SUBSTANTIVE CLAUSES[*] 560. A clause which is used as a noun may be called a Substantive Clause, as certain relative clauses are sometimes called adjective clauses. But in practice the term is restricted to clauses which represent a nominative or an accusative case, the clauses which stand for an ablative being sometimes called adverbial clauses. Even with this limitation the term is not quite precise (see p. 367, footnote 1). The fact is rather that the clause and the leading verb are mutually complementary; each reinforces the other. The simplest and probably the earliest form of such sentences is to be found in the paratactic use (see § 268) of two verbs like volō abeās , dīcāmus cēnseō , adeam optimum est . From such verbs the usage spread by analogy to other verbs (see lists on pp. 363, 367, footnotes), and the complementary relation of the clause to the verb came to resemble the complementary force of the accusative, especially the accusative of cognate meaning (§ 390). [*] 561. A clause used as a noun is called a Substantive Clause. [*] a. A Substantive Clause may be used as the Subject or Object of a verb, as an Appositive, or as a Predicate Nominative or Accusative.
[*] Note 1.--Many ideas which in English take the form of an abstract noun may be rendered by a substantive clause in Latin. Thus, he demanded an investigation may be postulābat ut quaestiō habērētur . The common English expression for with the infinitive also corresponds to a Latin substantive clause: as,—it remains for me to speak of the piratic war, reliquum est ut dē bellō dīcam pīrāticō .
[*] Note 2.--When a Substantive Clause is used as subject, the verb to which it is subject is called impersonal, and the sign of the construction in English is commonly the so-called expletive IT.[*] 562. Substantive Clauses are classified as follows:—
- Subjunctive Clauses ( ut , nē , ut nōn , etc.). a. Of purpose (command, wish, fear） (§§ 563, 564). b. Of result (happen, effect, etc.) (§ 568).
- Indicative Clauses with quod : Fact, Specification, Feeling (§ 572).
- Indirect Questions: Subjunctive, introduced by an Interrogative Word (§§ 573-576).
- Infinitive Clauses a. With verbs of ordering, wishing, etc. (§ 563). b.Indirect Discourse (§ 579 ff.).
[*] Note.--The Infinitive with Subject Accusative is not strictly a clause, but in Latin it has undergone so extensive a development that it may be so classed. The uses of the Infinitive Clause are of two kinds: (1) in constructions in which it replaces a subjunctive clause with ut etc.; (2) in the Indirect Discourse. The first class will be discussed in connection with the appropriate subjunctive constructions (§ 563); for Indirect Discourse, see § 579 ff.
Substantive Clauses of Purpose[*] 563. Substantive Clauses of Purpose with ut (negative nē ) are used as the object of verbs denoting an action directed toward the future. Such are, verbs meaning to admonish, ask, bargain, command, decree, determine, permit, persuade, resolve, urge, and wish:—1
- “monet ut omnēs suspīciōnēs vītet ” (B. G. 1.20) , he warns him to avoid all suspicion.
- “hortātur eōs nē animō dēficiant ” (B. C. 1.19) , he urges them not to lose heart.
- “tē rogō atque ōrō ut eum iuvēs ” (Fam. 13.66) , I beg and pray you to aid him.
- “hīs utī conquīrerent imperāvit ” (B. G. 1.28) , he ordered them to search.
- persuādet Casticō ut rēgnum occupāret (id. 1.3), he persuades Casticus to usurp royal power.
- suīs imperāvit nē quod omnīnō tēlum rêicerent (id. 1.46), he ordered his men not to throw back any weapon at all.
[*] Note.--With any verb of these classes the poets may use the Infinitive instead of an object clause:—
- “hortāmur fārī ” (Aen. 2.74) , we urge [him] to speak.
- nē quaere docērī (id. 6.614), seek not to be told.
- temptat praevertere (id. 1.721), she attempts to turn, etc.
- “ Labiēnum iugum montis ascendere iubet ” (B. G. 1.21) , he orders Labienus to ascend the ridge of the hill.
- līberōs ad sē addūcī iussit (id. 2.5), he ordered the children to be brought to him.
- ab opere lēgātōs discēdere vetuerat (id. 2.20), he had forbidden the lieutenants to leave the work.
- “vetuēre [bona] reddī ” (Liv. 2.5) , they forbade the return of the goods (that the goods be returned).
[*] Note.--Some other verbs of commanding etc. occasionally take the Infinitive:—
- “pontem imperant fierī ” (B. C. 1.61) , they order a bridge to be built.
- rēs monet cavēre (Sall. Cat. 52.3), the occasion warns us to be on our guard.
- Subject of dependent verb same as that of the verb of
- augur fierīvoluī; (Fam. 15.4.13), I wished to be made augur.
- cupiō vigiliam meam tibi trādere (id. 11.24), I am eager to hand over my watch to you.
- iūdicem mē esse, nōn doctōrem volō; (Or. 117), I wish to be a judge, not a teacher.
- mē Caesaris mīlitemdīcīvoluī; (B. C. 2.32.13), I wished to be called a soldier of Cæsar.
- “cupiō mē esse clēmentem ” (Cat. 1.4) , I desire to be merciful. [But regularly, cupiō esse clēmēns (see § 457).]
- omnīs hominēs, quī sēsēstudent praestārecēterīs animālibus (Sall. Cat. 1), all men who wish to excel other living creatures.
- Subject of dependent verb different from that of the
verb of wishing:
- “volō tē scīre” (Fam. 9.24.1) , I wish you to know.
- “vim volumus exstinguī” (Sest. 92) , we wish violence to be put down.
- “tē tuāfruī virtūte cupimus ” (Brut. 331) , we wish you to reap the fruits of your virtue.
- “cupiō ut impetret” (Pl. Capt. 102) , I wish he may get it.
- “numquam optābōut audiātis” (Cat. 2.15) , I will never desire that you shall hear.
- “permīsit ut faceret” (De Or. 2.366) , permitted him to make.
- “concēdō tibi ut ea praetereās” (Rosc. Am. 54) , I allow you to pass by these matters.
- “tabernācula statuī passus nōn est ” (B. C. 1.81) , he did not allow tents to be pitched.
- “vīnum importārīnōn sinunt ” (B. G. 4.2) , they do not allow wine to be imported.
- cōnstituerant ut L. Bēstia quererētur (Sall. Cat. 43), they had determined that Lucius Bestia should complain.
- “proeliō supersedēre statuit ” (B. G. 2.8) , he determined to refuse battle.
- “dē bonīs rēgis quae reddī cēnsuerant ” (Liv. 2.5) , about the king's goods, which they had decreed should be restored.
- dēcernit utī cōnsulēs dīlēctum habeant (Sall. Cat. 34), decrees that the consuls shall hold a levy.
- “ēdictō nē quis iniussū pūgnāret ” (Liv. 5.19) , having commanded that none should fight without orders.
[*] Note 1.--Different verbs of these classes with the same meaning vary in their construction (see the Lexicon). For verbs of bargaining etc. with the Gerundive, see § 500. 4.
[*] Note 2.-- Verbs of decreeing and voting often take the Infinitive of the Second Periphrastic conjugation:—Rēgulus captīvōs reddendōs [ esse ] “nōn cēnsuit” (Off. 1.39) , Regulus voted that the captives should not be returned. [He said, in giving his formal opinion: captīvī nōn reddendī sunt .][*] e. Verbs of caution and effort take the Subjunctive with ut . But cōnor, try, commonly takes the Complementary Infinitive:—
- “cūrā ut quam prīmum intellegam ” (Fam. 13.10.4) , let me know as soon as possible (take care that I may understand).
- dant operam ut habeant (Sall. Cat. 41), they take pains to have (give their attention that, etc.).
- impellere utī Caesar nōminārētur (id. 49), to induce them to name Cæsar (that Cæsar should be named).
- “cōnātus est Caesar reficere pontīs ” (B. C. 1.50) , Cæsar tried to rebuild the bridges.
- “timeō nē Verrēs fēcerit ” (Verr. 5.3) , I fear that Verres has done, etc.
- “ nē animum offenderet verēbātur ” (B. G. 1.19) , he feared that he should hurt the feelings, etc.
- “ nē exhērēdārētur veritus est ” (Rosc. Am. 58) , he feared that he should be disinherited.
- “ōrātor metuō nē languēscat senectūte ” (Cat. M. 28) , I fear the orator grows feeble from old age.
- “vereor ut tibi possim concēdere ” (De Or. 1.35) , I fear that I cannot grant you.
- “haud sānē perīculum est nē nōn mortem optandam putet ” (Tusc. 5.118) , there is no danger that he will not think death desirable.
[*] Note.--The subjunctive in nē-clauses after a verb of fearing is optative in origin. To an independent nē-sentence, as nē accidat, may it not happen, a verb may be prefixed (cf. § 560), making a complex sentence. Thus, vidē nē accidat ; ōrō nē accidat ; cavet nē accidat ; when the prefixed verb is one of fearing, timeō nē accidat becomes let it not happen, but I fear that it may. The origin of the ut-clause is similar.[*] 565. Volō and its compounds, the impersonals licet and oportet , and the imperatives dīc and fac often take the Subjunctive without ut :—
- “volō amēs ” (Att. 2.10) , I wish you to love.
- “quam vellem mē invītāssēs ” (Fam. 10.28.1) , how I wish you had invited me!
- “māllem Cerberum metuerēs ” (Tusc. 1.12) , I had rather you feared Cerberus.
- sint enim oportet (id. 1.12), for they must exist.
- “ querāmur licet ” (Caec. 41) , we are allowed to complain.
- “fac dīligās ” (Att. 3.13.2) , do love! [A periphrasis for the imperative dīlige, love (cf. § 449. c).]
- dīc exeat, tell him to go out.
[*] Note 1.--In such cases there is no ellipsis of ut . The expressions are idiomatic remnants of an older construction in which the subjunctives were hortatory or optative and thus really independent of the verb of wishing etc. In the classical period, however, they were doubtless felt as subordinate. Compare the use of cavē and the subjunctive (without nē ) in Prohibitions (§ 450), which appears to follow the analogy of fac .
[*] Note 2.-- Licet may take (1) the Subjunctive, usually without ut; (2) the simple Infinitive; (3) the Infinitive with Subject Accusative; (4) the Dative and the Infinitive (see § 455. 1). Thus, I may go is licet eam , licet īre , licet mē īre , or licet mihi īre .For licet in concessive clauses, see § 527. b. [*] a. Verbs of commanding and the like often take the subjunctive without ut :—
- “huic mandat Rēmōs adeat ” (B. G. 3.11) , he orders him to visit the Remi.
- rogat fīnem faciat (id. 1.20), he asks him to cease.
- Mnēsthea vocat, classem aptent sociī; (Aen. 4.289), he calls Mnestheus [and orders that] his comrades shall make ready the fleet.
[*] Note.--The subjunctive in this construction is the hortatory subjunctive used to express a command in Indirect Discourse (§ 588).
Substantive Clauses of Purpose with Passive Verbs[*] 566. A Substantive Clause used as the object of a verb becomes the subject when the verb is put in the passive (Impersonal Construction):—
- “Caesar ut cōgnōsceret postulātum est ” (B. C. 1.87) , Cæsar was requested to make an investigation (it was requested that Cæsar should make an investigation).
- “sī erat Hēracliō ab senātū mandātum ut emeret ” (Verr. 3.88) , if Heraclius had been instructed by the senate to buy.
- “sī persuāsum erat Cluviō ut mentīrētur ” (Rosc. Com. 51) , if Cluvius had been persuaded to lie.
- “putō concēdī nōbīs oportēre ut Graecō verbō ūtāmur ” (Fin. 3.15) , I think we must be allowed to use a Greek word.
- “ nē quid eīs noceātur ā Caesare cavētur ” (B. C. 1.86) , Cæsar takes care that no harm shall be done them (care is taken by Cæsar lest, etc.).
- admonitī sumus ut cavērēmus (Att. 8.11D. 3), we were warned to be careful.
- “cum monērētur ut cautior esset ” (Div. 1.51) , when he was advised to be more cautious.
- monērī vīsus est nē id faceret (id. 56), he seemed to be warned not to do it.
- adesse iubentur postrīdiē; (Verr. 2.41), they are ordered to be present on the following day.
- “ īre in exsilium iussus est ” (Cat. 2.12) , he was ordered to go into exile.
- “Simōnidēs vetitus est nāvigāre ” (Div. 2.134) , Simonides was forbidden to sail.
- “Mandubiī exīre cōguntur ” (B. G. 7.78) , the Mandubii are compelled to go out.
Substantive Clauses of Result (Consecutive Clauses)[*] 567. Clauses of Result may be used substantively, (1) as the object of faciō etc. (§ 568); (2) as the subject of these same verbs in the passive, as well as of other verbs and verbal phrases (§ 569); (3) in apposition with another substantive, or as predicate nominative etc. (see §§ 570, 571).2 [*] 568. Substantive Clauses of Result with ut (negative ut nōn ) are used as the object of verbs denoting the accomplishment of an effort. 3 Such are especially faciō and its compounds ( efficiō , cōnficiō , etc.):—
- “efficiam ut intellegātis ” (Clu. 7) , I will make you understand (lit. effect that you, etc.). [So, faciam ut intellegātis (id. 9).]
- “commeātūs ut portārī possent efficiēbat ” (B. G. 2.5) , made it possible that supplies could be brought.
- “perfēcī ut ē rēgnō ille discēderet ” (Fam. 15.4.6) , I brought about his departure from the kingdom.
- “quae lībertās ut laetior esset rēgis superbia fēcerat ” (Liv. 2.1) , the arrogance of the king had made this liberty more welcome.
- ēvincunt īnstandō ut litterae darentur (id. 2.4), by insisting they gain their point,—that letters should be sent. [Here ēvincunt = efficiunt .]
[*] Note.--The expressions facere ut , committere ut , with the subjunctive, often form a periphrasis for the simple verb: as,invītus fēcī ut Flāminium ē “senātū ēicerem” (Cat. M. 42) , it was with reluctance that I expelled Flaminius from the senate.[*] 569. Substantive Clauses of Result are used as the subject of the following:—
- Of passive verbs denoting the accomplishment of an effort:—
- Of Impersonals meaning it happens, it
remains, it follows, it is necessary, it is
added, and the like (§ 568, footnote):—
- “accidit ut essetlūna plēna ” (B. G. 4.29) , it happened to be full moon (it happened that it was, etc.). [Here ut esset is subject of accidit .]
- “reliquum est utofficiīs certēmusinter nōs ” (Fam. 7.31) , it remains for us to vie with each other in courtesies.
- “restat ut hōc dubitēmus” (Rosc. Am. 88) , it is left for us to doubt this.
- “sequitur ut doceam” (N. D. 2.81) , the next thing is to show (it follows, etc.).
- Of est in the sense of it is the fact that, etc. (mostly poetic):—
- “spērō fore ut contingat id nōbīs ” (Tusc. 1.82) , I hope that will be our happy lot.
- “cum vidērem fore ut nōn possem ” (Cat. 2.4) , when I saw that I should not be able.
- “illud etiam restiterat, ut tē in iūs ēdūcerent ” (Quinct. 33) , this too remained— for them to drag you into court.
- “ est mōs hominum, ut nōlint eundem plūribus rēbus excellere ” (Brut. 84) , it is the way of men to be unwilling for one man to excel in several things.
- “Canachī sīgna rigidiōra sunt quam ut imitentur vēritātem ” (Brut. 70) , the statues of Canachus are too stiff to represent nature (stiffer than that they should).
- “perpessus est omnia potius quam indicāret ” (Tusc. 2.52) , he endured all rather than betray, etc. [Regularly without ut except in Livy.]
- “tantum abest ut nostra mīrēmur, ut ūsque eō difficilēs ac mōrōsī sīmus, ut nōbīs nōn satis faciat ipse Dēmosthenēs ” (Or. 104) , so far from admiring my own works, I am difficult and captious to that degree that not Demosthenes himself satisfies me. [Here the first ut-clause is the subject of abest (§ 569. 2); the second, a result clause after tantum (§ 537); and the third, after ūsque eō .]
- “praeclārum illud est, ut eōs ... amēmus ” (Tusc. 3.73) , this is a noble thing, that we should love, etc.
- “vērī simile nōn est ut ille antepōneret ” (Verr. 4.11) , it is not likely that he preferred.
Indicative with Quod[*] 572. A peculiar form of Substantive Clause consists of quod (in the sense of that, the fact that) with the Indicative. The clause in the Indicative with quod is used when the statement is regarded as a fact:—
- “alterum est vitium, quod quīdam nimis māgnum studium cōnferunt ” (Off. 1.19) , it is another fault that some bestow too much zeal, etc. [Here ut cōnferant could be used, meaning that some should bestow; or the accusative and infinitive, meaning to bestow (abstractly); quod makes it a fact that men do bestow, etc.]
- “inter inanimum et animal hōc maximē interest, quod animal agit aliquid ” (Acad. 2.37) , this is the chief difference between an inanimate object and an animal, that an animal aims at something.
- “ quod rediit nōbīs mīrābile vidētur ” (Off. 3.111) , that he (Regulus) returned seems wonderful to us.
- “accidit perincommodē quod eum nusquam vīdistī ” (Att. 1.17.2) , it happened very unluckily that you nowhere saw him.
- “opportūnissima rēs accidit quod Germānī vēnērunt ” (B. G. 4.13) , a very fortunate thing happened, (namely) that the Germans came.
- “praetereō quod eam sibi domum sēdemque dēlēgit ” (Clu. 188) , I pass over the fact that she chose that house and home for herself.
- “mittō quod possessa per vim ” (Flacc. 79) , I disregard the fact that they were seized by violence.
- quod mihi dē nostrō statū grātulāris, minimē mīrāmur tē tuīs praeclārīs operibus laetārī; (Fam. 1.7.7), as to your congratulating me on our condition, we are not at all surprised that you are pleased with your own noble works.
- “ quod dē domō scrībis, ego, etc. ” (Fam. 14.2.3) , as to what you write of the house, I, etc.
- quod scrībis ... gaudeō; (Q. Fr. 3.1.9), I am glad that you write.
- “faciō libenter quod eam nōn possum praeterīre ” (Legg. 1.63) , I am glad that I cannot pass it by.
- “ quae perfecta esse vehementer laetor ” (Rosc. Am. 136) , I greatly rejoice that this is finished.
- “quī quia nōn habuit ā mē turmās equitum fortasse suscēnset ” (Att. 6.3.5) , who perhaps feels angry that he did not receive squadrons of cavalry from me.
- “molestē tulī tē senātuī grātiās nōn ēgisse ” (Fam. 10.27.1) , I was displeased that you did not return thanks to the senate.
Indirect Questions[*] 573. An Indirect Question is any sentence or clause which is introduced by an interrogative word (pronoun, adverb, etc.), and which is itself the subject or object of a verb, or depends on any expression implying uncertainty or doubt. In grammatical form, exclamatory sentences are not distinguished from interrogative (see the third example below). [*] 574. An Indirect Question takes its verb in the Subjunctive:
- “ quid ipse sentiam expōnam ” (Div. 1.10) , I will explain what I think. [Direct: quid sentiō ?]
- id possetne fierī cōnsuluit (id. 1.32), he consulted whether it could be done. [Direct: potestne ?]
- “ quam sīs audāx omnēs intellegere potuērunt ” (Rosc. Am. 87) , all could understand how bold you are. [Direct: quam es audāx !]
- “ doleam necne doleam nihil interest ” (Tusc. 2.29) , it is of no account whether I suffer or not. [Double question.]
- “quaesīvī ā Catilīnā in conventū apud M. Laecam fuisset necne ” (Cat. 2.13) , I asked Catiline whether he had been at the meeting at Marcus Lœca's or not. [Double question.]
- rogat mē quid sentiam, he asks me what I think. [Cf. rogat mē sententiam, he asks me my opinion.]
- “hōc dubium est, uter nostrum sit inverēcundior ” (Acad. 2.126) , this is doubtful, which of us two is the less modest.
- “incertī quātenus Volerō exercēret victōriam ” (Liv. 2.55) , uncertain how far Volero would push victory. [As if dubitantēs quātenus , etc.]
[*] Note.--An Indirect Question may be the subject of a verb (as in the fourth example), the direct object (as in the first), the secondary object (as in the sixth), an appositive (as in the seventh).[*] 575. The Sequence of Tenses in Indirect Question is illustrated by the following examples:—
- dīcō quid faciam, I tell you what I am doing.
- dīcō quid factūrus sim, I tell you what I will (shall) do.
- dīcō quid fēcerim, I tell you what I did (have done, was doing).
- dīxī quid facerem, I told you what I was doing.
- dīxī quid fēcissem, I told you what I had done (had been doing).
- dīxī quid factūrus essem, I told you what I would (should) do (was going to do).
- dīxī quid factūrus fuissem, I told you what I would (should) have done.
- “prōspiciō quī concursūs futūrī sint ” (Caecil. 42) , I foresee what throngs there will be. [Direct: quī erunt ?]
- “ quid sit futūrum crās, fuge quaerere ” (Hor. Od. 1.9.13) , forbear to ask what will be on the morrow. [Direct: quid erit or futūrum est ?]
- “posthāc nōn scrībam ad tē quid factūrus sim, sed quid fēcerim ” (Att. 10.18) , hereafter I shall not write to you what I am going to do, but what I have done. [Direct: quid faciēs (or factūrus eris )? quid fēcistī ?]
[*] Note.--This Periphrastic Future avoids the ambiguity which would be caused by using the Present Subjunctive to refer to future time in such clauses.[*] b. The Deliberative Subjunctive (§ 444) remains unchanged in an Indirect Question, except sometimes in tense:—
- quō mē vertam nesciō; (Clu. 4), I do not know which way to turn. [Direct: quō mē vertam ?]
- “neque satis cōnstābat quid agerent ” (B. G. 3.14) , and it was not very clear what they were to do. [Direct: quid agāmus ?]
- “nec quisquam satis certum habet, quid aut spēret aut timeat ” (Liv. 22.7.10) , nor is any one well assured what he shall hope or fear. [Here the future participle with sit could not be used.]
- incertō quid peterent aut vītārent (id. 28.36.12), since it was doubtful (ablative absolute) what they should seek or shun.
- vīneam quō in agrō cōnserī oportet sīc observātō; (Cato R. R. 6.4), in what soil a vineyard should be set you must observe thus.
- mīrum (nīmīrum) quam, marvellously (marvellous how).
- mīrum quantum, tremendously (marvellous how much).
- immāne quantum, monstrously (monstrous how much).
- sānē quam, immensely.
- valdē quam, enormously.
- “quī istam nesciō quam indolentiam māgnopere laudant ” (Tusc. 3.12) , who greatly extol that freedom from pain, whatever it is.
- “ mīrum quantum prōfuit ” (Liv. 2.1) , it helped prodigiously.
- “ ita fātō nesciō quō contigisse arbitror ” (Fam. 15.13) , I think it happened so by some fatality or other.
- nam suōs valdē quam paucōs habet (id. 11.13A. 3), for he has uncommonly few of his own.
- sānē quam sum gāvīsus (id. 11.13A. 4), I was immensely glad.
- “ immāne quantum discrepat ” (Hor. Od. 1.27.5) , is monstrously at variance.
- “nōstī Mārcellum quam tardus sit” (Fam. 8.10.3) , you know how slow Marcellus is. [For nōstī quam tardus sit Mārcellus . Cf. “I know thee who thou art.”]
- Cf. potestne igitur eārum rērum, quā rē futūrae sint, ūlla esse praesēnsiō; (Div. 2.15), can there be, then, any foreknowledge as to those things, why they will occur? [A similar use of the Objective Genitive.]
[*] Note.--In some cases the Object of Anticipation becomes the Subject by a change of voice, and an apparent mixture of relative and interrogative constructions is the result:—
- “ quīdam saepe in parvā pecūniā perspiciuntur quam sint levēs ” (Lael. 63) , it is often seen, in a trifling matter of money, how unprincipled some people are (some people are often seen through, how unprincipled they are).
- “quem ad modum Pompêium oppūgnārent ā mē indicātī sunt ” (Leg. Agr. 1.5) , it has been shown by me in what way they attacked Pompey (they have been shown by me, how they attacked).
- “circumfunduntur hostēs sī quem aditum reperīre possent ” (B. G. 6.37) , the enemy pour round [to see] if they can find entrance.
- “vīsam sī domī est ” (Ter. Haut. 170) , I will go see if he is at home.