FORMATION OF WORDS
All formation of words is originally a process of composition. An element
significant in itself is added to another significant element, and thus the
meaning of the two is combined. No other combination is possible for the
formation either of inflections or of stems. Thus, in fact
(since roots and stems are
significant elements, and so words) are first placed side by side, then
brought under one accent, and finally felt as one word. The gradual process
is seen in sea voyage, sea-nymph
But as all derivation, properly so called, appears
as a combination of uninflected stems, every type of formation in use must
antedate inflection. Hence words were not in strictness derived either from
nouns or from verbs, but from stems
neither, because they were in fact both; for the distinction between
noun-stems and verb-stems had not yet been made.
After the development of Inflection, however, that one of several kindred
words which seemed the simplest was regarded as the primitive
form, and from this the other words of the group were
thought to be derived.
Such supposed processes of
formation were then imitated, often erroneously, and in this way new modes of derivation
arose. Thus new adjectives
were formed from nouns, new nouns from adjectives, new adjectives from
verbs, and new verbs from adjectives and nouns.
In course of time the real or apparent relations of many words became
confused, so that nouns and adjectives once supposed to come from nouns were
often assigned to verbs, and others once supposed to come from verbs were
assigned to nouns.
Further, since the language was constantly changing, many words went out of
use, and do not occur in the literature as we have it. Thus many Derivatives
survive of which the Primitive is lost.
Finally, since all conscious word-formation is imitative, intermediate steps
in derivation were sometimes omitted, and occasionally apparent Derivatives
occur for which no proper Primitive ever existed.
ROOTS AND STEMS
are of two kinds:—
Verbal, expressing ideas of action or
condition (sensible phenomena).
Pronominal, expressing ideas of position
From verbal roots come all parts of speech except pronouns and certain
particles derived from pronominal roots.
Stems are either identical with roots or derived from them. They are of
two classes: (1) Noun-stems (including Adjective-stems) and (2)
[*] Note.--Noun-stems and verb-stems were not originally different (see p.
163), and in the consciousness of the Romans were often confounded;
but in general they were treated as distinct.
Words are formed by inflection: (1) from roots inflected as stems; (2)
from derived stems (see § 232).
A root used as a stem may appear—
With a short vowel: as,
), DUC; nec-is
. So in verbs: as,
(cf. § 174. 2).
With a long vowel2
: as, lūc-is
). So in verbs:
With reduplication: as, fur-fur
. So in verbs: as
DERIVED STEMS AND SUFFIXES
Derived Stems are formed from roots or from other stems by means of suffixes.
- Primary: added to the root, or (in later times by analogy)
- Secondary: added to a noun-stem or an adjective-stem.
Both primary and secondary suffixes are for the most part pronominal
roots (§ 228. 2), but a
few are of doubtful origin.
[*] Note 1.--The distinction between primary and secondary
suffixes, not being original (see § 227), is continually lost sight of in
the development of a language. Suffixes once primary are used as
secondary, and those once secondary are used as primary. Thus in
cus) the suffix -cus, originally ko-
(see § 234. 2.12)
primary, as in
, has become secondary, and is thus regularly used to
form derivatives; but in
, it is treated as primary again, because these words
were really or apparently connected with verbs. So in English
-able was borrowed as a primary
suffix (tolerable, eatable), but
also makes forms like clubbable,
salable; -some is properly a secondary
suffix, as in toilsome,
lonesome, but makes also such words as
[*] Note 2.--It is the stem of the word, not the nominative, that is formed by the
derivative suffix. For convenience, however, the nominative will
usually be given.
The words in Latin formed immediately from the root by means of
Primary Suffixes, are few. For—
- Inherited words so formed were mostly further developed
by the addition of other suffixes, as we might make an adjective
lone-ly-some-ish. meaning nothing
more than lone, lonely,
- By such accumulation of suffixes, new compound suffixes
were formed which crowded out even the old types of derivation.
A word like mēns
, by the suffix ōn-
, and this, being divided into men
, gave rise to a new type of abstract
nouns in -tiō
: as, lēgā-tiō
A word like audītor
, by the suffix io-
), gave rise to adjectives like
, of which the
) is used to denote the place
the action of the verb is performed. Hence tōrio-
becomes a regular noun-suffix (§ 250. a
So in English such a word as suffocation gives a suffix
, and with this is made starvation
, though there is no such word as
Examples of primary stem-suffixes are:—
I. Vowel suffixes:—
o- (M., N.), ā- (F.), found in nouns and adjectives
of the first two declensions: as,
i-, as in
, avis; in
Latin frequently changed, as in
rūpēs, or lost, as
, root SCAB).
u-, disguised in most adjectives by
an additional i, as
†suādvis, instead of
†suā-dus, cf. ἡδύς),
(root TEN in
), and remaining alone only in nouns of the fourth
sharp, in ācer,
II. Suffixes with a consonant:—
to- (M., N.), tā- (F.), in the regular perfect
passive participle, as
, tēctum; sometimes with an
active sense, as in
, prānsus; and found in a few
words not recognized as participles, as
ti- in abstracts and rarely in
nouns of agency, as
, mēns. But in many
thei is lost.
tu- in abstracts (including
supines), sometimes becoming concretes, as
no- (M., N.), nā- (F.), forming perfect participles
in other languages, and in Latin making adjectives of like
participial meaning, which often become nouns, as
ni-, in nouns of agency and
nu-, rare, as in
mo- (mā-), with various meanings, as
vo- (vā-) (commonly uo-, uā-),
with an active or passive meaning, as in
ro- (rā-), as in
), integer (cf.
lo- (lā-), as in caelum (for †
yo- (yā-), forming gerundives in other
languages, and in Latin making adjectives and abstracts,
including many of the first and fifth declensions, as
ko- (kā-), sometimes primary, as in
). In many cases the vowel of this termination is
lost, leaving a consonant stem:
en- (on-, ēn-,
ōn-), in nouns of
agency and abstracts: as,
men-, expressing means, often passing into the action itself: as,
ter- (tor-, tēr-,
tōr-, tr-), forming nouns of agency: as,
tro-, forming nouns of means: as,
es- (os-), forming names of actions, passing into
concretes: as, genus (
(see § 15.
4). The infinitive in -ere (as in
) is a locative of this stem ((--er-e for
nt- (ont-, ent-), forming
present active participles: as,
, with some adjectives from roots unknown: as,
The above, with some suffixes given below, belong to the
Indo-European parent speech, and most of them were not felt as
living formations in the Latin.
Both primary and secondary suffixes, especially in the form of
compound suffixes, were used in Latin with more or less
consciousness of their meaning. They may therefore be called
They form: (1) Nouns of Agency; (2) Abstract Nouns (including Names
of Actions); (3) Adjectives (active or passive).
[*] Note.--There is really no difference in
etymology between an adjective and a noun, except that some
formations are habitually used as adjectives and others as nouns
(§ 20. b. N. 2).
DERIVATION OF NOUNS
Nouns of Agency
Nouns of Agency properly denote the agent
of an action. But they include
many words in which the idea of agency has entirely faded out, and
also many words used as adjectives.
Nouns denoting the agent
or doer of an action
are formed from roots or
verb-stems by means of the suffixes—
), M.; -trīx
can-tor, can-trīx, singer;
can-ere (root CAN), to
vic-tor, vic-trīx, conqueror
vinc-ere (VIC), to
tond-ēre (TOND as
root), to shear.
petī- as stem),
By analogy -tor
is sometimes added to
noun-stems, but these may be stems of lost verbs: as, viā-tor
[*] Note 1.--The
termination -tor (-sor) has the same phonetic change as
the supine ending -tum (-sum), and is added to the same form of
root or verb-stem as that ending. The stem-ending is tōr- (§ 234. 2.15), which is shortened in the
[*] Note 2.--The feminine
form is always -trīx.
Masculines in -sor lack the
, M. or F., added to verb-stems makes nouns in
; stem it-
descriptive of a character:—
, (verb-stem from root STA,
cover), a coverer, a mat.
foot, and I, root of īre, go),
)-, M., added to verb-stems3
indicates a person
employed in some specific art or trade:—
(BIB as root in
drink), a pot-companion.
carry), a carrier.
[*] Note.--This termination
is also used to form many nouns descriptive of personal
characteristics (cf. § 255).
Names of Actions and Abstract Nouns
Names of Actions are confused, through their terminations, with real
abstract nouns (names of qualities
with concrete nouns denoting means
They are also used to express the concrete
of an action (as often in English).
is literally the act of
, but comes to mean legion
(the body of soldiers collected); cf. levy
Abstract Nouns and Names of Actions are formed from roots and
verb-stems by means of the endings—
Added to roots or forms conceived as roots—
||GEN, to be
born (root of gignō, bear).
[*] Note.--Many nouns of
this class are formed by analogy from imaginary roots: as
facinus from a supposed root
Apparently added to roots or verb-stems—
collecting (levy), a
direction, a region;
[*] Note 1.--
-tiō, -tūra, -tus are added to roots or verb-stems precisely as
-tor, with the same phonetic
change (cf. § 236.
a. N. 1). Hence they are
conveniently associated with the supine stem (see §
178). They sometimes form
nouns when there is no corresponding verb in use: as, senātus, senate
); fētūra, offspring
[*] Note 2.--Of these
endings, -tus was originally
primary (cf. § 234.
2.3.); -iō is a compound
formed by adding ōn- to a
stem ending in a vowel (originally i): as,
diciō (cf. -dicus and
); -tiō is a
compound formed by adding ōn- to stems in ti-: as,
); -tūra is
formed by adding -ra, feminine of
-rus, to stems in tu-: as,
, of like meaning, from a simple u<*>
stem, †figu-s; and
Nouns denoting acts
, or means
of acts, are
formed from roots or verb-stems by the use of the
-men, N.; -mentum, N.; -mōnium, N.; -mōnia, F.
ag-men, line of march,
||AG, root of agere, to lead.
regi- (rege-), stem of regere, to direct.
certā-, stem of
are also used as secondary, forming
nouns from other nouns and from adjectives: as, sāncti-mōnia
[*] Note.--Of these endings,
-men is primary (cf. §
234. 2.14); -mentum is a compound of men- and to-, and appears for the most part later in the
language than -men: as, mōmen, movement
(Lucr.); mōmentum (later). So
is a development from L-M-N-a, l-m-n's
(letters of the alphabet), changed to
along with other nouns in -men. -mōnium
and -mōnia were
originally compound secondary suffixes formed from mōn- (a by-form of men-), which was early associated with
, a river near Rome; alimōnia
last was formed directly from
become established as a supposed primary suffix.
Nouns denoting means
are formed from roots and verb-stems (rarely
from noun-stems) by means of the neuter suffixes—
candle (a secondary formation).
-trum (stem tro-) was an old formation from tor- (§ 234. 2.15), with the stem suffix o-, and -clum (stem
clo- for tlo-) appears to be related; -culum is the same as -clum; -bulum contains
lo- (§ 234. II. 9, 10) and -brum is closely related.
A few masculines and feminines of the same formation occur as nouns
facere, to make.
terere, to bore.
Abstract Nouns, mostly from adjective-stems, rarely from noun-stems,
are formed by means of the secondary feminine suffixes—
- In stems ending in o- or
ā- the stem-vowel is
lost before -ia (as
) and appears as i before -tās, -tūs, -tia
- Consonant stems often insert i before
(as if from old adjectives in -es),ūber-tās,
. o after i is changed
In like manner -dō
(F.) form abstract
nouns, but are associated with verbs and apparently added to
desire, from cupere, to desire (as if from stem
sweetness (cf. dulcis, sweet), as if from a stem
lumbago (cf. lumbus, loin), as if from
[*] Note.--Of these,
-ia is inherited as secondary
(cf. § 234. 2.11).
-tia is formed by adding
-ia to stems with a t-suffix: as,
mīles (stem mīlit-);
clēmentia from clēmēns; whence by
. -tās is
inherited, but its component parts, tā- + ti-,
are found as suffixes in the same sense: as,
sēmen. -tūs is tū- + ti-, cf.
. -dō and
-gō appear only with
long vowels, as from verb-stems, by a false analogy; but
-dō is do- + ōn-: as,
, albēdō (cf.
), (hot flash?) fear;
-gō is possibly co- + ōn-; cf.
, but cf.
. -tūdō is compounded of -dō with tu-stems, which acquire a long vowel from
association with verb-stems in u-
, habitū-dō; whence
Neuter Abstracts, which easily pass into concretes denoting offices
are formed from noun-stems and perhaps from verb-stems by means of
hospitality, an inn;
), a guest.
colleagueship, a college;
soothsaying, an omen;
), a soothsayer.
to miss, from †dē-sīdēs,
of place, of missing
, [added] to a verb.
time of new moon;
flight of the kings;
flight of a king.
slavery, the slave class;
servus, a slave.
Vowel stems lose their vowel before -ium
: as, collēg-ium
-ium is the neuter of the adjective
suffix -ius. It is an inherited
primary suffix, but is used with great freedom as secondary.
-tium is formed like -tia, by adding -ium to stems with t: as,
exit-ium, equit-ium (cf. exitus,
equitēs); so, by analogy,
Less commonly, abstract nouns (which usually become concrete) are
formed from noun-stems (confused with verb-stems) by means of the
-nia, F.; -nium, -lium, -cinium, N.
contici-nium, the hush
to become still.
robber (cf. latrōcinor, rob,
implying an adjective †
For Diminutives and Patronymics, see §§ 243, 244.
DERIVATION OF ADJECTIVES
Derivative Adjectives, which often become nouns, are either Nominal
(from nouns or adjectives) or Verbal
(as from roots or verb-stems).
Diminutive Adjectives are usually confined to one gender, that of the
primitive, and are used as Diminutive Nouns.
They are formed by means of the suffixes—
(after a vowel), -culus
gladi-olus, a small
auri-cula, a little
auris, an ear.
, N., a gift.
lib-ellus, a little
liber, a book.
aure-olus (-a, -um),
aureus (-a, -um),
), very small;
parvus (-a, -um),
[*] Note 1.--These diminutive
endings are all formed by adding -lus to various stems. The formation is the same as
that of -ulus in § 251. But these words became
settled as diminutives, and retained their connection with
nouns. So in English the diminutives whitish, reddish, are of the same
formation as bookish and snappish, -culus comes from
-lus added to adjectives in
-cus formed from stems in
n- and s-: as, iuven-cus,
), prīs-cus, whence the
becomes a part of the termination, and the whole
ending (-culus) is used elsewhere,
but mostly with n- and s- stems, in accordance with its origin.
[*] Note 2.--Diminutives are
often used to express affection, pity, or contempt: as, dēliciolae, little pet;
muliercula, a poor
(weak) woman; Graeculus, a miserable Greek.
, added to stems in
, has the same diminutive force,
but is used with masculines only: as, homun-ciō
, a dwarf
Patronymics, indicating descent
, are formed by adding to proper
names the suffixes—
-adēs, -idēs, -īdēs, -eus, M.; -ās, -is,
These words, originally Greek adjectives, have almost all become
nouns in Latin:—
plur.), the Pleiads.
: Scīpi-adēs, son of
: Tyndar-idēs, Castor or
Pollux, son of Tyndarus;
Helen, daughter of Tyndarus.
Æneas, son of
son of Theseus.
Diomedes, son of Tydeus.
Oīl-eus, son of
Hecuba, daughter of
: Thaumant-iās, Iris,
daughter of Thaumas.
(from Hesper-is, -idis), plur., the daughters of
Hesperus, the Hesperides.
Adjectives meaning full of, prone to
formed from nounstems with the suffixes—
-ōsus, -lēns, -lentus
pesti-lēns, pesti-lentus, pestilent;
vīno-lentus, vīn-ōsus, given to
Adjectives meaning provided with
from nouns by means of the regular participial endings—
-tus, -ātus, -ītus, -ūtus
fūnus (st. fūner-, older (
barba, a beard.
turris, a tower.
-ātus, -ītus, -ūtus, imply reference to an imaginary
verb-stem: -tus is added directly
to nouns without any such reference.
Adjectives of various meanings, but signifying in general made of
, are formed from nouns by means of the suffixes—
-eus, -ius, -āceus, -īcius, -āneus
pater, a father.
uxor, a wife.
rosa, a rose.
later, a brick.
winged (volātus, a flight);
domes-ticus, of the
domus, a house.
silva, a wood.
-ius is originally primitive
(§ 234. 2.11);
-eus corresponds to Greek
, and has lost a y-sound (cf. yo-, § 234.
2.11); -īcius and
-āceus are formed by
adding -ius and -eus to stems in ī-c-,
ā-c- (suffix ko-, § 234.
2.12); -neus is no- + -eus (§ 234. 2.4); -āneus is formed by adding -neus to ā-stems; -ticus is a formation with -cus (cf. hosti-cus
with silvā-ticus), and has
been affected by the analogy of participial stems in to- (nominative -tus).
Adjectives denoting pertaining to
from nounstems with the suffixes—
-ālis, -āris, -ēlis, -īlis,
[*] Note.--The suffixes
arise from adding -lis (stem
li-) to various vowel stems.
The long vowels are due partly to confusion between stem and
suffix (cf. vītā-lis, from
), partly to confusion with verb-stems: cf.
). -ris is an inherited
suffix, but in most of these formations -āris arises by differentiation for
-ālis in words
containing an 1 (as
Adjectives with the sense of belonging to
are formed by means of the suffixes—
-ānus, -ēnus, -īnus; -ās, -ēnsis; -cus, -acus
(-ācus), -icus; -eus, -êius, -icius
So from common nouns:—
of the mountains;
vetus (stem veter-), old.
calm (of evening stillness);
of a hill;
of the class of freedmen;
the lowest rank;
of a market-place, or the
civic, of a
of a fuller;
of a woman, feminine;
milk (stem lacti-).
the commons, plebeian;
But especially from proper nouns to denote belonging to or coming
Many derivative adjectives with these endings have by usage
Cyzicenes, people of
Trojan (a Greek form);
|Aquil-êius, a Roman
name;Aquil-êia, a town in
|Silv-ānus, M., a
god of the woods;
, M., name of Scipio
|lani-ēna, F., a
|Aufidi-ēnus, M., a Roman
, used as M., a Roman name;
|ru-īna, F., a
fall (no noun existing).
, F., learning;
[*] Note.--Of these
-ēnus, -īnus are compounded from
-nus added to a stem-vowel:
. The long vowels come from a confusion with
verb-stems (as in plē-nus,fīnī-tus,
from the noun-stem in ā-. as,
. A few nouns occur of similar formation, as if
from verb-stems in ō-
and ū-: as,
Other adjectives meaning in a general way belonging
(especially of places
) are formed with the
(-tris), -ester (-estris), -timus,
-nus, -ernus, -urnus, -ternus (-turnus)
pedes-ter, of the
lasting six months;
silva, a wood.
neighboring, on the
mari-timus, of the
long (in time).
[*] Note.--Of these, -ester is formed by adding tri- (cf. tro-,
§ 234. 2.16) to stems in
t- or d-. Thus †pedet-tri-becomes
pedestri-, and others follow the
analogy. -nus is an inherited suffix
(§ 234. 2.4). -ernus and -urnus are formed by adding -nus to s-stems: as,
diur-nus (for †
), and hence, by analogy,
). By an extension of the same principle were formed the
suffixes -ternus and -turnus from words like
Adjectives meaning belonging to
from nouns by means of the suffixes—
-ārius, -tōrius (-sōrius)
of silver or money;
dēvor-sōrius, of an
inn (cf. § 254. 5);
[*] Note 1.--Here -ius (§ 234. 2.11) is added to shorter forms in -āris and -or: as,
[*] Note 2.--These adjectives are
often fixed as nouns (see § 254).
Adjectives expressing the action of the verb as a quality
from real or apparent verb-stems with the suffixes—
-āx, -idus, -ulus, -vus (-uus, -īvus,
denotes a faulty
thirsty (as dry earth etc.);
nocēre, to do
recidere, to fall
captive; M., a prisoner of
capere, to take.
[*] Note.--Of these,
-āx is a reduction of
ā- + -cus), become independent and used with
verb-stems. Similar forms in -ĕx, -ōx, -īx, and -ūx are found or employed in derivatives:
, M., a rain-tile (from
savage (from āter, black);
celōx, F., a yacht
); fēlīx, happy,
originally fertile (cf. fēlō,
, F., confidence (as from
); cf. also
). So mandūcus,
is no doubt denominative, as in
). But later it was used to form adjectives directly
is the same suffix as in
diminutives, but attached to verb-stems. Cf. aemulus
(cf. imitor and
, sitting by,
, and sēdō
, hence calm
, in weight;
, a plummet;
, an addition
a picker up of things sacred
seems originally primary (cf.
§ 234. 2.8), but -īvus
have become secondary and are used
with nouns: as, aestīvus
); cf. domes-ticus
Adjectives expressing passive qualities
occasionally active, are formed by means of the suffixes—
-ilis, -bilis, -ius, -tilis (-silis)
frangere (FRAG), to
choice, rare (cf.
eximere, to take out,
agere, to drive.
fattened (see note);
[*] Note.--Of these,
-ius is primary, but is also
used as secondary (cf. § 241. b. N.). -ilis is both primary (as in agilis, fragilis）
and secondary (as in similis,
like, cf. ὅμος,
ὅμαλος, English same);
-bilis is in some way related
to -bulum and -brum (§ 240. N.); in -tilis and
-silis, -lis is added to to-
(so-), stem of the perfect
participle: as, fossilis,
dug up (from fossus, dug); volātilis, winged (from
Verbal Adjectives that are Participial in meaning are formed with the
-ndus, -bundus, -cundus
(the same as the gerundive ending) forms a few
active or reflexive adjectives:—
, denote a
continuance of the act
expressed by the verb:—
dying, at the point of death;
||root FĒ, nourish.
to be angry.
[*] Note.--These must have
been originally nominal: as in the series, rubus, red bush;
rubidus (but no
, a river of Etruria;
Minius, a river of Lusitania);
(as in averruncus,
homun-culus). So turba, commotion;
turbō, a top;
Here belong also the participial suffixes -minus
), from which are formed a
few nouns in which the participial force is still
woman (the nourisher);
||root FĒ, nourish.
Nouns with Adjective Suffixes
Many fixed forms of the Nominal Adjective suffixes men tioned in the
preceding sections, make Nouns more or less regularly used in
employed about anything:—
, M., silversmith,
broker, from argentum, silver.
- Corinthi-ārius, M.,
worker in Corinthian bronze
(sarcastic nickname of Augustus), from (
- centōn-ārius, M.,
ragman, from centō,
connected with something:—
- argent-āria, F.,
bank, from argentum, silver.
- arēn-āriae, F.
sandpits, from arēna, sand.
- Asin-āria, F., name of a play,
from asinus, ass.
of a thing (with a few of more general
- aer-ārium, N.,
treasury, from aes, copper.
- tepid-ārium, N., warm
bath, from tepidus, warm.
- sūd-ārium, N.,
a towel, cf.
- sal-ārium, N., salt
money, salary, from sāl, salt.
- calendārium, N., a
note-book, from calendae, calends.
- Agitā-tōria, F., a
play of Plautus, The
- vor-sōria, F., a
tack (nautical), from vorsus, a turn.
-tōrium (-sōrium), place of
action (with a few of more general meaning):
- dēvor-sōrium, N.,
an inn, as from dēvortō, turn
- audī-tōrium, N.,
a lecture-room, as from audiō,
- ten-tōrium, N., a
tent, as from tendō, stretch.
- tēc-tōrium, N.,
plaster, as from
, tēctus, cover.
- por-tōrium, N.,
toll, cf. portō, carry,
- bov-īle, N.,
, bŏvis, ox,
- ov-īle, N.,
, stem ovi-,
-al for -āle, thing connected
with the primitive:—
- capit-al, N., headdress,
capital crime, from caput, head.
(especially in plural), N., inner
apartment, cf. penetrō, enter.
plural (the regular form for names of festivals), feast
of Sat urn, from
-ētum, N. (cf. -ātus, -ūtus, see § 246. N.), -tum, place of a thing, especially
with names of trees and plants to designate where these grow:—
- querc-ētum, N., oak
grove, from quercus, oak.
- olīv-ētum, N.,
olive grove, from olīva, an olive
- salic-tum, N., a willow
thicket, from salix, a willow tree.
- Argil-ētum, N., The Clay
Pit, from argilla, clay.
-cus (sometimes with
-īcus, in any one of
the genders, with various meanings:—
- vīli-cus, M., a
steward, vīli-ca, F.,
a stewardess, from vīlla,
- fabr-ica, F., a workshop,
, M., am-īca, F.,
friend, cf. amāre, to love.
- būbul-cus, M.,
frombūb-ulus, diminutive, cf.
- cant-icum, N., song, from
cantus, act of
- rubr-īca, F., red
paint, from ruber,
-eus, -ea, -eum, with various
- alv-eus, M., a trough,
from alvus, the
- capr-ea, F., a wild
she-goat, from caper, he-goat.
- flamm-eum, N., a bridal
veil, from flamma,
flame, from its color.
-ter (stem tri-), -aster, -ester:—
- eques-ter, M., knight, for
- sequ-ester, M., a
stake-holder, from derivative of sequor, follow.
- ole-aster, M., wild olive,
from olea, an olive
The suffix -ō
, stem ōn-
), usually added to verb-stems
(see § 236. c
), is sometimes used with noun-stems to form
nouns denoting possessed of.
originally adjectives expressing quality
, and hence often appear as
epulae, a feast;
nāsus, a nose;
with a large nose (also as a proper
big-head (also as a proper name).
head of a curia (also as a proper name).
restis, a rope;
Rarely suffixes are added to compound
imagined, but not used in their compound form:—
ad, to, and
verb, but without the intervening
estate, but without the inter vening
a sacrifice of a swine, a sheep, and a bull;
sheep, taurus, bull, where the primitive
would be impossible in Latin, though such formations are
common in Sanskrit.
DERIVATION OF VERBS
Verbs may be classed as Primitive or Derivative.
- Primitive Verbs are those inherited by the Latin from the
- Derivative Verbs are those formed in the development of the
Latin as a separate language.
Derivative Verbs are of two main classes:—
- Denominative Verbs, formed from nouns or adjectives.
- Verbs apparently derived from the stems of other
Verbs were formed in Latin from almost every form of noun-stem and
- Verbs of the First Conjugation are formed directly from
with a transitive meaning: as, fuga, flight;
fugāre, put to
- Many verbs of the First Conjugation are formed from
o- stems, changing the o- into ā-. These are more commonly
to incite, from stimulus, a good (stem
to make even, from aequus, even (stem
to pass the winter, from hībernus, of
the winter (stem hīberno-).
to whiten, from albus, white (stem
to expiate, from pius, pure (stem pio-).
- novō, -āre, to renew,
new (stem novo-).
to arm, from arma, arms (stem armo-).
to injure, from damnum, injury (stem
- A few verbs, generally intransitive, are formed by
analogy from consonant and i- or
u-stems, adding ā to the
to watch, from vigil, awake.
to be in exile, from exsul, an exile.
to take the auspices, from
to turn (anything) to
dust, from pulvis
(stem pulver- for pulvis-), dust.
to surge, boil, from
levō, -āre, to
A few verbs of the Second Conjugation (generally intransitive) are
recognizable as formed from noun-stems; but most are inherited, or
the primitive noun-stem is lost:—
albeō, -ēre, to be
cāneo, -ēre, to be
to shine, from clārus, bright.
to be lame, from claudus, lame.
algeō, -ēre, to be cold,
Some verbs of the Third Conjugation in -uō
are formed from noun-stems in u-
have lost a consonant i
), -ere, to
set up, from status, position.
, -ere, to
fear, from metus,
, -ere, to
sharpen, from acus,
, -ere, to
clear up, from inherited stem
bright (cf. ἄργυρος).
[*] Note.--Many verbs in u
are inherited, being formed from roots in u: as,
, fluere, flow;
λύω), solvere, dissolve. Some roots have
a parasitic u: as,
verbs or verbs of the
Fourth Conjugation are formed from i-
to toil, from
to bound, from fīnis, end.
to thirst, from sitis, thirst.
to establish, from stabilis, stable.
Some arise by confusion from other stems treated as i-
bulliō, -īre, to
(stem bullā-), bubble.
condiō, -īre, to
to rave, from
gestiō, -īre, to show
wild longing, from
[*] Note.--Some of this
form are of doubtful origin: as, ōrdior, begin, cf.
. The formation is closely akin to that of verbs in
-iō of the third
conjugation (p. 102).
Some are formed with -iō
to guard, from
to lighten, from fulgur, lightning.
[*] Note.--Here probably
belong the so-called desideratives in -uriō (see § 263. 4. N.).
Verbs from Other Verbs
The following four classes of verbs regularly derived from other
verbs have special meanings connected with their terminations.
[*] Note.--These classes are
all really denominative in their origin, but the formations had
become so associated with actual verbs that new derivatives were
often formed directly from verbs without the intervention of a
- Inceptives or Inchoatives add -scō
9 to the present stem of
verbs. They denote the beginning of an
action and are of the Third Conjugation. Of some there is no
simple verb in existence:—
warm, from caleō, be warm.
labā-scō, begin to
totter, from labō, totter.
determine, from sciō, know.
conceive a desire for, from cupiō,
grow, from alō, feed.
- So īrā-scor, get
young; cf. iuvenis, young man.
grow mild; cf. mītis, mild.
it is getting late; cf. vesper, evening.
[*] Note 2.--Inceptives
properly have only the present stem, but many use the
perfect and supine systems of simple verbs: as, calēscō,
grow warm, caluī;
blaze forth, ārsī;
proficīscor, set out,
- Intensives or Iteratives are formed from the Supine stem
and end in-tō or -itō (rarely -sō). They denote a forcible or repeatedaction, but this special sense often disappears.
Those derived from verbs of the First Conjugation end in
-itō (not -ātō).
They are of the first conjugation, and are properly denominative.
Compound suffixes -titō,
-sitō, are formed
with a few verbs. These are probably derived from other
may come from cantō, iterative
Another form of Intensives—sometimes called
Meditatives, or verbs of practice—ends in
-issō). These denote
a certain energy or eagerness of action rather than its
hurl, from iaciō, throw.
sleepy, from dormiō, sleep.
flit, from volō, fly.
vēndi-tō, try to
sell, from vēndō,
shatter, from quatiō, shake.
These are of the third conjugation, usually having the perfect
and supine of the fourth:—
lay hold on, from capiō, take.
do (with energy), from faciō,
pet-esso, pet-issō, seek
(eagerly), from petō, seek.
, arcessītum, summon.
, lacessītum, provoke.
[*] Note.--The verbs in
-essō, -issō, show the same
formation as levāssō,
(§ 183. 5), but
its origin is not fully explained.
- Diminutives end in -illō, and denote a feeble or pettyaction:—
jest, cf. cavilla, raillery.
chirp or warble, from cantō, sing.
[*] Note 2.--Diminutives
are formed from verb-stems derived from real or supposed
- Desideratives end in -turiō (-suriō), and express longing or wishing.They are
of the fourth conjugation, and only two are in common
Others are used by the dramatists.
be in labor, from pariō, bring
), be hungry, from edō,
[*] Note 3.--Desideratives are
probably derived from some noun of agency: as, ēmpturiō, wish to
buy, from ēmptor,
Vīsō, go to
see, is an inherited desiderative of a different