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114. Adjectives of the Third Declension are thus classified:—

  1. Adjectives of Three Terminations in the nominative singular,—one for each gender: as,ācer, ācris , ācre.
  2. Adjectives of Two Terminations,—masculine and feminine the same: as, levis (M., F.), leve (N.).
  3. Adjectives of One Termination,—the same for all three genders: as, atrōx .
a. Adjectives of two and three terminations are true i-stems and hence retain in the ablative singular -ī, in the neuter plural -ia, in the genitive plural -ium, and in the accusative plural regularly -īs (see §§ 73 and 74).1

Adjectives of Three and of Two Terminations

115. Adjectives of Three Terminations are thus declined:—

ācer, ācris, ācre, keen, STEM ācri-

M. F. N. M. F. N.
NOM. ācer ācris ācre ācrēs ācrēs ācria
GEN. ācris ācris ācris ācrium ācrium ācrium
DAT. ācrī ācrī ācrī ācribus ācribus ācribus
ACC. ācrem ācrem ācre ācrīs (-ēs ācrīs (-ēs ācria
ABL. ācrī ācrī ācrī ācribus ācribus ācribus

a. Like ācer are declined the following stems in ri-:—

  1. alacer, campester, celeber , equester, palūster, pedester, puter , salūber , silvester, terrester, volucer. So also names of months in -ber: as, Octōber (cf. § 66).

Note 1.--This formation is comparatively late, and hence, in the poets and in early Latin, either the masculine or the feminine form of these adjectives was sometimes used for both genders: as, coetus alacris (Enn.). In others, as faenebris , fūnebris , illūstris , lūgubris , mediocris , muliebris , there is no separate masculine form at all, and these are declined like levis (§ 116).

Note 2.-- Celer , celeris , celere, swift, has the genitive plural celerum , used only as a noun, denoting a military rank. The proper name Celer has the ablative in -e.

116. Adjectives of Two Terminations are thus declined:—

levis, leve, light, STEM levi-

Note.--Adjectives of two and three terminations sometimes have an ablative in -e in poetry, rarely in prose.

M., F. N. M., F. N.
NOM. levis leve levēs levia
GEN. levis levis levium levium
DAT. levī levī levibus levibus
ACC. levem leve levīs (-ēs levia
ABL. levī levī levibus levibus

Adjectives of One Termination

117. The remaining adjectives of the third declension are Consonant stems; but most of them, except Comparatives, have the following forms of i-stems:—2
  1. -ī in the ablative singular (but often -e);
  2. -ia in the nominative and accusative plural neuter;
  3. -ium in the genitive plural;
  4. -īs (as well as -ēs) in the accusative plural masculine and feminine.

In the other cases they follow the rule for Consonant stems.

a. These adjectives, except stems in l- or r-, form the nominative singular from the stem by adding s: as, atrōx (stem atrōc- + s ), egēns (stem egent- + s ).3

b. Here belong the present participles in -ns (stem nt-4: as, amāns , monēns . They are declined like egēns (but cf. § 121).

118. Adjectives of one termination are declined as follows:—

atrōx, fierce, STEM atrōc- egēns, needy, STEM egent-
M., F. N. M., F. N.
NOM. atrōx atrōx egēns egēns
GEN. atrōcis atrōcis egentis egentis
DAT. atrōcī atrōcī egentī egentī
ACC. atrōcem atrōx egentem egēns
ABL. atrōcī (-e atrōcī (-e egentī (-e egentī (-e
NOM. atrōcēs atrōcia egentēs egentia
GEN. atrōcium atrōcium egentium egentium
DAT. atrōcibus atrōcibus egentibus egentibus
ACC. atrōcīs (-ēs atrōcia egentīs (-ēs egentia
ABL. atrōcibus atrōcibus egentibus egentibus

119. Other examples are the following:—

concors, harmonious STEM concord- praeceps, headlong STEM praecipit-
M., F. N. M., F. N.
NOM. concors concors praeceps praeceps
GEN. concordis concordis praecipitis praecipitis
DAT. concordī concordī praecipitī praecipitī
ACC. concordem concors praecipitem praeceps
ABL. concordī concordī praecipitī praecipitī
NOM. concordēs concordia praecipitēs praecipitia
GEN. concordium concordium [praecipitium]5
DAT. concordibus concordibus praecipitibus praecipitibus
ACC. concordīs (-ēs concordia praecipitīs (-ēs praecipitia
ABL. concordibus concordibus praecipitibus praecipitibus

iēns, going STEM eunt- pār, equal STEM par- dīves, rich STEM dīvit-
M., F. N. M., F. N. M., F. N.
NOM. iēns iēns pār pār dīves dīves
GEN. euntis euntis paris paris dīvitis dīvitis
DAT. euntī euntī parī parī dīvitī dīvitī
ACC. euntem iēns parem pār dīvitem dīves
ABL. eunte (-ī eunte (-ī parī parī dīvite dīvite
NOM. euntēs euntia parēs paria dīvitēs [dītia]
GEN. euntium euntium parium parium dīvitum dīvitum
DAT. euntibus euntibus paribus paribus dīvitibus dīvitibus
ACC. euntīs (-ēs euntia parīs (-ēs paria dīvitīs (-ēs [dītia]
ABL. euntibus euntibus paribus paribus dīvitibus dīvitibus

Note.--Of these vetus is originally an s-stem. In most s-stems the r has intruded self into the nominative also, as bi-corpor (for † bi-corpos ), dēgener (for † -genes ).

ūber, fertile STEM ūber- vetus, old STEM veter-
M., F. N. M., F. N.
NOM. ūber ūber vetus vetus
GEN. ūberis ūberis veteris veteris
DAT. ūberī ūberī veterī veterī
ACC. ūberem ūber veterem vetus
ABL. ūberī 6 ūberī vetere (-ī vetere (-ī
NOM. ūberēs ūbera veterēs vetera
GEN. ūberum ūberum veterum veterum
DAT. ūberibus ūberibus veteribus veteribus
ACC. ūberēs ūbera veterēs vetera
ABL. ūberibus ūberibus veteribus veteribus

Declension of Comparatives

120. Comparatives are declined as follows:—

melior, better STEM meliōr- for meliōs- plūs, more STEM plūr- for plūs-
M., F. N. M., F. N.
NOM. melior melius ----- plūs
GEN. meliōris meliōris ----- plūris
DAT. meliōrī meliōrī ----- -----
ACC. meliōrem melius ----- plūs
ABL. meliōre (-ī meliōre (-ī ----- plūre
NOM. meliōrēs meliōra plūrēs plūra
GEN. meliōrum meliōrum plūrium plūrium
DAT. meliōribus meliōribus plūribus plūribus
ACC. meliōrēs (-īs meliōra plūrēs (-īs plūra
ABL. meliōribus meliōribus plūribus plūribus

a. All comparatives except plūs are declined like melior .

b. The stem of comparatives properly ended in ŏ¯s-; but this became or in the nominative masculine and feminine, and ōr- in all other cases except the nominative and accusative singular neuter, where s is retained and ŏ is changed to ŭ (cf. honŏr, -ōris; corpus, -ŏris). Thus comparatives appear to have two terminations.

c. The neuter singular plūs is used only as a noun. The genitive (rarely the ablative) is used only as an expression of value (cf. § 417). The dative is not found in classic use. The compound complūrēs, several, has sometimes neuter plural complūria .

Case-Forms of Consonant Stems

121. In adjectives of Consonant stems—

a. The Ablative Singular commonly ends in -ī, but sometimes -e.

  1. Adjectives used as nouns (as superstes, survivor) have -e.
  2. Participles in -ns used as such (especially in the ablative absolute, § 419), or as nouns, regularly have -e; but participles used as adjectives have regularly -ī:—
    1. dominō imperante, at the master's command; ab amante, by a lover; ab amanti muliere, by a loving woman.
  3. The following have regularly -ī:—āmēns, anceps , concors (and other compounds of cor ), cōnsors (but as a substantive, -e),dēgener, hebes , ingēns , inops , memor (and compounds), pār (in prose), perpes , praeceps , praepes , teres .
  4. The following have regularly -e: caeles , compos, [†dēses],dīves, hospes , particeps, pauper, prīnceps , sōspes , superstes . So also patrials (see § 71. 5) and stems in āt-, īt-, nt-, rt-, when used as nouns, and sometimes when used as adjectives.
b. The Genitive Plural ends commonly in -ium, but has -um in the following:7

  1. Always in compos, dīves, inops , particeps, praepes , prīnceps , supplex , and compounds of nouns which have -um: as, quadru-pēs, bi-color.
  2. Sometimes, in poetry, in participles in -ns: as, silentum concilium, a council of the silent shades (Aen. 6.432).
c. The Accusative Plural regularly ends in -īs, but comparatives commonly have -ēs.

d. Vetus (gen. -ĕris) and pūbes (gen. -ĕris) regularly have -e in the ablative singular, -a in the nominative and accusative plural, and -um in the genitive plural. For ūber , see § 119.

e. A few adjectives of one termination, used as nouns, have a feminine form in -a: as, clienta , hospita , with the appellative Iūnō Sōspita .

Irregularities and Special Uses of Adjectives

122. The following special points require notice:—

a. Several adjectives vary in declension: as, gracilis (-us), hilaris (-us), inermis (-us), bicolor (-ōrus).

b. A few adjectives are indeclinable: as, damnās , frūgī (really a dative of service, see § 382. 1. N. 2), nēquam (originally an adverb), necesse , and the pronominal forms tot , quot , aliquot, totidem . Potis is often used as an indeclinable adjective, but sometimes has pote in the neuter.

c. Several adjectives are defective: as, exspēs (only nom.), exlēx ( exlēgem ) (only nom. and acc. sing.), pernox ( pernocte ) (only nom. and abl. sing.); and prīmōris , sēminecī , etc., which lack the nominative singular.

d. Many adjectives, from their signification, can be used only in the masculine and feminine. These may be called adjectives of common gender.

Such are adulēscēns, youthful; [†dēses], -idis, slothful; inops , -opis, poor; sōspes , -itis, safe. Similarly, senex, old man, and iuvenis, young man, are sometimes called masculine adjectives.

For Adjectives used as Nouns, see §§ 288, 289; for Nouns used as Adjectives, see § 321. c; for Adjectives used as Adverbs, see § 214; for Adverbs used as Adjectives, see § 321. d.

1 But the forms of some are doubtful.

2 For details see § 121.

3 Stems in nt- omit t before the nominative -s

4 Stems in nt- omit t before the nominative -s

5 Given by grammarians, but not found.

6 An ablative in -e is very rare.

7 Forms in -um sometimes occur in a few others.

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