsses, and to run on foot towards the bog. But the lose shot being in a readinesse, did put them backe againe vpon the horssemen, who gaue the onset vpon them; and the one of them, which was sir Iohn of Desmond they sore Sir Iohn of Desmond killed, and his bodie hanged vpon a gibbet by the héels. hurted with a horssemans staffe, that he spake verie few words after. And the other, whose name was Iames Fitziohn of Strongecullie, they tooke: and both they caried with them to Corke. Sir Iohns head was sent to Dublin, but his bodie was hanged vp by the héeles vpon a gibbet, and set vpon the north gate of Corke. And Iames Fitziohn was drawne, hanged, & quartered. And thus haue you the third head of the venemous Hydra cut off, who had his iust reward and merit, if not too too good for so villanous & bloudie a traitor: who respecting neither the honor of God, the obedience to his prince, the credit of his owne house, the faith to his friend, nor the state of the commonwealth, was wholie imbrued in bloud and villanie; and in bloud he died, and had his reward by Gods iust iudgement.

Not long after this, it was agreed that a draught should be made vpon Dauid Barrie, for the preie which he and Goren mae Swene had made in Carbreie, and passed with the same by Bentrie, where laie a garrison vnder the leading of capteine Appesleie: but he being deceassed, the same was committed to captein Fenton, whose lieutenant named Richard Cant, minding to crosse the preie, fell into the fight with Barrie and his companie: but he was slaine and all his companie, there being but one man the drumsiager left aliue, who by swiftnesse of his foote escaped. The foresaid Appesleie was a verie proper man, a gentleman borne, and of a good house, and brought vp in learning; he could write verie well, and also deliuer his speeches verie orderlie and eloquentlie. When he grew to some ripe yeares, he fell acquainted with some lose companions, who persuaded him to accompanie them to the seas, promising him the sun and the moone, and all the wealth in the world. And he being soone intised and persuaded, was contented, and went to the seas, and became as bad as the baddest; whereof great troubles insued, and he at length was driuen to leaue the seas, and to wander a long time on the seacoasts in the prouince of Mounster: where by occasion he feil to come to acquaintance of the earle of Desmond, with whome he found such fauor, that no Englishman could doo more with him than he could. Afterwards, when the narrow searching for him was quailed and forgotten, he fell to be acquainted with the good Henrie Dauels, whome he found rather a father than a friend vnto him: and then his behauiour was such, that he grew to be in good fauour with all Englishmen, and in the end put in trust to doo sundrie seruices in Mounster, and was become and made a capteine, in which office he discharged himselfe verie honestlie and faithfullie. The gouernor continuing still in one and the same mind, to doo some The gouernor and capteine Dowdall spoile and enter into Barries campe and kill his men. seruice vpon Barrie, who then laie in Dunfrennin, he togither with capteine Dowdail marched to Barries campe, and earlie in the morning (they being vnlooked for) entred into the campe and there made a great slaughter vpon Barries men, but Barrie himselfe was gone and fled. After this time, the said Barrie considered his distressed case, and how continuallie he was pursued and followed by the gouernour and the English garisons, whose force he saw that he could by no means auoid, but that at one time or other they would take him at some aduantage. He maketh humble petition to the gouernour that he might be vnder his protection, and to line thensefoorth Barrie sueth for a protection. in some dutifull and restfull order; which he in the end did obteine.

The lord deputie, thinking that by the death of Iohn of Desmond, and the silence of the earle his brother, who what was become of him no man could tell, but supposed that he was fled beyond the seas, or that he was dead, and that all things were well and in quiet in all Mounster; he thought good to ease hir maiesties charge, and so The L. deputie casheth sundrie bands in Mounster. cashed sundrie bands and discharged sundrie garisons, leauing for the seruice of Mounster in the whole but 400 footmen & 50 horsemen, of which, 200 were vnder the leading of the gouernor, one hundred vnder capteine Dowdall, and one hundred vnder Sir George Bourcher; and the first horssemen were vnder capteine Achin, who laie in garrison at Adare in Kerrie. When all things (I saie) séemed to be at rest and in peace, and all things well behold a new stirre (and vnlooked for) is now raised: for Fitzmoris baron of Lexua who had hitherto dissembled the matter, and Fitzmoris baron of Lexna breaketh into open rebellion. The cause of this his breaking out, some do impute it to the hard dealing of the gouernor, who so narowlie watched him, that he alwais took from him what he had, and so intercepted him from his prouision, that he had nothing left to eat. Fitzmoris seruant to Carew lord of Lexna killeth his maister. pretended to haue béene a dutifull subiect, when he saw the weaknesse of the Eng lishmen & how that the garrisons were discharged, & therefore the few men left were scarse able well to saue and kéepe themselues, much lesse to hurt others: he breaketh out into open rebellion, and ioineth with him his wicked, traitorous, and perinred sonne. This baron of Lexna his first ancestors were seruants to the barons of Carew, and of Odron, and lords of Lexna, and had the chiefe rule and gouernment vnder him of all his countrie in Mounster, which was verie great and large: his eldest sonne he kept in the court of England. And this Fitzmoris, who by the authoritie vnder his master was growen into great credit in the countrie, and standing in hope to haue their fiiendship and assistance in all his businesse, watched his time, and killed the lord Carew his maister, at a table which yet remaineth in the house, and entred into all his baronie of Lexna & his other possessions in Mounster, euen as the like was doone by the Kauenaghs in Odron in Leinster. And the heire of Carew in England, who had great and large possessions in Deuon and in sundrie shires elsewhere in England, made the lesse and little account of his lands in Ireland, and so by little and little they lost all their lands in Ireland.

This new baron of Lexna, the first thing that he tooke in hand, was to cleanse and The baron of Lexna destroieth all the English in his countrie, and taketh the queenes forts. to rid his owne countrie from all Englishmen and their garrisons; and in the end, taking capteine Achin at an aduantage, slue him, and recouered the ward of Adare. After that, he went to the ward kept in the castell of Lesconile, in which were but eight Englishmen, and the castell being verie hard to be gained, he vsed this stratagem. He laid verie close & tectlie a companie of his men in an old house fast by the castell, & then he practised with an old woman, which was woont euerie morning to bring a great basket of coles or turffe into the ward, that as soone as she was betwéene the two gates of the castell, she should let fall hir basket and crie out: which A stratagem vsed in taking the castell of Lesconile. she did. For when she was come to the castell, and had after hir accustomable manet called to the ward, one of them came and loosed the vtter iron doore, and then he did open the inner doore for hir to come in. When she was come betwéene the two doores, she let fall hir great basket of coles and cried out. The companie foorthwith lieng in the said old house came, and the ward being not able to draw vnto them the vtter iron doore, nor to shut fast the inner doore, the enimie entred, tooke the castell, killed all the ward, and cast them ouer the wals. The good successe of this stratagem caused him to practise & to put in vse other like deuises for the regaining of the castell (as I remember) of Adnagh. For he supposing that hungrie A stratagem at Adnagh. soldiors would be contented to accept anie courtesie, he procured a yoong harlot, who was somewhat snowtfaire, to go to the castell, pretending some iniurie to haue béene doone to hir, and to humble hirselfe to the capteins deuotion, being supposed, that he by these meanes would fall into the liking and fantasieng of hir, and so would reteine hir. And by these meanes, she by hir cunning handling of the matter, according vnto the plot before contriued betwéene Fitzmoris and hir, she should at one time or other find the occasion or opportunitie to betraie the castell. The capteine receiued hir into the castell, and not forgetting the late former practise at Lesconile, caused him to be the more warie and circumspect, and to looke vnto himselfe. Wherevpon he so handled the matter with this harlot, that he in the end found out all the deuise, and foorthwith he carried hir vp vnto the top of the castell and cast hir ouer the wals, where with the fall she was crushed and died. Fitzmoris being disappointed of his purpose, departed from thense, and ranged ouer all the countries of Tipporarie, Ormond, and Waterford, where were no garrisons to resist him, and there plaied his parts.

The gouernor, who laie at Corke, being aduertised of these outrages, called his companie togither, which (as is before said, was not aboue foure hundred persons) and other reported (but vntrulie) to be about foure thousand: yet minding not to suffer an iniurie, marched with such companie as he had into Clanmoris, which is the The gouernor marcheth from Corke to Clanmoris to incounter with Fitzmoris. said Fitzmoris countrie, and distant from Corke about thrée daies iourneie. The baron by his espials being aduertised of their comming, forsooke his castell at Adare, and defaced his castell at Lexna, and drew his goods, and all his forces into the wood of Lesconile. When the gouernor was come to Adare, he found the towne burnt, and the few Englishmen (which were in the abbeie) greatlie distressed. From thense he went to Lesconile, which is ten miles further, where he discouered the baron and all his companie, which then laie in a plaine bottome in the said wood, hauing then in his companie of gallowglasses, kerne, shot, and horssemen, about seuen hundred men.

The gouernor taking aduise what was best to be doone, because that place was full of fastnesse, and no passage for anie horssemen, but all rested vpon the seruice of the footmen; they diuided their companie. And capteine Dowdall being verie Capteine Dowdall entereth vpon Fitzmoris, and giueth him the foile. The baron of Lexna fléeth into the hils of Sloughlougher. desirous to aduenture the seruice vpon him, he had six score footmen appointed and deliuered vnto him, and the residue he reserued to himselfe. The capteine entred into the wood, and followed vntill he came into the plains where Fitzmoris was; who hauing a great companie, and the capteine but (as it were) a handfull to his, he diuided his whole companie into foure parts, thinking to haue inclosed the capteine and to haue his will vpon them. The capteine perceiued it, and forthwith brake vpon one of the companies, and had such a hand vpon them, that he slue a number of them. Which when Fitzmoris saw, like a valiant man turned his backe and fled awaie into the mounteins of Sloughlougher, and left all his goods behind; which the capteine tooke, and also all the cattell there, and brought the same to the gouernor. From thense they marched to the castell of Clan, of which Oliuer Stephanson had the ward and kéeping: and there newes was brought vnto him, that the lord deputie had sent vnto him two bands of footmen, of which one hundred were A supplie of two hundred men sent to the gouernor. sir Henrie Wallops, and the other capteine Norris. Wherevpon he trauelled vnto Limerike, and left the whole charge of Clanmoris, and of Kerrie vnto capteine Dowdall. And the said capteine being put to wéet that the baron was incamped at Glanflish with two hundred and fortie gallowglasses, two hundred kerne, fourescore Capteine Dowdall setteth vpon Fitzmoris in Glanflish and giueth him the ouerthrow. shot, and thirtie horssemen, and he himselffe hauing then but the lieutenant Wingfield in his companie, made a sallie vpon them, and killed with the sword, and drane into the riuer aboue seuen score of them, and recouered a preie of eight hundred kine, fiue hundred horsses and mares, besides a great number of shéepe and gotes: and in the taking of the baron, he found store of monie and plate, and massing garments. And from hense he marched with his cattell, and incamped besides Alough, néere vnto the earle of Clanear his house, and from thense to Castelimange, and so to Adare, and furnished as he went cuerie ward and garison with store of vittels, The baron Fitzmoris with a few is ouerthrowne to his vtter fall, and forsaken of all his fréends. and with the goods he rewarded his souldiors. From this time, the baron Fitzmoris hauing lost all his prouision & store, was neuer able to recouer himselfe, neither to credit nor to wealth, nor yet to hold vp his head, but was forsaken of all, his fréends and followers: and being ashamed of himselfe, and of his bad and disloiall trecheries, walked and wandred abroad as a forlorne man, not knowing what to doo, whither to go, or where to séeke for succor and helpe.

At length being wearie of himselfe, and of his distressed miseries, bethinketh The baron being distressed of all helps, séeketh to the earle of Ormond for a protection. vpon the earle of Ormond, whome notwithstanding that without cause he had verie much iniured, hauing most outragiouslie preied his countries, burned his villages, and killed his people: yet he maketh his recourse vnto his lordship, acknowledgeth his fault, confesseth his follies; and being most sorie for the same, desireth his lordship to pardon and remit him, and most humblie requested him to haue vnder him a protection. This honorable man, notwithstanding the great iniuries doone vnto The courtesie of the earle of Ormond. him, and he of a great courage and stomach, and of a noble mind, and 10th to put vp so great iniuries, yet (as it is attributed to the lion, Parcere prostratis) when he had shewed the great gréefes of the said Fitzmoris, he forgat all his owne wrongs, and granted him his request. Capteine Dowdall, leauing the gouernors souldiors and companie at Adare, vnder the leading of capteine Smith, he marcheth towards Corke, where he rested and laie in garrison. Now when all these broils were ended, and verelie supposed that all things had béene at rest, and the whole prouince of Mounster at peace; behold the earle of Desmond, who was thought to be either dead or fled, beginneth The earle of Desmond thought to be dead dooth now shew himselfe. The fight at Adare. to appeare, and to shew himselfe; and hauing assembled a great companie, came to Adare, where the garrison issued out vpon him: betwéene whom the fight was hot, and manie slaine on both sides. Among whom, Smith serjeant of the band, and Morgan the lieutenant were both slaine: but yet the English souldiors recouered the abbeie. About this time one Thomas Birne lieutenant to the notable archtraitor Fitzgirald, being wearie of the wicked actions which hitherto he had followed A draught made to kill Fitzgirald. among the rebels, sent his messenger to capteine George Carew, requesting him to deale with the lord deputie for his pardon, and for so manie of his companie as would ioine with and accompanie him in a péece of seruice to be doone: which he promised to recompense with the price of his capteins head, which he would in a bag present to his lordship, as also would kill so manie of his companie as would not consent with him therevnto.

When this deuise was readie to be practised, the clearke of the band, who was Fitzgirald executed to death so manie as conspired against him. one of the confederats, verie trecherouslie did discouer the same vnto Fitzgirald, who immediatlie tooke and hanged his lieutenant, the sergeant of his band (who was an Englishman) and so manie of the souldiors as were of that confederacie. Not long after, Fitzgirald bethinking vpon the extreame miseries, which in this rebellion he had indured, and the small hope which he had to preuaile in these his Fitzgirald practiseth the death of Pheon mac Hugh. bad and traitorous actions, but chieffie being afraid of his owne life, least at one time or other he should be slaine by his souldiors: he sent a messenger to the then lord iustices, requiring his pardon, and which he would redéeme with the head of his best fréend ane fellow in armes Pheon mac Hugh, the verie gall of all the wars and rebellion in Leinster.

This was not so couertlie doone, but that Pheon mac Hugh had knowledge of Fitzgirald is hanged for his conspiracie. the practise, and he foorthwith intreated Fitzgirald in the like manner as he before had doone with the lieutenant, and so hanged him vp. The lord deputie after long sute for his reuocation, receiued hir maiesties letters for the same, and then The lord Greie yéeldeth vp the sword & returneth into England. 1582 The lord chancellor and sir Henrie Wallop are lord justices. he sent for capteine Zouch gouernor of Mounster to come to Dubline: and in the end of August 1582, after that he had serued full two yeres he deliuered vp the sword vnto the archbishop of Dubline then lord chancellor, and to sir Henrie Wallop then treasuror at armes, and tooke shipping; hauing with him capteine Zouch, who was after slaine by one of his most familiar acquaintance, and sundrie other gentlemen. The said lord Greie was a man of great nobilitie, and of as honourable and ancient descent, one that feareth God in true religion, and dutifull to hir maiestie in all obedience. And albeit he had deserued well of that Irish nation, and had sowed the good seeds of notable seruices, as well for his martiall seruices, as for his ciuill gouernment; yet he reped (as his predecessors before him) but darnell and cockle. For they had among them not onelie conspired his death, for which some paid déerelie; but made also sundrie complaints against him, to which he answered to his commendation and acquitall, and to their reproch for their ingratitude.

These two lords iustices being fallen into a broken time, the warres being not ended, the people not quieted, and the gouernement not staied nor setled; yet they both ioining their wisedoms, seruices, and good wils, were so blessed therein, that by them that land was reduced to some perfection and quietnesse. For not long after they had taken the sword in hand doctor Sanders the popes nuncio and legat, who came from that holie sée of Rome, the sea of all wickednesse, with Iames Fitzmoris in Iulie in the yeare of our Lord one thousand fiue hundred seuentie and nine, to beare arms in this land against hir maiestie, after that he had wandered vp and downe thrée yeares togither with the earle and his brethren sir Iohn, in woods and bogs, and had liued with them a most miserable and wretched life and had béene partaker of their most cruell bloudsheds, outrages, murthers, and robberies, a life The death of doctor Sanders. good and too good for a traitor and a rebell. He fell sicke of an Irish ague and of the bloudie flix, and laie in the wood of Clennelisse, which is a wood full of allers, withies, briers, & thornes, and through which is no passage; where partlie of his sicknesse, but chéefelie for famine and want he died. Euen in this filthie place, that most miserable wretch and traitor was lodged and died, bequeathing his treasons, treacheries, and disloialties against his souereigne mistresse and ladie hir maiestie vnto the pope, reseruing the punishment to the Lord himselfe, who is a swift and iust iudge vpon all traitors and disobedient persons, and his bodie (as some saie) was deuoured vp of woolues, but (as some doo thinke) that so much as was left was buried at Clancarne, not farre off from the place where he died.

The two lords iustices being entred into this broken gouernement, did what they could to kéepe the same in peace; and vnderstanding the wilfull disposition of Desmond, they did vse all the means and waies they could to pacifie him; but so farre was he imbrued and poisoned with the venom of treason and rebellion, that no reason, no dutie, nor anie other respect could persuade him to be a loiall and dutifull subiect. Wherefore he continued still in his old accustomed spoiling and The earle of Desmond kéepeth his Christmas in the woods. wasting the countries, and trusting to no house nor castell, did shrowd himselfe in woods and bogs, and in the winter following he kept his Christmasse in the wood of Kilquieg néere to Kilmallocke. And about the fourth of Ianuarie then following, one Iohn Welsh a valiant and a good souldior, was resolued to make a draught vpon the said earle, and he made acquainted therewith capteine Dowdall, capteine Bangor, A draught made vpon the earle by Iohn Welsh. and George Thorington prouost marshall of Mounster, all which laie then in garrison in Kilmallocke, and according to the order betweene them then agréed vpon, they marched in the night time to the place and wood where the earle laie.

But being come thither, they were to passe ouer a great riuer, before they could come to enter into the wood of Kilquieg, & by reason of the great raines then falling, it was impossible for man or horsse to passe ouer the same, which thing Iohn Welsh did before mistrust. Wherefore the night before, he went thither verie closelie, with such few persons as he had chosen for the purpose: and there he caused a number of A deuise how to passe ouer a great riuer. flakes and hurdels to be made of halson, allers, and withie rods, which he caused to be drawne ouer the riuer by one, whom he had there of purpose which could swim verie well. And this fellow when he had fastened some of the hurdels to a tree in the further side of the water, and then by a rope drew ouer the residue one after another, did so fasten and tie one vnto another, and so cunninglie handled the matter, that when the capteins came, they passed ouer the riuer verie well without danger or perill. And so from thense the said Welsh did guide and bring them by the breake of the daie vnto the earles cabin: but the wood was so full of thickets, and so mirie, that The earle escapeth verie hardlie. they were faine to go a speares length wide from the cabin to come vnto it. The earle hearing a great noise, and suspecting some extraordinarie and a greater companie to be in place more than his owne, and doubting the woorst, can out of his bed in his shirt, and ran into the riuer fast by his cabin, and there hid himselfe close vnder a banke hard vp to his chin, by which meanes he escaped and his wife with him. The souldiors made diligent search for him both by searching of the riuer and of the wood, but could not find him; wherevpon they did put to the sword so manie as they found there, and carried awaie the goods with them, and so returned to Kilmallocke.

At this time the seneschall secretlie with all the force which he could make, came vnto the towne of Youghall, & entred into the end of the same towne. The seneschall assaul teth & entreth into Youghall and hath the repulse. Wherevpon the alarum was raised, and foorthwith Caluerleigh being lieutenant to capteine Morgan, hauing all his soldiors togither, of which he had fortie shot, went vnto that end of the towne where the seneschall scaled the wals, & there he made a sconse, or a little bulworke, and by that meanes saued the towne, and draue the seneschall from his purpose, and killed aboue fiftie of his men: and so being disappointed of his purpose he departed awaie. In the end of this moneth of Ianuarie the earle of Ormond arriued from out of England to Waterford with a new supplie of foure hundred men, whome he diuided and committed vnto the seuerall leadings The earle of Ormond arriueth to Waterford and is generall of Mounster. of sir George Bourcher, sir William Stanleie, capteine Edward Berkleie, and capteine Roberts. And being now lord generall by hir maiesties appointment ouer all Mounster, and hauing obteined an augmentation of two pence by the daie for euerie soldiors wages, he assembleth all the soldiors and euerie capteine which had anie charge, and tooke order with euerie of them for such seruices as were to be doone, furnisheth them with vittels, munitions, monie, and all things necessarie and meet for them, requesting euerie one of them to shew themselues like good and valiant soldiors, in the pursuing of the rebels, and vanquishing of the enimies: and such grace and loue he found among the soldiors, that he was no more desirous than they most glad and willing to performe the same. Such a good affection euerie one The loue of the capteins and soldiors to the earle of Ormond. did beare to this honorable man.

At this time aduertisement was giuen vnto his lordship, that the earle of Desmond was incamped in the fastnesse of Harlo wood with a great number of rakehels & rebels. His lordship mustered all his companies, and minding to doo some seruice vpon the said rebels, marcheth towards the said fastnesse of Harlo wood. And being come thither, he diuideth his companies into foure parts, and they entered The lord general scowreth Harlo wood. into foure seuerall places of the wood at one instant: and by that meanes they scowred the wood throughout, in killing as manie as they tooke, but the residue fled into the mounteins. The rebels being thus narrowlie followed and pursued, they neuer after met togither in the like companies, nor assembled themselues in such great numbers: but the most part of them, which were the chiefest followers and Desmond is forraken of all his followers and fréends. greatest fréends vnto Desmond, as Fitzmoris of Lexna before named, the seneschall, the lord Barrie, Condon, Donnell mac Knought, & sundrie others, some and some came awaie, and sought for protection. And albeit their manifold and infinit outrages, murthers, bloudsheds and spoiles, had deserued a thousand deaths: yet his lordship considering their repentance, sorrows, and humble submissions, and respecting more hir maiesties godlie disposition to mercie than their deserts, did (for the most part) grant vnto euerie of them their requests. The soldiors after this péece of seruice were dispersed abroad into their seuerall garrisons. And albeit the greater parts of the rebels were some by sword, and some by protection abated, and much decreased, yet none of them laie altogither idle, but did follow the seruice as time and occasion offered. For the earle himselfe, though he were thus unfeathered of his greatest helps, yet he was one & the same man, a most ranke traitor and rebell: and therefore vpon him dailie were draughts and pursutes made, and neuer left, vntill in the end he came vnto confusion.

In the moneth of August, in the yeare of Christ one thousand fiue hundred eightie and thrée, it was aduertised to the garrisons in Kilmallocke and Cashell, that the erle of Desmond was come againe to harborough himselfe in Harlo wood, and had aboue three score gallowglasses besides kerne a great number, A draught made vpon the gallowglasses in Harlo wood. vpon whom captein Dowdall hauing good espials, made a iorneie thither, and being entred into the wood verie earlie, laie close all the forenoone. For these gallowglasses had bin so dared from time to time, that now like a sort of deere they laie vpon their kéepings; and so fearfull they were, that they would not tarrie in anie one place anie long time, but where they did dresse their meat, thense they would remoone, and eat it in another place, and from thense go vnto another place to lie. In the nights they would watch, in the forenoones they would be vpon the hilles and mounteins, to deserie the countrie, and in the afternoone they would sléepe. The capteine breaking time with them, made staie in the wood accordinglie, and in the afternoone he learned by his espials, that they were returned from the mounteius, and were entred into their cabins, where some of them were asléepe, and some of them occupied in dressing of a horsse for to eat, for other vittels were scant. The capteine suddenlie entred vpon them, and tooke them at such aduantage, that they were all, for the most part, put to the sword: of which, fiue and twentie were taken The gallowglasses in Harlo wood put to sword. in their cabins. After the dispatch of these Gallowglasses, which are counted the best men of warre among the Irishrie: the residue of the Irish rebels were so dismaid, that a man might without anie great danger passe throughout Mounster.

About a moneth after this, in September, in the yeare one thousand fiue hundred foure score & three, it hapned that certeine of the lord Roches men, being in Dowall néere to Trusham, were riding about certeine businesse, and met with the earle of The L. Roch his men discouer Desmond. Desmond, hauing in his companie two or three horsemen and a priest. The kerns which attended the said lord Roches men, inuironed & compassed them about; but the earle and his men being well horssed, escaped, onelie the priest they tooke, by reason of his bad horsse, and him the lord Roch sent the next daie vnto the lord gouernour, and being examined, he confessed in what great distresse and miserie the erle was, and that for feare he lurked in corners, & would not be séene. And further, that he had his onelie reléefe and was fostered by Goron mac Swene, The Desmond is reléened by Goron mac Swene. a capteine of the gallowglasses, and who was then vnder protection. And by these meanes, the erle (who had not béene heard of since he was garred out of Harlo wood) is now discouered. Wherevpon the lord generall commanded a barke to be foorthwith vittelled, and to be dispatched into Dingle a Cush: and foorthwith commanded A garison appointed to be at the Dingle. capteine Dowdall to repaire thither, and there to lie in garison; which he did foorthwith performe. The earle of Desmond when he heard how that he was discouered, and how that vittels and a garison were seut to Dingle a Cush to the working of his wo; he was assured that he should be surelie pursued by capteine Dowdall, Desmond feareth Dowdall. who of all other capteines and sir George Bourchier did from time to time gall and most earnestlie pursue him. Wherefore now as for his last helpe, by the helpe and friendship of Goron mac Swene, & Moile Morough mac Sweue his brother, he gathereth a new companie, and maketh himselfe as strong as he can, and getteth himselfe into Desmond, and there standeth vpon his gard. Goron mac Swene in Goron preith all Carberie for Desmond. the meane time entreth into Carberie, and taketh a great preie of kine, which he droue foorthwith into Desmond toward the earle, but the iorneie was so long, that he laie short of thé earle that night about thrée or foure miles.

The men of the countrie, who had thus lost their goods, thrée of them with their swords and targets followed the tract a far off, minding to haue stollen awaic their owne kine if by anie means they could, and if opportunitie would so serue; for by force or by intreatie they knew it to be impossible for them to recouer anie thing at all. The foresaid Goron, when he had lodged himselfe for all night, it was his pleasure to walke abrode in the fields; and suspecting no harme, went alone, hauing onelie one kerne with him (and both without weapon) about ten or twelue score off from his lodging. About which place it hapned the foresaid thrée men had hidden and couched themselues in a bush, and taking the occasion offered, they went also betwéene him and his lodging, and fell vpon him and his kerne, & killed them both: Goron mac Swene is killed. and as soone as they had cut off their heads, they shifted for themselues. Gorons companie, finding their maister lacking, went abrode to séeke him, and in the end found him and his man without heads, lieng dead vpon the ground; which cast them into such a maze, as they wist not what to thinke or to doo: neither could they imagine nor deuise how this should come to passe: for garison there was none in those parts, and they knew of no person thereabouts whome they could suspect. But this is the iust iudgement of God, who in his iustice looketh vpon the periured and wicked, and in mercie beholdeth his seruants. For if this man had liued, it was feared that by his means the earle would haue increased a new force, and haue dighted the lord gouernour and all the garisons to greater troubles. The erle being aduertised of the losse of this his friend, his chéefe and onelie staie, was in a great agonie, and maruellouslie dismaid; and séeing no other remedie, he prepareth the best for himselfe, and taking the aduantage of the time, before the garison should be placed at the Dingle, he made a draught into Kerrie néere Traileigh, minding to take a prie The erle commandeth preie to be taken in Kerrie. from such as had forsaken him and had receiued their protections. Wherfore in the evening he sent two horssemen with a certeine kerne ouer the strand of Traleigh vnto a castell there, & commanded them to take their preie from thense, which they did, and brought the same awaie with them.

Among those kine thus driuen awaie, a poore woman of that countrie lost all those few that she had, and being distressed of that which was the cheefe, and in a maner the onelie reléefe of hir and hir children and houshold; and not knowing how she could by anie meanes recouer them: she bethought hir selfe vpon a brother which she had, dwelling on the other side of the mounteine, in a castell named Drome, which was one of the Morettos; and to him she runneth in all the hast she could, and declareth hir estate and case, praieng him to helpe hir, and that he would follow, the tract for the recouerie of hir kine. Who when he was aduertised that there were but two horssemen & a few kerne which had drouen the preie awaie, he to pleasure his sister tooke three other of his brethren, and followed the tract, till he came to Castelmange, which castell was in the waie. And when he came thither, he went to the castell, and desired the constable (whose name was Cheston, and not long before lieutenant to capteine Berkeleie) that he would spare him some shot and a few of his kerne to helpe him to follow the preie which was driuen that waie. The constable and the soldiors were verie glad to pleasure him, and so he had seuen shot and a doozzen of kerne which dwelled in an out house fast vnder the castell, & so they went altogither to Traleigh, they being in number three and twentie persons; one of these was an Irish man borne, named Kollie, but serued alwaies vnder Englishmen, and could speake verie good English. This man, when they came to Traleigh, they appointed & made him their leader or capteine; and Moretto because he was borne in those parties, and best knew the countrie, they appointed to be their guide: and from thense they followed the tract vntill they came to the side of a mounteine, where there was a glan, and in it a little groue of wood: and the night being come vpon them, there they staid and rested themselues for that night. And in the darke night one of them had espied through the trées a fire not farre off, where vpon they drew themselues close together, and caused one of themselues closelie and secretlie to draw towards the fire and to discouer what companie was there, and how manie was of them; which man did so. And when he returned backe vnto them, he told them that there was an old bad house, and about fiue or six persons therein: wherevpon they all determined and agreed to repaire to that place to know the whole matter. Moretto was the guide to bring them to the house, and Kollie did set his companie in order and good araie, as was most for their seruice, if néed should so require. And when they were come to the house, they found in it but onelie one old man, for the residue were gone. Then Kollie drew his sword and strake the old man, with which blow he had almost cut off one of his arms; and then he strake him againe, and gaue him a great blow on the side of his head; wherwith the said old man cried The earle of Desmond taken in an old house alone and slaine. out, desiring them to saue his life, for he was earle of Desmond, and then Kollie staied his hands: but the erle bled so fast, that he waxed verie faint, and could not trauell anie further: wherevpon the said Kollie bid and willed him to prepare himselfe to die; and then he strake off the earls head.

The residue of the companie in this meane time spoiled and rifled the house, and tooke what them listed: and then they all departed and went to Castelmange, and carried the earles head with them, but left the bodie behind; and whether the same were deuoured by the woolues or buried by his kerne, it is not certeinlie knowne. As soone as they came to Castelmange, they sent the said earles head vnto the lord The earle of Desmonds head sent into England and put vpon London bridge. generall, who foorthwith sent the same into England for a present to hir maiestie; which foorthwith was put vpon a pole, and set on London bridge. When this his death was noised and knowne, there was no more seruice to be doone: for euerie rebell east awaie his weapon, and sought all the waies they could to humble themselues and to become good subiects: sauing one Iohn Bourke, who stood vpon his Iohn Bourke hauing a protection, made a stealth, and was killed. protection, and yet neuerthelesse he and his companie went to Adare, there to haue taken a preie. But as he passed by the castell, a boie there in discharged his peece vpon the said Bourke, & strake him in the head, whereof he died. The common people, who had felt the great smart of this troublesome time, reioised and were glad of the death of the erle, being in a good hope that the long troubles should haue an end, and they to be the more at rest. During these continuall troubles in Mounster, the two lord iustices which laie at Dublin were much eased from all martiall affaires elsewhere, and were troubled but with the clamorings, exclamations, and brabling of the Irish people, not woorth the remembring: sauing that a certeine combat was A combat betwene two Oconhours. fought and tried before them in the castell of Dublin, betwéene two Oconhours, verie neere coosens & kinsmen: the one was named Teig mac Guill Patrike Oconhour appellant; the other was named Con mac Cormake Oconhour defendant. One of these appealed and charged the other for sundrie treasons in the late rebellion, and which could haue no other triall but by combat, which was granted vnto them. Wherevpon, according to the lawes and orders of England for a combat to be tried, all things were prepared, the daie, time, and place appointed; and according to the same, the lord iustiees, the iudges, and the councellors came and sat in the place appointed for the same, euerie man in his degree and calling. And then the court was The maner of the combat. called, and the appellant or plaintife was brought in before the face of the court, being stripped into his shirt, hauing onlie his sword and target (which were the weapons appointed) and when he had doone his reuerence and dutie to the lord iustices and to the court, he was brought to a stoole set in the one of the ends within the lists, and there sat. After him was the defendant brought in, in the like maner and order, and with the like weapons: and when he had doone his dutie and reuerence to the lord iustices and to the court, he was brought to his chaire placed in the other end of the lists. Then were their actions and pleadings openlie read, and then the appellant was demanded whether he would auerre his demand or not? who when he had affirmed that he would, the partie defendant was likewise asked whether he would confesse the action, or stand to the triall of the same? who did answer as did the other, that he would auerre it by the swoord.

Upon this their seuerall answers, they were seuerallie called the one after the other, euerie of them taking a corporall oth that their quarell was true, and that they would iustifie the same both with sword & blood. Thus they being sworne are brought backe againe euerie of them to their seuerall places as before. And then when by the sound of a trumpet a signe was giuen vnto them when they should enter into the fight; they arose out of their seats, and met ech one the other in the middle within the lists, and there with the weapons assigned vnto them, they fought: in which fight the appellant did preuaile, and he not onlie did disarme the defendant, but also with the sword of the said defendant did cut off his head, and vpon the point of the same sword did present it to the lord iustices, and so with the victorie of his enimie he was acquitted. Thus much I thought good to saie somwhat of much, of the maner of a combat, which together with manie circumstances therevnto belonging is now for want of vse almost cleane forgotten, and yet verie necessarie to be knowne. And as for this combat it was so valiantlie doone, that a great manie did wish that it had rather fallen vpon the whole sex of the Oconhours, than vpon these two gentlemen.

The vicount of Baltinglas, being aduertised of the death of the earle of Desmond, The vicount of Baltinglasse werie of his life. which was no small griefe vnto him, and he also verie wearie of his trotting and wandering on foot amongst bogs, woods, and desert places (being altogither distressed, and in great miserie, and now destitute of all his friends and acquaintances, The vicount Baltinglasse imbarketh himselfe for Spaine, and not able to hold head anie longer against hir maiesties force) did imbarke himselfe for Spaine, in hope to haue some reléefe and succor, and to procure some aid from the king of Spaine; and by that meanes to be of some abilitie to renew his force and rebellion. But he found in the end verie small comfort. And therefore of a verie melancholie gréefe & sorrow of mind, as it is thought, he died, being in verie extreame pouertie and need. Not long after this, the two lord iustices, who had ruled and gouerned the land in these troublesome and broken times in great wisdome, care, & circumspection, when they had brought the whole land to a peaceable & quiet gouernment, and deliuered the same from all open or knowne rebellion; they cashed and discharged all the garrisons in Mounster, onelie two hundred souldiors excepted: they kept it in good quietnesse, vntill the arriuall of sir Iohn Perot knight, who was sent ouer to be lord deputie, and landed at Dublin Sir Iohn Perot arriueth into Ireland to be lord deputie. about the middle of Iune, one thousand fiue hundred fourescore and foure, the six and twentith yeare of hir maiesties reigne vnto whome they deliuered the swoord: who being entered into his office, begun such a course, that of his good beginnings a great hope was conceiued of the like to insue. For he was a right woorthie seruitor in that land, when he was lord president in Mounster: and by whome Iames Fitzmoris was subdued, and the whole prouince maruellouslie well reformed: whose notable and most noble acts as they doo well deserue, so when the same shall come to his full measure, they shall be registred to his perpetuall fame and immortall honor. And yet in the meane time, it shall not be offensiue to remember some speciall points of his late seruice, which doo deserue to be remembred: as also for the incouraging of this noble man to continue the good course which he hath begun; which doo halson and giue a hope that he will Addere colophonem, and bring that land to a full and perfect gouernment & regiment; which Giraldus Cambrensis would not warrant could be doone much before doonesdaie.

Not long after the arriuall of this man, the Scots after their accustomed maner, The Scots rebell and are subdued. for a bien venu or welcome to his lordship, they began a rebellion, and are vp in armes readie for the warre. His lordship hauing notice and knowledge thereof, maketh himselfe forthwith in a readinesse to méete with them, and to stop them of their purpose: and therein he so ordered and handled the matter, that the Scots were driuen to séeke peace, to craue pardon, to submit themselues, and to sweare allegiance, faith, and obedience to hir maiestie. Which when they had obteined, then they tooke the lands wherein they dwelled, of hir highnesse, yéelding a yearelie rent, which before they had not beene accustomed nor woont to dooe. And by these meanes, if there be any truth in them, the state of that countrie standeth the better assured.

Then when he was from this seruice returned to Dublin, his speciall care, studie, and indeuor was to deuise and studie how to reduce and reforme the whole realme and the gouernment, according to the laws of England. Wherevpon he would and did verie often assemble the whole councell, or so manie of them as were there, for their aduise herein; whose names are these. The archbishop of Dublin lord chancellor, The councell in Ireland. the earle of Ormond lord treasuror, the primat of Armagh, the bishop of Meth, the bishop of Kilmore, sir Iohn Noris lord president of Mounster, sir Henrie Wallop treasuror at armes, sir Nicholas Bagnoll knight marshall, Robert Gardner chiefe iustice of the bench, sir Robert Dillon knight chiefe iustice of the common plées, sir Lucas Dillon knight chiefe baron, sir Nicholas White knight master of the rols, sir Richard Bingham knight chiefe commissioner in Connagh, sir Henrie Cowleie knight, sir Edward Waterhouse knight, sir Thomas le Strange knight, Edward Brabesbie, Geffreie Fenton secretarie, sir Warham Sentleger & sir Valentine Browne knights; but discontinued. By the good aduise, helpe, and councell of these wise The whole realme brought into shire grounds. and prudent councellors, he first thought it best to bring the whole land into shire grounds, whereby the laws of England might haue a through course and passage. Wherefore, what sir Henrie Sidneie before had doone in a few counties, that he per formed in the whole realme, and brought the same into such & so manie seuerall counties, as was thought best and most fit for that purpose. To euerie of which new counties he appointed and assigned seuerall shiriffes, and all such inferior officers as were most requisit, and to the same incident and apperteining. All and euerie which shires hitherto not registred, nor published in chronicle, togither with such as tofore were knowne, I thought it good to set downe by their seuerall names, and in their prouinces as followeth.

The shires in Ireland.

When he had performed this, and established the same by act of parlement, then English laws currant through Ireland. hir maiesties writs and processe had a frée passage, and were currant through out the whole land, and hir maiestie knowne to be souereigne ladie and quéene of the same. Then the Irishrie by little and little gaue ouer their Brehon laws, and their Irish vsage, and became obedient vnto the English laws; vnto which they referred themselues to be tried, and to haue all their quarels to be decided and determined: whereof at these presents is extant a verie notable president & example betweene two of the most principall and chiefe personages in the prouince of Vlster. The one is he, who nameth himselfe Onele, and the other is the earle of Tiron, the heire to the great Con Onele. These two and their ancestors, and all other noble men in that prouince, when so euer anie discord or enimitie did fall out among them, they had no peacemaker but the sword, and by wars and bloudshed was the same decided. Neuerthelesse, these two noble men leauing to pursue their quarels, as in Onele and the earle of Tiron sue each one the other at law. times past with the sword & in hostile maner, doo refer themselues to the triall of the laws; and each one of them sueth the other at the common laws, and in the chancerie in hir maiesties court at Dublin, and there as dutifull subiects doo abide the triall of their cause. A thing so much the more to be considered, as the parties be of that nobilitie and stoutnesse; and a thing so rare, as heretofore not heard nor knowne. Which course if it haue so happie a progresse and successe, as it hath a good enterance and beginning; no doubt, but that partlie by the laws, and partlie by the swoord, an vniuersall obedience shall through that land be established, the common societie shall be preserued, the whole realme shall florish and prosper, hir maiestie shall be obeied, the reuenues shall be increased; and in the end, peace shall be vpon Israell. And as this example giueth some manifest good hope thereof, so the same is confirmed and increased by the happie victorie of late in Connagh; Sir Richard Bingham his victorie vpon the Scots. where a number of Scots, hauing made an inuasion, were met and incountered withall, by the right worthie sir Richard Bingham knight, chiefe commissioner of that prouince, and by him they were vanquished & ouerthrowne, to the number of fifteene hundred persons; so that verie few or none escaped the sword, to returne home with the news of their successe: but were either killed or drowned.

Thus much hitherto generallie concerning the gouernment of that land of Ireland, since the death of king Henrie the eight, vntill these presents. In the course of which time, manie more notable things haue beene doone, worthie to be registred in the chronicles of perpetuall fame and memorie. For the atteining to the knowledge whereof, though Iohn Hooker the writer hereof haue béene a diligent traneller and a searcher for the same; yet he wanted that good successe, as both the historie it selfe requireth, and he himselfe wisheth. And yet the most part of all the actions in that age consisted most in continuall warres, rebellions, and hostilitie, either against their most sacred kings and queenes, or amongst themselues. But whatsoeuer tofore hath beene doone, none were so tragicall, impious, and vnnaturall, as were the last warres of the Giraldines of Desmond in Mounster. For of the Giraldines of Kildare, who were not acquainted, nor consenting to these wicked actions, nothing is meant. Whereinto who so listeth to looke, and well to consider, he shall find and sée most euident and apparant examples of Gods iustice & iudgement, against such as doo rebell against the Lords annointed; whome the Lord by his expresse word hath commanded to be honored and obeied in all humblenesse and dutie: because they are his vicars, substitutes, and vicegerents vpon the earth, to defend the good, and to punish the euill; and who so resisteth them, doo resist his ordinances, and shall receiue hard iudgement, as most manifestlie it dooth appeare in this the earle of Desmonds rebellion. All which if it should be set downe particularlie, as in course it fell out, it would be verie tedious: but much more lamentabie and doiefull to be read.

And therefore leauing the large discourse, it shall suffice to shut and conclude this historie, with the briefe recitall of the most speciall points, to mooue ech man to consider the mightie hand of God against traitors and rebels; and his louing mercie and kindnesse vpon the dutifull and obedient. First therefore Iames Fitzmoris, the first ringleader in this pageant, and who most vnnaturallie had flocked in strangers and forreiners to inuade the land, for establishing the antichristian religion, and the depriuing of hir maiestie from hir imperiall crowne of the realme of Ireland: this man (I saie) was he who yeelded the first fruits of this rebellion. For in his idolatrous pilgrimage to the holie crosse, and his traitorous iourneie to practise with all the rebels and inhabitants in Connagh and Vlster to ioine with him, he did commit a robberie; and being pursued for the same, he was slaine by a gentleman, and one of his owne kinsmen Theobald Burke, and his head & quarters set vpon the gates of the towne of Kilmallocke.

Then Iames of Desmond brother to the earle, hauing done a robberie vpon sir Iames Desmond taken in a roberie, hanged, drawne, & quartered. Sir Iohn of Desmond slaine, and his bodie hanged by the héeles. Corman mac Teige, was likewise taken and caried to Corke, where he was drawne, hanged, and quartered; and his head and quarters set vpon the gates and wals of the citie of Corke. After him, sir Iohn of Desmond, one other brother to the said earle, who was a speciall champion of the pope, from whom he had receiued manie blessings, buls, and Agnos dei, which should keepe and preserue him from all harme: yet for all this his holie cote armour, he was met withall by capteine Zouch and capteine Dowdall, and by them he receiued his iust reward of a bloudie traitor, and a fréendkiller; being killed and then caried dead to Corke, where his bodie was hanged by the héeles, and his head sent to Dublin, and there set vpon the top of the castle. And in the end, the earle himselfe was also taken, and with the sword the head was The earle of Desmond slaine, and his head sent to London, and set vpon London bridge. diuided from the bodie: the one was sent to London, and there set vpon London bridge; and his bodie vncerteine whether it were buried or deuoured by the wild beasts. And thus a noble race and ancient familie, descended from out of the loines of princes, is now for treasons and rebellions vtterlie extinguished and ouerthrowne; onelie one sonne of the said earles is left, and yet prisoner in the Tower of London. The two doctors, Allen & Sanders, who were the holie fathers legats and nuncios, Allen and Sanders died, the one with the sword, the other of famine. and in their foolish fantasies dreamed that they had the Holie ghost at commandement, and yet most errant traitors against the lords annointed: the one of them lifting vp his swoord against hir sacred maiestie, vnder the popes banner at Mounster, one thousand fiue hundred thréescore and ninetéene, was slaine and killed: the other after that he had followed the heeles of the Desmonds almost foure yeares, wandering to and fro in the woods & bogs, died most miserablie in the wood of Cleneles, in such diseases as famine and penurie vse to bring. The Romans and All strangers slaine. Spaniards, and the strangers which were sent from the pope and king Philip, with all their consorts and companies, verie few left of them to returne home, and to carie news of their successe; but were all put to the sword. And as for the great companies of souldiors, gallowglasses, kerne, & the common people, who followed this rebellion, the numbers of them are infinit, whose blouds the earth dranke vp, and whose carcases the foules of the aire and the rauening beasts of the féeld did consume and deuoure. After this folowed an extreme famine: and such as whom the sword did not After the wars folowed a famine. destroie, the same did consume, and eat out; verie few or none remaining aline, sauing such as dwelled in cities and townes, and such as were fled ouer into England: and yet the store in the townes was verie far spent, and they in distresse, albeit nothing like in comparison to them who liued at large. For they were not onelie driuen to eat horsses, dogs and dead carions; but also did deuoure the carcases of dead men, whereof there be sundrie examples: namelie one in the countie of Corke, where when a malefactor was executed to death, and his bodie left vpon the gallows, A man hanged was eaten. certeine poore people secretlie came, tooke him downe, and did eat him. Likewise in the baie of Sméerewéeke, or saint Marie wéeke, the place which was first seasoned with this rebellion, there happened a ship to be there lost through foule weather, and Men drowned and eaten. all the men being drowned, were there cast on land.

The common people, who had a long time liued on limpets, orewads, and such shelfish as they could find, and which were now spent; as soone as they saw these dead bodies, they tooke them vp, and most greedilie did eat and deuoure them: and not long after, death and famine did eat and consume them. The land it selfe, which before those wars was populous, well inhabited, and rich in all the good blessings of God, being plentious of corne, full of cattell, well stored with fish and sundrie other good commodities, is now become wast and barren, yéelding no fruits, the pastures no cattell, the fields no corne, the aire no birds, the seas (though full of fish) yet to them yéelding nothing. Finallie, everie waie the cursse of God was so great, and the land so barren both of man and beast, that whosoeuer did trauell from the one end vnto the other of all Mounster, euen from Waterford to the head of Sméerewéeke, which is about six score miles, he should not meet anie man, woman, or child, sauing in townes and cities; nor yet sée anie beast, but the verie woolues, the foxes, and other like rauening beasts: manie of them laie dead being famished, and the residue gone elsewhere. A heauie, but a iust iudgement of God vpon such a Pharoicall and stifnecked people, who by no persuasions, no counsels, and no reasons, would be reclamed and reduced to serue God in true religion, and to obeie their most lawfull prince in dutifull obedience; but made choise of a wicked idoll, the god Mazim to honor, and of that wicked antichrist of Rome to obeie, vnto the vtter ouerthrow of themselues and of their posteritie. This is the goodnesse that commeth from that great citie vpon the seuen hils, and that mightie Babylon, the mother of all wickednesse & abhominations vpon the earth. These be the fruits which come The fruits which come from the pope. from that holie father, maister pope, the sonne of sathan, and the man of sinne, and the enimie vnto the crosse of Christ, whose bloodthirstinesse will neuer be quenched, but in the blood of the saints, and the seruants of God; and whose rauening guts be neuer satisfied, but with the death of such as doo serue the Lord in all godlines, & who will not be drunke in the cup of his fornications: as it dooth appere by the infinit & most horrible massacres, and bloodie persecutions, which he dailie exerciseth throughout all christian lands. Which bicause he can not performe also within the realmes of The wicked practises of the pope. England & Ireland, what practises hath he made by inchantments, sorceries, witchcrafts, & tresons to beereaue hir maiestie of hir life? What deuises hath he vsed to raise vp hir owne subiects to rebellions and commotions, to supplant hir of hir roiall estate and gouernment? What practises hath he vsed with forren princes and potentats, to séeke occasions of breaches of peace and raisings of warres? And how craftilie hath he suborned his vnholie & traitorous Iesuits, vnder colour of holines, to range from place to place through hir maiesties realmes, and to mooue and persuade hir people from dutifull obedience vnto hir highnesse, and to denie hir supreme authoritie and gouernment? Finallie, how dooth he from time to time like a rauening woolfe séeke the deuouring of hir, and of all hir good subiects, which liue in the feare of God, and in the religion established vpon his holie word and gospell? Whereof hath insued the losse of infinit thousands of people, as wherof manie apparant examples are set downe and recorded in the histories of England; but of them all, none more lamentable than is this historie of Ireland, and especiallie this tragedie of Mounster. In which it dooth appeare, how that for the maintenance of the popes quarels, the earth hath drunke vp the bloud, the fouls of the aire haue preied, and the beasts of the field haue deuoured the carcases of infinit multitudes & numbers of people. Which if euerie man would well looke into and consider, the vngodlie shall sée the great iudgements of God, and his seuere iustice against all such as shall dishonor his holie name; and against such as shall rebell and resist against his annointed: that thereby they may repent, amend their liues, and be conuerted vnto the Lord, both in true religion towards him, and in all dutifull obedience to his annointed. And the good and godlie shall sée, and thereby consider the great good mercies shewed vpon them, in that he hath and continuallie dooth preserue and kéepe them from out of the iawes of the lion in all safetie, that they should dailie more and more grow from grace to grace, and liue in all holinesse and vertue towards him, and persist in all dutifull obedience vnto hir maiestie our souereigne ladie and queene; whose daies the Lord God continue and prolong to reigne ouer vs to his good will and pleasure: and so shall we hir people sée good daies, liue in securitie, and the peace of Israell shall be vpon vs.

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