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45. The Stem of nouns of the Second Declension ends in ŏ-: as, viro- (stem of vir, man), servo- (stem of servus or servos, slave), bello- (stem of bellum, war).

a. The Nominative is formed from the stem by adding s in masculines and feminines, and m in neuters, the vowel ŏ being weakened to ŭ (see §§ 6. a, 46. N.1).

b. In most nouns whose stem ends in - the s is not added in the Nominative, but o is lost, and e intrudes before r,1 if not already present: as, ager , stem agrŏ- 2; cf. puer , stem puero-.

Exceptions: erus , hesperus, iūniperus , mōrus , numerus , taurus , umerus , uterus, vīrus, and many Greek nouns.

c. The stem-vowel ŏ has a variant form ĕ,3 which is preserved in the Latin vocative singular of nouns in -us: as, servĕ, vocative of servus, slave.

Note.--In composition this ĕ appears as ĭ. Thus,—belli-ger, warlike (from bell- o/e-, stem of bellum, war).

46. Nouns of the Second Declension in -us (-os) and -um (-om) are thus declined:—

servus , M., slave bellum , N., war Pompêius , M., Pompey
STEM servo- STEM bello- STEM Pompêio-

NOM. servus (-os -us (-os bellum -um Pompêius
GEN. servī -ī bellī -ī Pompêī
DAT. servō -ō bellō -ō Pompêiō
ACC. servum (-om -um (-om bellum -um Pompêium
ABL. servō -ō bellō -ō Pompêiō
VOC. serve -e bellum -um Pompêī ((--ei

NOM. servī -ī bella -a Pompêī
GEN. servōrum -ōrum bellōrum -ōrum Pompêiōrum
DAT. servīs -īs bellīs -īs Pompêīs
ACC. servōs -ōs bella -a Pompêiōs
ABL. servīs -īs bellīs -īs Pompêīs

Note 1.--The earlier forms for nominative and accusative were -os, -om, and these were always retained after u and v up to the end of the Republic. The terminations s and m are sometimes omitted in inscriptions: as, Cornēlio for Cornēlios , Cornēliom.

Note 2.--Stems in quo-, like equo-, change qu to c before u. Thus, ecus (earlier equos ), equī , equō , ecum (earlier equom ), eque . Modern editions disregard this principle.

47. Nouns of the Second Declension in -er and -ir are thus declined:—

puer , M., boy ager , M., field vir , M., man
STEM puero- STEM agro- STEM viro-

NOM. puer ager vir ------
GEN. puerī agrī virī -ī
DAT. puerō agrō virō -ō
ACC. puerum agrum virum -um
ABL. puerō agrō virō -ō

NOM. puerī agrī virī -ī
GEN. puerōrum agrōrum virōrum -ōrum
DAT. puerīs agrīs virīs -īs
ACC. puerōs agrōs virōs -ōs
ABL. puerīs agrīs virīs -īs

Note.--When e belongs to the stem, as in puer , it is retained throughout; other, wise it appears only in the nominative and vocative singular, as in ager .

Gender in the Second Declension

48. Nouns ending in -us (-os), -er, -ir, are Masculine; those ending in -um (-on) are Neuter.

Exceptions: Names of countries and towns in -us (-os) are Feminine: as, Aegyptus , Corinthus . Also many names of plants and gems, with the following: alvus, belly; carbasus, linen (pl. carbasa, sails, N.); colus, distaff; humus, ground: vannus, winnowing-shovel.

Many Greek nouns retain their original gender: as, arctus (F.), the Polar Bear; methodus (F.), method.

a. The following in -us are Neuter; their accusative (as with all neuters) is the same as the nominative: pelagus, sea; vīrus, poison; vulgus (rarely M.), the crowd. They are not found in the plural, except pelagus , which has a rare nominative and accusative plural pelagē .

Note.--The nominative plural neuter cētē, sea monsters, occurs; the nominative singular cētus occurs in Vitruvius.

Case-Forms in the Second Declension

49. a. The Locative form of this declension ends for the singular in -ī: as, humī, on the ground; Corinthī, at Corinth; for the plural, in -īs: as, Philippīs, at Philippi (cf. p. 34, footnote).

b. The genitive of nouns in -ius or -ium ended, until the Augustan Age, in a single -ī: as, fīlī, of a son; Pompêī, of Pompey ( Pompêius ); but the accent of the nominative is retained: as, ingĕ', of genius. 4

c. Proper names in -ius have -ī in the vocative, retaining the accent of the nominative: as, Vergĭ'lī. So also, fīlius, son; genius, divine guardian: as, audī , fīlī, hear, my son.

Adjectives in -ĭus form the vocative in -ie, and some of these are occasionally used as nouns: as, Lacedaemonie, O Spartan.

Note.--Greek names in -īus have the vocative -īe: as, Lyrcīus , vocative Lyrcīe .

d. The genitive plural often has -um or (after v ) -om (cf. § 6. a) instead of -ōrum, especially in the poets: as, deum , superum , dīvom, of the gods; virum, of men. Also in compounds of vir , and in many words of money, measure, and weight: as, Sēvirum, of the Seviri; nummum, of coins; iūgerum, of acres.

e. The original ending of the ablative singular (-ōd) is sometimes found in early Latin: as, Gnaivōd (later, Gnaeō ), Cneius.

f. Proper names in -âius, -êius, -ôius (as, Aurunculêius, Bôī), are declined like Pompêius .

g. Deus (M.), god, is thus declined:—

NOM. deus deī (di ī ), dī
GEN. deī deōrum, deum
DAT. deō deīs (di īs ), dīs
ACC. deum deōs
ABL. deō deīs (di īs ), dīs

Note.--The vocative singular of deus does not occur in classic Latin, but is said to have been dee; deus (like the nominative) occurs in the Vulgate. For the genitive plural, dīvum or dīvom (from dīvus, divine) is often used.

50. The following stems in ero-, in which e belongs to the stem, retain the e throughout and are declined like puer (§ 47):—

adulter, adulterer; gener, son-in-law; puer, boy;
socer, father-in-law; vesper, evening; Līber, Bacchus.

Also, the adjective līber, free, of which līberī, children, is the plural (§ 111. a), and compounds in -fer and -ger (stem fero-, gero-): as, lūcifer, morning star; armiger, squire.

a. An old nominative socerus occurs. So vocative puere, boy, as if from †puerus (regularly puer ).

b. Vir, man, has genitive virī; the adjective satur, sated, has saturī; vesper, evening, has ablative vespere (locative vesperī, in the evening).

c. Mulciber, Vulcan, has -berī and -brī in the genitive. The barbaric names Hibēr and Celtibēr retain ē throughout.

51. The following, not having e in the stem, insert it in the nominative singular and are declined like ager (§ 47):—

ager, field, stem agro-; coluber, snake; magister, master;
aper, boar; conger, sea eel; minister, servant;
arbiter, judge; culter, knife; oleaster, wild olive;
auster, south wind; faber, smith; onager (-grus), wild ass;
cancer, crab; fiber, beaver; scomber (-brus), mackerel.
caper, goat; liber, book;

Greek Nouns of the Second Declension

52. Greek nouns of the Second Declension end in -os, -ōs, masculine or feminine, and in -on neuter.

They are mostly proper names and are declined as follows in the Singular, the Plural, when found, being regular:—

mȳthos , M. Athōs , M. Dēlos , F. Īlion, N.
fable Athos Delos Ilium

NOM. mȳthos Athōs (-ō Dēlos Īlion
GEN. mȳthī Athō (-ī Dēlī Īliī
DAT. mȳthō Athō Dēlō Īliō
ACC. mȳthon Athōn (-um Dēlon (-um Īlion
ABL. mȳthō Athō Dēlō Īliō
VOC. mȳthe Athōs Dēle Īlion

a. Many names in -ēs belonging to the third declension have also a genitive in -ī: as, Thūcȳdidēs , Thūcȳdidī (compare § 44. b).

b. Several names in -er have also a nominative in -us: as, Teucer or Teucrus . The name Panthūs has the vocative Panthū (§ 81. 3).

c. The genitive plural of certain titles of books takes the Greek termination -ōn: as, Geōrgicōn, of the Georgics.

d. The termination -oe (for Greek -οι) is sometimes found in the nominative plural: as, Adelphoe, the Adelphi (a play of Terence).

e. Greek names in -eus (like Orpheus ) have forms of the second and third declensions (see § 82).

1 Compare the English chamber from French chambre.

2 Compare Greek ἀγρός, which shows the original o of the stem.

3 By so-called Ablaut (see § 17. a).

4 The genitive in -iī occurs once in Virgil, and constantly in Ovid, but was probably unknown to Cicero.

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