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111. 34.79 PELIKE PLATE LXIII and SUPPL. PLATE 16

Height 0.474. A, Bull. MFA. 32 pp. 39-42 (Caskey); AJA. 1934 pll. 26-7 (Caskey), whence (A) Scheurleer Grieksche Ceramiek pl. 34, 94; A, JHS. 54 pl. 11 (Caskey), whence Buschor Gr. Vasen p. 208; details of A, Richter A.R.V.S. figs. 94-5; A, Fairbanks and Chase p. 77; A, Chase Guide p. 84 fig. 93. A, Odysseus and the shade of Elpenor. B, Poseidon and Amymone. About 440 B.C., by the Lykaon Painter (Richter in Bull. MFA. 32 p. 43; ARV. p. 690 no. 2).

We cannot do better than quote Caskey's description of the vase (Bull. MFA. 32 pp. 39-44):

'The picture recently acquired by the Museum decorates the front of a two-handled jar of the shape known as a pelike. The vase is unusually large: it is nearly nineteen inches high, with a capacity of six gallons; the three figures are drawn on a large scale on the black ground, which measures ten inches between the upper and lower borders. Since the artist has followed the Homeric account with remarkable fidelity, it seems worth while to repeat, as far as possible in the poet's words,1 that portion of the tale which refers to the meeting with Elpenor. When Odysseus and his men became impatient to continue their homeward voyage after a year spent on the island of Aeaea, Circe fulfilled her promise to set them on their way, and gave them directions for their next journey "to a strange destination, even so far as the house of Hades and dread Persephone, to seek counsel of the spirit of Teiresias of Thebes, that sightless prophet whose integrity of judgment has survived death... set mast, hoist sail, and then sit quietly. The northern airs will bring you thither. When you have cut across the river of Ocean you will find Persephone's shore and her grove of tall poplars and seed-blighted willows. Beach your ship there by the deep eddying Ocean stream and make your own way down to the dank house of Hades. There Pyriphlegethon (with Cocytus a tributary of the water of Styx) runs into Acheron; by a rock the two roaring rivers meet. When there, hero, step very near the face of the stream and dig a pit — like this — about a cubit each way, and pour a drink-offering around it to all the dead.... When thus with prayers you have entreated the grave's worshipful populations, slay for them a ram and a black ewe.... Then many wraiths will repair to you of the dead who have died.... Draw the sharp sword from your hip and sit with it ready, sternly preventing anyone of the shambling dead from coming near the blood till you have had your word with Teiresias." In the morning they set forth, all except Elpenor "the youngest (no great fighter and loose-minded)", who during the bustle of departure had fallen from the roof of Circe's house and broken his neck. Having reached the spot which Circe had described, Odysseus beheaded the two sheep across the pit. "Then from out of Erebus they flocked to me, the dead spirits of those who had died. Brides came and lads; old men and men of sad experience; tender girls aching from their first agony; and many fighting men showing the stabbed wounds of brazen spears — war-victims, still in their blooded arms. All thronged to the trench and ranged restlessly this side of it and that with an eerie wailing.... The first I knew was the spirit of my fellow, Elpenor, whose body was not yet interred under the ample ground. We had left him unwept and unburied in the halls of Circe, for that these other labours came upon us urgently. When I saw him I had compassion and sharply cried across to him: 'Elpenor, how come you here into the gloomy shades? Your feet have been quicker than my ship.' He in a thin wail answered me: 'Son of Laertes, ready Odysseus, the harsh verdict of some god sealed my doom, together with my own unspeakable excess in wine. I had lain down on Circe's housetop to sleep off this drunkenness, but awoke still too confused to descend from the roof by the long ladder. Instead I plunged headlong over the parapet and broke my neckbone in its socket: hence my spirit has come down here to Hades. Yet I implore you, my Lord, to remember me as you go past homeward; for of my sure knowledge your returning must be by Aeaea. My Lord, I adjure you by those left behind, those not among us — by your wife and by the father who cared for you when you were a little child, as by Telemachus, the babe you had to leave in your house alone — do not abandon me unwept and unburied, lest I be the pawn to bring upon you God's wrath: but consume my body in fire, with those arms and armour which remain mine, and heap over the ashes a mound at the edge of the sea where the surf breaks white, for a token telling of an unhappy man to aftertime; and when the rites are completed fix above my mound the oar that in life I pulled among my fellows.' Thus he said and I promised him: 'Luckless one, all these things will I see done, exactly.' So we two sat there, exchanging regrets, I with my sword held out stiffly across the blood-pool and the wraith of my follower beyond it, telling his tale."

'This last sentence reads almost like a description of the picture on the vase, save for the introduction of Hermes, who plays no part in this episode of the Odyssey. The artist may have added him from a mixture of motives: partly because he wanted a composition with three figures, partly because one of the functions of Hermes was to conduct the souls of the dead to the lower world; it is also possible that the god appeared in a tragedy dealing with this theme.

'Some details of the picture, hard to see in photographs or even on the vase itself, appear more clearly in the drawing in which the doubly curved surface of the pelike has been flattened into a plane. Such are the lines in thinned paint indicating the inner markings on the bodies, the fleece of the sheep, the shading on the hat of Odysseus, and the like. The inscriptions giving the names of the three figures,2 the contours of the rocky landscape, the reeds behind Elpenor, the pit with the blood of the sheep dripping into it were added in the form of a thick yellowish-white pigment applied on the black ground. Except for one small fragment these details have flaked off; but it is still possible to make them out, since the surface they covered lacks its characteristic lustre. This indication of scenery, though sketchy, is unusually elaborate, and interesting besides as showing how closely the artist followed Homer. The tall reeds with their tops waving in the wind suggest the proximity of the rivers. And the rock at their confluence is represented by the undulating line extending to the upper border of the picture. Elpenor, whose legs from the knees down are hidden in a depression of the ground, leans his body and raised left arm against this rock, the hand grasping a projection from it, while his right hand, planted on another rock, gives him the additional support he needs. Like Agamemnon, who appears later in the story, "no longer had he substance to stand firm or the vigorously free movements such as once filled his supple limbs". Odysseus sits quietly in an attitude more familiar in Greek vase painting, his head propped on his hand, gazing sorrowfully into the staring eyes of his comrade. He is in the prime of life and strength; his muscular arm with the hand firmly gripping his sword helps to differentiate him from the ghost opposite. Both figures are well drawn in complicated poses; the rendering of Elpenor's head in three-quarter view — a problem which vase painters of this time still found difficult — is fairly successful.3 Hermes, in comparison with the other two, seems like a lay figure. Yet the attitude of his right hand and his intense gaze add somewhat to the pathos of the scene.'

The inscriptions are ΕΛΠΕΝΟΡΟΣ, ΟΔΥΣΕΥΣ, ΗΡΜΟ. For the genitives see ii p. 85; for ΗΡΜΟ, Kretschmer Vaseninschriften pp. 97-8 and Richter and Hall p. 195. Οδυσευς for Οδυσσευς.

It is plain from Caskey's language that he would have preferred Hermes away. Perhaps there is more to say about this. Two things are expressed in the figure of Odysseus: pity, and self-control. That a third, surprise, should also be expressed in it is almost too much to expect. Yet surprise is one of the chief elements in the situation. It is expressed in the figure of Hermes. Again, the action of Hermes emphasizes the self-control of Odysseus. At the terrifying apparition, the god steps forward, ready to stand by the man: but the man has not flinched.

In a drawing of the scene that follows this in Homer, on an Etruscan mirror in the Vatican (Gerhard E.S. pl. 240; JHS. 69 pl. 5, b with p. 6), Hermes makes a third to Odysseus and the shade of Teiresias.

Caskey speaks of Hermes as conductor of the souls of the dead to the lower world: he might have added that when the living Herakles went down to Hades to fetch Cerberus, he was conducted by Hermes (Hom. Od. 11.626), and the two are often seen together in this scene on vases; Orpheus also was escorted to the nether world by Hermes.

The story of the meeting of Odysseus and Elpenor in Hades may have been treated by Bacchylides: is not 'the man of Ithaca' in fr. 29 Elpenor rather than Odysseus?

μελαγκευθὲς εἴδωλον ἀνδρὸς Ἰθακησίου.
” Tradition varies between μελαμβαφές and μελαγκευθές the lectio difficilior, which scans (ba ba ia cr).

This is the only picture of the subject. Elpenor was seen, close to Odysseus, in the Nekyia of Polygnotos at Delphi; Pausanias describes his costume, but not his attitude (Paus. 10.29.8): 'Above Eriphyle are depicted Elpenor and Odysseus. Odysseus is crouching and holding his sword over the trench. Behind Teiresias is Anticleia, mother of Odysseus, on a rock. Instead of a mantle, Elpenor has a mat round him, such as sailors commonly wear.' A very colourless figure of Elpenor appears, in a different scene, on another vase of about the same period as ours, the calyx-krater by the Nekyia Painter in New York (Metr. St. 5 pp. 125-7, Jacobsthal; Anz. 1935 pp. 25-30, Paul Friedländer; Richter and Hall pll. 135-7 and pl. 170, 135: ARV. p. 717, middle, no. 1). On an Etruscan mirror in New York (Richter Greek, Roman and Etruscan Bronzes p. 276, 800) and its two replicas Velparun takes the place of the Homeric Eurylochos when Odysseus threatens Circe.

On the reverse of the vase, a tame picture of Poseidon pursuing Amymone. The god has his trident in his right hand, and a cloak on his left shoulder and arm. Amymone, surprised at the fountain, holds a hydria in her left hand, and raises the other in alarm. She wears a peplos, open at the right side, with overfall, and round her head a broad band. A companion, dressed in chiton, himation, and saccos, flees, looking round. There is no relief-contour. Brown inner markings on the body of Poseidon; the hydria is covered with a light brown wash.

The pictures of Poseidon and Amymone have been studied recently by Greifenhagen (in CV. Bonn pp. 35-6) and Brommer (A.M. 63-4 pp. 171-6; and Satyrspiele p. 71): but I arrange them rather differently, and can add something. The older essay by Jahn is still useful (Poseidon und Amymone in Vasenbilder, 1839, pp. 34-40).

According to the story usually told, Amymone, one of the fifty daughters of Danaos, went to draw water at the fountain, was assaulted by a satyr, and rescued by Poseidon, by whom she became the mother of Nauplios (not the Argonaut). There are many pictures on vases of Poseidon pursuing a maiden; the earliest, somewhat before 480 B.C., on a cup with the signature of the potter Brygos, and near the Castelgiorgio Painter, in Frankfort (WV. 8 pl. 2, whence Hoppin i p. 109; Schaal Gr. Vasen aus Frankfurter Sammlungen pl. 30, a, and pl. 31: ARV. p. 258). There, and often elsewhere, it is not possible to name the maiden, who is not characterized. On a somewhat later vase, a hydria of between 480 and 470 in the Vatican, by the Syleus Painter (Gerhard pl. 12, whence El. 3 pl. 5 and Overbeck KM. pl. 13, 2: phot. Alinari 35724: ARV. p. 167 no. 39), the maiden pursued by Poseidon is named: it is Aithra, daughter of Pittheus and mother of Theseus. She holds a kalathos, a wool-basket, which probably refers to some story unknown to us (the exact circumstances in which Poseidon met Aithra are not recorded). The wool-basket appears in another picture of Poseidon pursuing a maiden, a small hydria of about 470 B.C. in the British Museum, a late work of the Eucharides Painter (London E 174: El. 3 pl. 19; CV. pl. 78, 2 and pl. 79, 3: ARV. p. 155 no. 31), and makes it likely that Aithra is represented there too. A third possible representation is on a calyx-krater by the Kleophrades Painter in the Giudice collection, Agrigento, but the vase is so much restored that one cannot be sure (see Kl. p. 26, top: ARV. p. 124 no. 41).4 On an unpublished lekythos, formerly in the Roman market, by the Dresden Painter (ARV. p. 449 no. 9), the woman pursued by Poseidon holds a hydria, and must be Amymone, who comes to fetch water. This is the earliest certain picture of Amymone, the date being between 480 and 460; and it heads a small group of pictures in which Poseidon pursues a woman who holds a hydria. The others are:

    (Attic)
    • Leningrad 767, calyx-krater by the Achilles Painter (ARV. p. 637 no. 45). A, Overbeck KM. pl. 13, 3.
    • Villa Giulia 20846, pelike. B, St. etr. 1 pl. 37, a. By the Painter of the Birth of Athena (ARV. p. 324 no. 2). Replica of the next, q.v.
    • Villa Giulia 20847, pelike. A, St. etr. 1 pl. 37, b. By the Painter of the Birth of Athena (ARV. p. 324 no. 3). Replica of the last. On A, ΠΟΣΕΙΛ̣ΩΝ, trident in hand pursues ΑΜΥΜΩΝΕ, who holds a hydria. On the right, one of her companions flees, looking back, a flower in the right hand, towards a king, Danaos, who stands to left, holding a sceptre. On the left of the picture is Aphrodite (ΑΦΟΛ̣ΙΤΕ). The picture on Villa Giulia 20846 differs little, but a small Eros flies towards Poseidon, and Aphrodite holds a flower; inscriptions ΑΦΡΟΔΙΤΕ, ΠΟΣΕΙΔΩΝ, ΑΜΥΜΩΝΕ retr. On the reverse of both vases, a god with a sceptre pursues a woman; on the right, a woman flees to a man; on the left, another woman flees. The chief figures are again inscribed Poseidon and Amymone, but the painter must have made a mistake: the subject is really Zeus pursuing a woman. The painter continues the late style of Hermonax, and the drawing is more old-fashioned than in the Boston pelike, but the vase cannot be appreciably earlier.5
    • Boston, our pelike by the Lykaon Painter.
    • New York 17.230.35, lekythos by the Phiale Painter (ARV. p. 656 no. 66). AJA. 1923 pp. 282-3; Richter and Hall pl. 122 and pl. 176, 122.
    • Ruvo, Jatta, Ruvo 1346, stemless cup by the Painter of Ruvo 1346 (ARV. p. 859, middle, no. 2). Gerhard pl. 11, 3-4, whence El. 3 pl. 18 and Overbeck KM. pl. 13, 6; JHS. 56 p. 213 fig. 15 and pl. 13, 1-2. The second scene on this vase, Poseidon striking the rock to make the fountain of Lerna gush forth, confirms the identification of the woman with the hydria as Amymone.
    (uncertain fabric, seems not Attic)
    • Genoa, column-krater. A, Ausonia 5 p. 30, 2.
    On an Attic bell-krater in Syracuse, of about 435 B.C., by a painter of the Polygnotan Group (Boll. d'Arte 30 pp. 232-5; CV. pl. 17, 3 and pll. 18-19: ARV. p. 697 no. 35), the subject is treated in a new fashion: Amymone, at the fountain, is unaware of the presence of Poseidon; Aphrodite and Eros offer her wreaths; and, for the first time, a satyr is seen. Inscriptions [Π]ΟΣΕ[Ι]ΔΩΝ, ΚΑΛ..., [ΑΜΥΜ]ΩΝΗ, [ΕΡΟ]Σ. In later pictures, Poseidon is shown conversing with Amymone; Aphrodite is often present, and a satyr or satyrs. The influence of a satyr-play is presumed: it may be, as Greifenhagen says (CV. Bonn p. 36) that the satyr, though part of the legend as known to us from ancient literature, did not occur in the original version, but was brought in by a dramatic poet. In the list that follows the vases on which a satyr or satyrs appear are marked 'S' or 'SS'.
    (Attic)
    • Bonn 1216.116 -119, frr. of a bell-krater. Part, Bieber Das Dresdener Schauspielerrelief p. 17, 1 (2 and 3 do not belong), whence Pickard-Cambridge Dithyramb, Tragedy and Comedy, fig. 13, 1 (not 2-3); CV. pl. 30, 16. By the Painter of the Athens Dinos (Greifenhagen; ARV. p. 796 no. 2). It is not certain that there were no satyrs present.
    • Vatican U 13, bell-krater. A, AM. 63-4 pl. 69. Influenced by the Dinos Painter (ARV. p. 794). SS.
    • Vatican U 16, bell-krater. Passeri pl. 171, whence El. 3 pl. 28; AM. 63-4 pl. 70. SS.
    • Yale 152, squat lekythos. El. 3 pl. 27; Baur pl. 11, above. Manner of the Meidias Painter (ARV. p. 838 no. 47). Inscriptions [ΑΦ]ΡΟ[ΔΙΤΗ], ΠΟΣΕΙΔΩ[Ν], [ΑΜΥ]ΜΩΝΗ, Α[Μ]ΦΙΤΡΙΤΙΙ.
    • Athens 12596, calyx-krater. Nicole pl. 19; AM. 68-9 pl. 68, 2. SS.
    • Athens 12196, calyx-krater. A, AM. 68-9 pl. 68, 1. I count the vase Attic, not Boeotian as Brommer.
    • Paris, Cab. Méd. 432, bell-krater. A, Caylus 2 pl. 19 (reversed); A, Millin PVA. 2 pl. 20, whence El. 3 pl. 26 and Overbeck KM. pl. 13, 10.
    • Würzburg 634, bell-krater. Langlotz pl. 214. This should be the vase described by Petersen in RM. 8 p. 341 no. 40; then in the Pascale collection at Curti; found at Calvi. For the reverse compare a bell-krater in Vienna (A, La Borde 1 pl. 27; AZ. 1858 pl. 120; Benndorf GSV. p. 78; Cook Zeus ii p. 266). SS.
    • San Simeon, William Randolph Hearst, San Simeon 9836, hydria. By the Meleager Painter, early (ARV. p. 872 no. 22). Poseidon sits, Amymone stands in front of him, one arm resting on the hydria; a small Eros embraces her; Aphrodite is present, satyrs and women. SS.
    • Vatican, bell-krater. A, Tischbein 5 pl. 109; A, Rend. Pont. 15 p. 222. By the Meleager Painter (ARV. p. 966 no. 11 bis). SS.
    • New York 06.1021.184, hydria. Le Musée 1 p. 209; Sambon Canessa pl. 8 and p. 35; Burl. Mag. 9 p. 209 fig. 7; N. Y. Shapes p. 13, 3; Richter and Milne fig. 86; Richter and Hall pl. 167, 168 and pl. 172, 168. Early Kerch style.
    • Athens 12546, hydria. Schefold U. fig. 30. Early Kerch style. S.
    • Leningrad B 4125, hydria. Schefold U. pl. 9, 2. Early Kerch style.
    This may be the subject of a fragment, from an oinochoe of shape III (chous), in Eleusis (Delt. 9 p. 49 fig. 59: early fourth century): compare, for the design only, the bell-krater by the Meleager Painter in the Vatican and the hydriai in New York and Athens.
    (Italiote)
    • Sydney 65, bell-krater. Poseidon, beardless, stands in the middle, with left leg frontal, head to left, holding the trident in his left hand and with his right taking Amymone, who stands facing him, by the wrist. Eros flies towards them with a wreath, and on the right a woman flees, looking round, a hydria in her right hand and her head-pad in her left. Early Italiote.
    • Bari, bell-krater. In the middle, Amymone stands to left, face in three-quarter view, filling her hydria at the fountain. On the left Poseidon sits to right, the trident in his right hand, his left forearm raised. On the right a young satyr dances up. The composition is much as in the Naples nestoris that follows. Still early Italiote. S.
    • Naples 1980, nestoris. A, Overbeck KM. pl. 13, 4; A, phot. Sommer 11001, iii, 6. Lucanian, by the Choephoroi Painter.
    • Zurich, University, pelike. Bull. Nap. 2 pll. 3-4, whence (A) El. 3 pl. 30, (A) Overbeck KM. pl. 13, 11, (A) Jb. 27 p. 284. Early A.P. style.
    • Lost, volute-krater. Mon. 4 pl. 14, whence El. 3 pl. 29 and Overbeck KM. pl. 13, 14. A.P. style.
    • Naples 690, bell-krater. Overbeck KM. pl. 13, 15; Jb. 27 p. 285. A.P. style. Much restored.
It is not certain that this is the subject of the two Attic vases which follow:

  • Paris, Cab. Méd. 359, Nolan amphora. Luynes pl. 41. By the Providence Painter (ARV. p. 432 no. 15). On A, a woman with a hydria runs to a king; on B, another woman runs towards him. If the painter is thinking of Amymone, the man on A will be Danaos, and the woman on A may be a companion of Amymone rather than Amymone herself — cf. the Sydney vase described above.
  • Palermo, fragment of a calyx-krater, perhaps with two rows of pictures. Group of Polygnotos (ARV. p. 700 no. 77: described there, but it should have been said that the middle of the woman is preserved as well as the left arm).
On the lekane by the Berlin Painter in Taranto (ARV. p. 142 no. 181) there is no means of telling who the maiden is, and the subject should have been described as 'Poseidon pursuing a woman', not as 'Poseidon and Amymone'.

On one Attic vase Poseidon and Amymone are identified by inscriptions, but Amymone has no hydria. Aphrodite is at hand, and Eros watches from a high rock:

  • Vienna 1026, calyx-krater with two rows of pictures. Passeri pll. 11-12; La Borde 1 pll. 25-6, whence (part) El. 3 pl. 17; Lücken pll. 111-12; Metr. St. 5 pp. 132-3. By the Nekyia Painter (ARV. p. 717 no. 2). The Amymone scene is the lower picture on the obverse; the lower picture on the reverse, a satyr, dressed in a himation, and two maenads, can hardly be connected.
On another Attic vase Poseidon is not present: Amymone is attacked by four satyrs.

  • Vienna 1011, bell-krater. A, La Borde 1 pl. 64, part of A, Hahland pl. 12, b; A, AM. 63-4 pl. 67. Manner of the Dinos Painter (ARV. p. 792 no. 2).
On an Etruscan mirror of the fourth century in the Vatican (Gerhard Etruskische Spiegel pl. 64) Poseidon suddenly appears at the fountain and seizes Amymone, while a young satyr looks on from behind a rock. The composition is not the same as in any of the known Greek representations, and recalls an earlier Greek work, the chalcedony scaraboid with Hades seizing Persephone (if that is the subject) in New York (Furtwängler A.G. pl. 9, 32; Richter Metropolitan Museum: Catalogue of Engraved Gems pl. 2).

An early fourth-century Attic hydria from Capua, by the Erbach Painter, formerly in the Bourguignon collection, now in the collection of William Randolph Hearst at San Simeon (San Simeon 9835), presents a difficult problem (Coll. d'ant. 18 mars 1901 pl. 1, 41). Poseidon is seated in the middle, listening to Eros, and attended by several women and Erotes; below sits a woman with a hydria beside her — Amymone one would have thought at first glance; but Apollo is talking to her, and it cannot be Amymone, unless there was a version unknown to us. Papposilenos lies on the ground, occupied with his own thoughts. On an Attic calyx-krater of early Kerch style in Athens (Athens 12252: N. 1117), Poseidon appears in the company of two naked women, one of whom is seated on a laver; three satyrs and another woman complete the scene: it is not clear who the women are.

The picture on a pyxis in Athens has been supposed to represent Poseidon pursuing Amymone; and I regret to say that I named the Amymone Painter after it: I now realize that the maiden pursued by Poseidon is not Amymone, but a sea-nymph: Logothetiades, a hundred years ago, gave the subject of the Athens pyxis as Poseidon pursuing Amphitrite; but this interpretation was rejected by Heydemann when he published the vase (Heydemann seems to have thought that Amymone was a Nereid):

    Athens 1708 (CC. 1551). Heydemann pl. 1, 2. By the Amymone Painter (ARV. p. 552 no. 31). Poseidon, with trident, pursues a woman who holds nothing in her hands; on the right, an altar, then a woman running up, and two others fleeing towards Triton. Triton, however, does not attend to them, but is engaged in an animated conversation with a female who is probably Aphrodite; expostulating perhaps. Between these two, a dolphin. Commentators on Homer have preserved the legend that Poseidon saw Amphitrite dancing in Naxos and carried her off (schol. Hom. Od. 3.91; Eustathius on the same line: ἐν Νάξῳ τὴν Ἀμφιτρίτην χορεύουσαν ἰδὼν Ποσειδῶν ἥρπασεν). She was naturally not dancing alone, but with the Nereids her sisters, and that is probably what has been happening on the pyxis, a dance at the altar or round it.6 If the painter intended Amphitrite, he has indeed slipped: instead of Nereus he has introduced Triton. Triton was son of Poseidon and Amphitrite, so that his presence is an anachronism. The artist may have been influenced by pictures of Peleus and Thetis, where the Nereids are sometimes shown fleeing to both Nereus and Triton (cup by the Kleophrades Painter in London, London E 73, J. Phil. 7 pll. A-B, ARV. p. 128 no. 94; lekane by the Niobid Painter in Naples, Naples 2638, Mon. 1 pl. 37, ARV. p. 424 no. 74): he may have chosen the more picturesque of the two sea-gods without pausing to think of the family tree.
The same subject appears on a later vase, a bell-krater of about 425 B.C. in Naples (Naples 146720: NSc. 1935 pl. 15, 1): Poseidon, with trident, pursues a maiden who is empty-handed; she flees towards an old man who holds a dolphin as well as a sceptre: Pesce (l.c. p. 260) names the old man Nereus and the maiden Amphitrite.

There is an alternative, although I regard it as much less probable. If the pictures described on ii pp. 68-9 represent Zeus pursuing Thetis, then the subject of the vases in Athens and Naples may be Poseidon pursuing Thetis; and if so, the presence of Triton on the Athens vase is no longer an anachronism.

Bulle separated the Athens picture from those of Poseidon and Amymone (in Roscher s.v. Poseidon p. 2874), but doubted whether the maiden was Amphitrite rather than a nameless Nereid.

To return to the Boston vase. The conventional floral design at the handles is poorly done. Relief-lines are used for the contours of it, and the petals of the palmettes are ribbed. The handles are triple. The foot, the side of which is reserved, has a slight lip. Between base and foot, a fillet has been formed by a pair of tooled lines.7


AJA 39 (1935), p. 391; Curtius 1938, pp. 242 (fig. 418), 288, 290, 301, 311, 319; Buschor 1954, p. 51, illus.; G. M. A. Hanfmann, AJA 61 (1957), p. 77, pl. 29, fig. 10; EAA, III, p. 323, fig. 391 (A. Comotti); Brommer 1960, p. 320, no. B 1; EAA, IV, p. 745, fig. 905 (E. Paribeni); Palmer 1962, pp. 100-101, fig. 87; S. Karouzou, BCH 86 (1962), pp. 451-452; Chase & Vermeule 1963, pp. 120-121, 124, 131, fig. 109; EAA, V, p. 682 (K. Bulas); ARV2, pp. 1045 (no. 2), 1679; Scherer 1963, p. 165, pl. 139; E. Simon, AJA 67 (1963), p. 55; Picard/Manuel, IV, 2, p. 609; MFA, Illustrated Handbook, 1964, pp. 70-71, illus.; C. Vermeule, 1964, European Art and the Classical Past, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press, p. 51; Neumann 1965, pp. 119, 122 (fig. 58), 201, note 463; E. Vermeule 1965, fig. 48; Zanker 1965, p. 104; H. Möbius, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften 61 (1965), p. 27; D. E. L. Haynes, Gnomon 38 (1966), p. 732; W. Schindler, Die Griechische Vase (Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Universität Rostock 16, 1967), p. 515; Webster 1967, p. 138; T. Dohrn, RM 73/74 (1966-67), p. 19; Schefold 1967b, pp. 68-69, 117, 246, appendix pl. 16; Schefold 1967a, p. 226, pl. 229; Touchefeu-Meynier 1968, pp. 135-136 (no. 227), 139, 143, 286, 289, pl. 21, 1; D. B. Thompson, Hesperia 38 (1969), p. 247, pl. 65, e; S. Karouzou, RA 1970, pp. 237, 251, note 2; Para., p. 444, no. 2; S. Karouzou, BCH 95 (1971), pp. 140, 142; W. Martini, 1971, Die Etruskische Ringsteinglyptik (RM, Ergänzungsheft 18), Heidelberg, Kerle, pp. 18-19; Felten 1971, p. 43; E. L. Brown, AJA 76 (1972), p. 382; E. B. Harrison, AJA 76 (1972), p. 354, note 15; S. A. Immerwahr, 1973, Early Burials from the Agora Cemeteries (Agora Picture Book No. 13), Princeton, American School of Classical Studies at Athens, illus. on title page, verso; F. Berti, ASAtene 50-51 (1972-1973), p. 459, note 5; Brommer 1973, p. 447, no. B 1; Isler & Seiterle 1973, p. 28 (C. Isler-Kerényi); B. B. Shefton, RA 1973, p. 217; F. T. von Straten, BABesch 49 (1974), p. 172, note 93; U. Knigge, AM 90 (1975), p. 130, note 6; Schefold 1975, p. 39; M. Robertson 1975, pp. 268, 327, 663 (note 192), 674 (note 84); MFA, Illustrated Handbook 1976, pp. 102-103, illus.; T. Dohrn, RM 84 (1977), p. 216; E. Zwierlein-Diehl, 1979, Die antiken Gemmen des Kunsthistorischen Museums in Wien, II, Munich, Prestel, p. 45, under no. 687; Kaempf-Dimitriadou 1979, p. 99, no. 290; Vermeule 1979, p. 30, fig. 22, color frontis.; M. B. Kerrigan, Arch News (Tallahassee) 9 (1980), pp. 28-30, fig. 7; Fischer-Graf 1980, p. 73; Brommer 1980, p. 37, no. B 7; Small 1981, p. 140; R. Merhav, et al., 1981, A Glimpse into the Past: The Joseph Ternbach Collection, Jerusalem, Israel Museum, p. 247, under no. 151; LIMC, I, 1, p. 744, no. 22 (E. Simon); Beazley Addenda 1, p. 156; E. Jantzen, 1982, Homer, Die Odyssee, Zeichnungen nach antiken Motiven von Brinna Otto, Mainz am Rhein, P. von Zabern, p. 72, illus.; Moon 1983, pp. 186 (fig. 12.10), 192 (notes 180-184) (B. Cohen); H. Froning, AA 1985, p. 224, note 58; S. B. Matheson, in Greek Vases in the J. Paul Getty Museum 3 (1986), p. 109, note 51; S. Woodford, 1986, An Introduction to Greek Art, Ithaca, NY, Cornell University Press, p. 136, figs. 199-200; LIMC, III, 1, p. 722, no. 6 (O. Touchefeu); T. J. McNiven, JHS 109 (1989), pp. 194, 196-197, pl. 3b; Beazley Addenda 2, p. 320; Schefold & Jung 1989, pp. 340 (fig. 304), 417 (with additional bibl.); R. Hannah, Meditarch 2 (1989), p. 66; M. D. Stansbury-O'Donnell, AJA 94 (1990), pp. 222, 233-234; LIMC, V, 1, pp. 338-339 (no. 631), 384-385 (G. Siebert); Oakley 1990, p. 27, note 172.


1 'In Shaw's translation.'

2 'Elpenor's name is given in the genitive. This might be taken to mean "(ghost) of Elpenor". But Hermes is also labelled "of Hermes". And on another vase in the Museum, which is attributed to the same hand, the name of Zeus is in the genitive, while those of Artemis and other figures are in the nominative. It seems safer to draw no conclusions from these variations in the forms of names. The painter was not a faultless speller: he has omitted the second letter of Hermes' name; and similar mistakes occur on other vases decorated by him.'

3 'In the photograph of Elpenor his cranium is distorted owing to the curvature of the vase.'

4 (From Addenda to Parts I and II) P. 89, eleven lines from the foot: the calyx-krater by the Kleophrades Painter has passed to the Basle market (M.M.) (ARV.2 p. 186 no. 48): it is now cleaned, and the subjects are seen to be what I had thought.

5 (From Addenda to Parts I and II) P. 90, top: the numbers 20846 and 20847 should be interchanged: see ARV.2 p. 494 nos. 2 and 3.

6 Another story in Oppian Halieut. i, 383-93.

7 (From Addenda to Part II) P. 93. In two neck-amphorae from the workshop of Polygnotos the floral decoration is by the same hand as in no. 111: Berlin 2353, by Polygnotos (Jacobsthal O. pl. 112: ARV. p. 680 no. 35), and, as Dr. Alexandros Cambitoglou pointed out to me, that by the Kleophon Painter in the Haniel collection, Munich (Neugebauer ADP. pl. 77: ARV. p. 786 no. 36).

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