140. 13.186 SKYPHOS from Suessula PLATES LXXVI-LXXVIIHeight 0.215, width 0.389, of the bowl 0.279. From the Spinelli collection. Gaz. arch. 1880 pll. 7-8 (de Witte), whence AZ. 1882 pp. 3-6 (Kekule) and WV. C pl. 1; FR. pl. 85, whence Perrot 10 pp. 474-5, Pfuhl figs. 435-6, Hoppin ii p. 53, (A) Seltman pl. 28, b, (detail of A) AJA. 1921 p. 333, (A) Haspels Eski yunan boyalı keramiği pl. 43, 2; Herford pl. 8, a; A, Scheurleer pl. 29, 81 ; A, International Studio Feb. 1927 p. 27, 2 (J. S. Green); A, Histoire des religions i p. 274; Fairbanks and Chase p. 65 and p. 74 fig. 80; Chase Guide p. 66; incompletely, Ghali-Kahil Hélène pll. 4 and 48; A, Enciclopedia dell'Arte Antica i p. 119; A, Richter, Handbook of Greek Art p. 331; B, Enciclopedia dell'Arte Antica iii p. 293. The shape, Hambidge Dynamic Symmetry p. 109 fig. 10 and Caskey G. p.158. A, Paris leading Helen away; B, Menelaos attacking Helen. About 490-480 B.C., by Makron (VA. pp. 101-2 no. 1; Att. V. p. 211 no. 3; ARV.1 p. 301 no. 1; ARV.2 p. 458 no. 1). The vase was discovered on the 22nd of March 1879 during Marchese Marcello Spinelli's excavations in the cemetery of Suessula. The cemetery lies about two kilometres west-south-west of the station of Cancello (on the road to Nola), ten minutes' walk from the ruins of Suessula. Ferdinand von Duhn gave an account of the circumstances in Bullettino 1879 pp. 147-53, together with a careful and accurate description of the vase itself. The tomb excavated on that day contained four slight vases which according to Duhn were probably Attic, and which appear from the description to have been Attic of the later fifth century. The Makron skyphos was not found in the tomb but beside it, as if leaning against it. Such vases were not infrequent in the cemetery: the vases found outside the tomb had been used, it was thought in the funeral rites, but after the tomb had been closed. One of them is identifiable: it is a small pelike, with two youths and a woman on the front, and two youths on the back, which has now passed from the Spinelli collection, where it bore the number 2297, to the Naples Museum: it is by the Eretria Painter, and the date is about 430 B.C.1 The Makron vase contained ashes, probably of an animal, three small mugs of local fabric, and a small black skyphos. Owing to the fatty nature of the ashes the lower part of the vase was well preserved while the upper part had been affected by the lime in the soil. The colour of the two parts is also different, the upper pale, the lower a warm red. The Makron skyphos is evidently earlier than the vases found in the tomb itself, and was doubtless an old family possession. Makron has left three skyphoi, all bearing the signature of the potter Hieron, and all found in Campania; besides a fragment of a fourth, found at Locri.2 The skyphos in the Louvre3 has diagonal handles like ours, which is very rare in red-figure; the side of the foot, too, is reserved as there. The London skyphos4 has the usual horizontal handles and black foot, is in fact normal. Its shape has been analysed by Hambidge5: the bowl ratio (bowl, without handles, to height) is 1.236, which is very common in skyphoi. Measurements are not available for the Louvre skyphos: those given by Pottier and Hoppin can hardly be exact, since they make the breadth of the bowl less than the height. The Boston skyphos is unusually broad for its height, and the wall is strongly curved. It has been analysed by Caskey in Hambidge's Dynamic Symmetry p. 109, above, and in G. p. 158: he finds it 'abnormal in its breadth, in the excessive diminution, and in its contours. The shape seems to have been chosen with a view to affording a more advantageous field for the pictorial composition — a frieze of numerous large, closely spaced figures.' The massive handles are reserved within. The resting-surface of the foot is curved; the slanting surface between the resting-surface and the underside of the bowl, is convex, and black; the underside of the bowl is reserved except for a dot within two tiny circles and two large ones, much as in the Vienna skyphos by the Brygos Painter.6 The theme of the vase is Helen. At two crises in her life. On one side, she follows Paris; on the other, after Troy taken, she flees from Menelaos. Between these two moments there has been the Trojan War. In both crises there is divine intervention. In the first crisis, Aphrodite encourages Helen; in the second, she rescues her. If one compares this skyphos, in its general aspect, with others, one sees that it is a very light-coloured vase. The five large thick-set figures in each picture, with their ample drapery, are massed together, so that little of the black background shows through. Besides, the pictures reach very far down on the vase, so that there is only a thin band of black between the lower border and the foot. The side of the foot itself, which is nearly always black in skyphoi, is here reserved, left in the colour of the clay. Laterally, the outer figures extend so far that parts of them are cut off by the handles. There is a band of maeander above the pictures as well as the more ordinary band below them, again a light-coloured element. A subsidiary figure fills most of the space below each handle, the heads of these figures projecting into the reserved area between the handle-roots. In one of the pictures a small sixth figure, Eros, is set in the spandril between the heads of the two chief figures, filling that gap too. In both pictures, most of the usual black accents within the figures — black hair, black for the coloured part of the eye, black for the shield-devices — are missing: the eyes are light — dot-and-circle — , and nearly all the people are fair-haired. This packing of the field contributes to a comparative richness of effect which is rare in the drawing of the late archaic period. Another famous skyphos of the same period, the Achilles and Priam by the Brygos Painter in Vienna,7 is treated on the same principle. There the quietness of the scene, all uprights and horizontals, contrasts not only with renderings of the subject by earlier painters, in which Priam makes a sudden rush forward without thought of his dignity, but also with the almost violent animation that we expect from the Brygos Painter. The artist has chosen a sort of composition that suits the solid, thick-walled, stable, almost quadrangular, block-like vessel; or chosen a shape of vase that suited his composition; or rather, shape and composition formed a unity in his mind. The Vienna skyphos, too, is an uncommonly light-coloured vase: the black background has been cut down by packing the field with figures, by placing a strip of maeander above the picture as well as below, by extending the picture far down and leaving little black space between it and the foot, and by reserving the side of the foot instead of painting it black. We have spoken of the two figures, one under each handle, as subsidiary. They are not seen when you look at either picture straight on. In subject they are connected, though not very closely, one with the first picture, the other with the second; in composition they are virtually separated from them, or form codas only. They are primarily handle-figures. We deal with them before turning to the chief scenes. Under one handle sits Priam (ΠΡΙΑΜΟΣ, retr.); looking towards Menelaos and Helen. He is bald, and what hair he has is fair — old men are often given fair hair on vases. It is trained forward and tied over the middle of the forehead, as in Priam on an earlier vase, the amphora by Euthymides in Munich,8 and in the old man on our no. 155. The beard is black. He holds a staff with T-shaped head in the right hand; the gesture of the left hand shows apprehension. The costume is a long chiton and a himation. The seat is a folding-chair, with feet that end, as often, in the form of lion's paws. The cover has a chequer pattern. Priam, as was said, is primarily a handle-figure, but actually the upright stick and the almost upright shanks come into the field of vision in the great picture and help to frame it, answering, at one edge of it, to the upright figure with upright staff on the extreme left, and redressing the balance thrown out by the diagonal figure, in strong movement, of Menelaos. The figure under the other handle is a young boy in a himation, who takes a step forward and raises one hand. A fillet passes twice round his head. The hair is black, and the curling forehead-hair is in raised black dots on a black ground. The right thumb and forefinger are damaged. The artist has not named him, but certainly thought of him as Helen's son. Helen's fault was the greater, in that she abandoned not only her husband but her young child. Sappho speaks of Helen leaving her child, and so does Alcaeus. One cannot tell whether these poets had a son in mind, or a daughter. In the Iliad it is a daughter, and in the Odyssey she is named, Hermione. Two children, however, were mentioned in a Hesiodic poem: Hermione, and Nikostratos.9 The upper parts of both heads, Priam's and the boy's, are drawn in outline against the handle-reserve. This is a rare trait that recurs in two of Makron's cups.10 We now turn to the two scenes. There are many older pictures of the meeting between Helen and Menelaos at Troy, though differently conceived; but the earliest certain representations of the other episode, Paris leading Helen away, are by Makron: on this skyphos, and on the cup in Berlin.11 A. Paris and Helen. The rectangular composition may be looked at from two points of view. First: a trio, the three chief persons, Paris, Helen, Aphrodite, forming almost a square, is increased to an oblong by two supporting persons, Aeneas and Peitho; or, second, the design is composed of two squares: a packed, solid one, feminine, static, on the right, and an open, masculine, dynamic one on the left. There is a contrast between the bold stride and determined action of Paris, and the hesitation of the middle figure, Helen, moving with difficulty, the head bent and the diaphragm drawn in. The right hand, firmly grasped by Paris, is nerveless; the left is the hand of one treading delicately a dangerous path. Not so the Helen of Aeschylus, who βεβάκει ῥίμφα διὰ πυλᾶν. Helen (ΗΕΛΕΝΕ) wears a chiton with two flounces, one ending at the waist, the other at the upper part of the thighs, below which the ends of the girdle are seen; besides the chiton, a himation draped over the back of the head, a stephane, and ear-rings. There may have been a necklace — the surface is damaged at the place; the face too has suffered: some of the damaged lines are still distinguishable, but not all. The chiton, and all the other chitons, have a thin horizontal stripe, rendered by a relief-line, at mid-calf. The corner of the himation seen at the left calf has the curved form which is characteristic of Makron and gives a swing to the garment even at the end. The hair is fair, but over the forehead the curls are rendered by raised black dots — or rather bubbles — on a light ground. Here and elsewhere many of these bubbles have burst. The left heel is raised a little farther from the border than in Aphrodite and Peitho. Eros (ΕΡΟΣ), flying round in front of Helen, turns and touches her head: the precise action is not clear: he holds a small round object, done in red, in his right hand, possibly a jewel for the stephane. The left leg is in three-quarter view. The fair hair has a wreath of small round leaves. The forehead-hair is in raised black dots on a light ground. The cornea is black. Forehead, eye, and knees are damaged. Aphrodite (ΑΦΡΟΔΙΤΕ retr.) stands behind Helen, bending a little forward, her arms extended to Helen's head, lightly adjusting the himation round it. She wears a chiton, a himation over both shoulders, ear-rings, and on her head a veil, which is bound at ear-level by a cross-piece and fastened in front to a stephane. The forehead-hair is like Helen's. The group of Aphrodite, Helen, and Paris has been compared to those of bride's mother, bride, and bridegroom in the many pictures of weddings on loutrophoroi and other vases: most of these are later than the skyphos, but a lost vase, formerly in Basseggio's possession, is of nearly the same period and has a somewhat similar group.12 Aphrodite, then, is like the mother who sets her daughter on her way, speeds her forth to a new life. In the wedding pictures the direction is rightward, not leftward as in the skyphos and in Makron's other version of the subject, on his cup in Berlin. Rightward, generally speaking, is the 'towards' direction; leftward, the 'away' direction. The wedding-pictures often add the spandril-Eros to the three figures. Peitho (ΠΕΙΘΟ), constantly associated with Aphrodite both in poetry and in picture, stands behind the goddess, holding up a flower (clearer in the side-view photograph than in the front-view). Her chiton is like Helen's, her himation like Aphrodite's. She wears a necklace as well as ear-rings. Her fair hair is dressed krobylos-wise, with a scarf tied loosely round it. Paris (ΑΛΕΧΣΑΝΔΡΟΣ retr.) strides quickly, looking back, the head slightly bent, his shield in his right hand, his left grasping Helen's wrist. He wears a chitoniskos with a flounce, a full-length himation over both shoulders, sandals, and a Corinthian helmet; the crest and crest-holder are rendered with particular attention. The hair is fair; with rows of raised black dots, it seems, at the ends. Paris is preceded by Aeneas (ΑΙΝΕΑ[Σ]), son of Aphrodite, and his companion for this expedition, in much the same attitude as Paris, but the stride less forcible. He wears a chitoniskos, a himation arranged somewhat like a chlamys, sandals, and a petasos slung round his neck. The ends of the long hair are brought round to the forehead, and the front half of the hair combed down so as to conceal them; a cord is wound twice round the head, the ends hanging down at the nape. It is the same coiffure, or nearly, as in the fair-haired youth from the Acropolis and many other figures of the late archaic period and the early classic. Over his right shoulder Aeneas carries a pair of spears, and on his left arm a shield, not foreshortened. The device is, on a black base, a lion, not, as is more usual, in silhouette, but in outline, filled in (except the head) with a wash of diluted glaze-paint, a tawny colour. The painter's signature is on the right. B. Menelaos and Helen. There are many older representations, as was said already, of the meeting of Menelaos and Helen at Troy — 'the Recovery of Helen' — , but differently conceived.13 Ours is the earliest in which Helen is attacked by Menelaos and saved by Aphrodite: but very little later, if at all, a cup in Tarquinia, which is in the manner of the Brygos Painter and close to the Foundry Painter.14 Makron's second design may be analysed, like the first, in two ways. (1) A trio, the three chief actors, Menelaos, Helen, Aphrodite, forms the core of the design, which is augmented, on the left, by two spectators, Kriseus and Kriseis. (2) A dense mass in the middle, feminine, Kriseis, Aphrodite, Helen, is flanked by two more open figures, male, Kriseus and Menelaos. On the right, Menelaos (ΜΕΝΕΛΕΟΣ), head lowered, rushes at Helen, drawing his sword. He is in full armour, wears chitoniskos, leather corslet, greaves, shield; and helmet of Attic type with chequered caul, nasal, frontlet imitating curls of hair, scaled nape-piece, hinged cheekpiece. The chequers on the caul are the same as on the cover of Priam's chair: the bronze helmet has a textile cover glued to it against the heat of the sun on the metal. The knees of the greaves, as often, are ornamented with gorgoneia.15 A pad with slashed edge is tied round the ankle against chafing by the greave. The corslet is strengthened with metal scales, and the shoulder-flap charged with a star. The shield, as before, is unforeshortened, a full round. The device is, on a black base with reserved edges, a bull charging, head down. This time the device is black, which, with the subject, adds to the menace of the bearer's figure. Helen (ΗΕΛΕΝΕ), fleeing, turns, and looks at Menelaos: he stops, and the sword will not be drawn. On later vases the sword, drawn, falls from his hand. It is Aphrodite who steps forward and turns Helen's face towards Menelaos. At the same time Helen extends her left arm, holding up her himation with her right hand: the himation, which has been draped over both shoulders, spreads away from the body, revealing her in her transparent chiton. The chiton has two kolpoi, the flying ends of the girdle showing below the lower one. Here, and in all the female figures, there is a slight swell or flutter in the drapery, as if stirred by a light breeze. The head wears the same veil as Aphrodite in the other picture, and a stephane, ornamented with a maeander, in front. The forehead-hair is in raised black dots on a light ground. Necklace, ear-ring. On the left shoulder one sees a little bag or ball, a favourite detail of Makron's, already discussed.16 The left leg is extended frontal. The breasts are small, and as usual in Makron, high. The eye and the middle of the mouth are damaged. Aphrodite (ΑΦΡΟΔΙΤΕ), behind Helen, leans a little back, and from her attitude one would say that she had come up quickly and quietly. How beautiful are the feet of Makron's figures: not only the forms of toe, instep, ankle, heel, but the way his people set their feet down. Makron's women recall the Homeric description of Hera and Athena in the fifth book of the Iliad: “αἱ δὲ βάτην, τρήρωσι πελειάσιν ἴθμαθ᾽ ὁμοῖαι.
” 'They went their way, with step like turtle-doves.' According to the ancient commentators this only means that they flew off; but surely the poet is thinking of big handsome women who are nevertheless light on their feet. Aphrodite wears a chiton with two kolpoi, a girdle, a himation over both shoulders, ear-rings, and a saccos with an opening in it behind from which the back-hair escapes. The forehead-hair is like Helen's. To left of Aphrodite a woman stands with the left leg frontal, looking round towards the scene and holding up a flower. She wears a chiton with a flounce and a kolpos, a girdle, a himation over both shoulders, necklace, ear-rings. Her fair hair is dressed like Peitho's in the other picture, but over the forehead it is worn long, parted in the middle, so that there are no raised dots for curls. One would probably name the figure Peitho, were it not for the inscription, which shows that the painter meant it for Kriseis (ΚΡΙΣΕΙΣ). The last figure on the left is an old man with long white beard, and abundant white hair bound up into a krobylos by a cord passed twice round it. He wears a full-length chiton, and a himation draped over the left shoulder; holds a T-topped staff in his right hand, and looks towards the scene. His name is Kriseus (ΚΡΙΣΕΥΣ). Who are Kriseus and Kriseis? Kretschmer wrote in his Vaseninschriften (p. 206): 'The names at once recall the Homeric Χρυσεύς17 and Χρυσηίς, although the presence of the priest of Apollo and his daughter is in no way motived: Kekule (AZ. 1882 pp. 3 ff.) is probably right in assuming that the vase-painter arbitrarily picked two epic names from his memory and applied them to the onlookers, a practice quite common with the earlier vase-painters. It is hardly credible, however, from the grammatical point of view, that Κρισεύς, Κρισηίς, are simply corruptions of Χρυσεύς, Χρυσηίς, as de Witte, for example, thought (Gaz. arch. 1880 p. 63), for even in Attic popular speech χ did not become κ, or υ ι, and the assumption of a lapsus calami is ruled out by the repetition. Is it possible that Hieron, to whom we owe Ἀγαμέσμων as a by-form of Ἀγαμέμνων, has here preserved an ancient variant of the Homeric tradition?' Kretschmer goes on to quote, from Italy, evidence of a form Κρισηίς: Crisida and Creisita on Praenestine cistae, Crisitha on an Etruscan mirror. Kretschmer's suggestion, put forward tentatively, was accepted by Wilhelm Schulze18 and by Furtwängler. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff showed19 that Κπῖσα20 in Phokis and Χρύση in the Troad (whence Χρυσηίς) are probably two versions of one pre-Greek name: Steph. Byz. Κρῖσα Φωκίδος Τρωική, ἔστι καὶ Αἰολίδος. Noll has now added Crise, for Χρύσης, on an Etruscan mirror, of Group Z, in Vienna.21 One may guess that the original forms of these pre-Greek names were nearer to Kris than to Chrys. According to Kretschmer there is no justification for the presence of a priest of Apollo and the priest's daughter in the episode: but that is not so. In one version of the last night of Troy, Helen fled for refuge to a sanctuary. This is often represented on vases and other monuments; and the deity varies. Sometimes it is Aphrodite, sometimes Athena, and sometimes Apollo: an image of Apollo is shown, or Apollo as well as his image. Makron, too, lays the scene in the sanctuary of Apollo: he has borrowed the name of Apollo's priest from another context, from the opening of the Iliad. To remember that priest is to remember also his daughter: and so the daughter appears in the picture by her father's side. On a stamnos by the Deepdene Painter in New York the old man in whose presence Menelaos pursues Helen may perhaps be Kriseus.22 In point of composition, the handle-figure Priam, as was noted above, is less loosely connected with the picture of Menelaos and Helen than the other handle-figure with the picture of Helen and Paris; in point of subject it is the other way round. By different treatment of hair and beard, Makron has avoided the impression that the two figures of old men, Kriseus and Priam, one at the left edge of the picture, the other at the right edge, form a pair. The running maeander is Makron's favourite border, and he hardly ever uses any other. Here, for compactness, while the upper band faces right, the lower faces left. It is worth while looking at the Brygos Painter's skyphos in Vienna,23 to see what he does with his two bands of maeander, which are interrupted by cross-squares. The lower band faces left; but in the upper, the more conspicuous of the two, the artist has adopted a variety of maeander not found elsewhere in his work: running, and not stopped even by the cross squares, but passing over and under them, so that the sets face alternately right and left: the Brygos Painter too, had compactness in mind. Relief-contours. Brown for the minor details of the bodies, for the necklace-dots, for the scales on Menelaos' nape-piece; a brown wash on the lion's body, and on the frontlet of Menelaos' helmet. The hair is nearly all brown. Red for the men's head-fillets, the wreath of Eros, the anklet of Menelaos, sandals, girdles, flowers. White for hair and beard of Kriseus. In all the figures (except the small Eros) the wall of the teeth is indicated by a vertical relief-line. This was doubtless so in Aeneas and Helen on A, but the part is damaged. In Aphrodite on B, there is a second relief-line, parallel to the first, half-way along the mouth. In several figures on A, the upper edge of the upper lip, and the lower of the lower, are indicated by relief-lines. The vase bears the signatures both of the potter and of the painter. ΗΙΕΡΟΝΕΠΟΙΕΣΕΝ is incised on the handle to left of the side which we call A. The signatures of Hieron are nearly always on the handle, sometimes painted, but more often incised. Here the signature is upside down: for convenience the writer inverted the vase. In the other skyphos with diagonal handles, Louvre G 146 (iii p. 33) the signature is the right way up. The painter's signature is on the right of A, written vertically upwards, in red, ΜΑΚΡΟΝ: ΕΓΡΑΦΣΕΝ. Furtwängler was the first to recognize that nearly all the many cups with the signature of the potter Hieron were painted by Makron; he was followed by Leonard in 1912.24 This is Makron's masterpiece: and of all his splendid works, only two can compare with it: the Berlin maenad cup, and the Triptolemos skyphos in the British Museum. While Reichhold's drawings give correctly a good many details that are not visible in the photographs, they contain a certain number of slight inaccuracies. I append a list of them, based on comparison with the original vase. I do this in no carping spirit. Reichhold's drawings are not all equally good: but how excellent they are, perhaps only those who have tried to make a copy of a Greek vase-painting can judge. Some of the following points can be made out from the photographs, but not all. A. Paris has more whisker than in R[eichhold]. R. omits the tip of the left thumb, and the ring on the spear near the butt. There are four brown lines on the left thigh, not three. Not clear in Reichhold's drawing that the tiny round in the right hand of Eros is red. The fingers of Helen's left hand are not quite correct. Her stephane is much damaged. The pattern on it was not as Reichhold has it, but perhaps, I thought, a maeander as in the other picture. I note that Duhn, in his careful description, speaks of a maeander. Considering the friable condition of the vase in its upper part, it is possible that a little more was preserved, and not only here, when he saw it than is now. The face of Helen, as was said above, has suffered greatly, and R. has restored it freely in his drawing. In Aphrodite, R. has omitted part of the horizontal stripe on the chiton at mid-calf. The signature of Makron is spread out and not quite in the right place. In the boy, R. omits the brown lines on the back of the left hand and on the right arm. There are two lines on the left forearm, not one. The two lines on the right breast, and the line between breast and right shoulder, are omitted or very faint in R. B. The lines on the back of the right hand are very faint in R. R. has, quite properly, restored the white of hair and beard. The hair was first edged with brown, then covered with white, most of which has disappeared. The beard was bordered with relief-lines and filled in roughly with brown, then covered with white. The ends of the beard were in relief-lines as in the figure of Priam; the forehead-hair may have been treated in the same way: the furrows probably mark the places where relief-lines were once. These relief lines of beard and hair were no doubt covered by the white, either entirely or almost entirely. The chin of Kriseis is a restoration. Aphrodite's nostril should be fuller. In Helen, the toes of both feet are not quite correct. In Menelaos, R. omits eyebrow, the line of the teeth, the brown lines on the left calf, the line near the inner side of the right thigh, most of the dots on the skull-piece of the helmet (all the light squares are dotted) and the black arc on the upper rim of each greave, near the middle. The right foot is more shapely than in R. In Priam, the right-hand line on the neck should be longer. The right thumbnail is omitted, and a dark line on the palm. The toes and ankles are not quite correct. Reisch25 was the first to recognize that we may have another signature of Makron, on an earlier work, his small pyxis, fragmentary, in Athens.26 ΜΑΚΡ... might also be part of a woman's name; G. C. Richards quoted Makro, a Naxian, from CIG. 2, 232 b 29;27 and Makrine was read by de Witte,28 whether rightly or wrongly, on an Attic vase: but women's names from μακρο are extremely rare; at least in classic times.
F. Baumgarten, F. Poland, R. Wagner, 1908, Die Hellenische Kultur, 2nd edition, Leipzig: Teubner, pp. 194-195, fig. 205; Richter 1926b, p. 43, fig. 121; F. Weege, 1926, Dionysischer Reigen: Lied und Bild in der Antike, Halle-Saale, M. Niemeyer, p. 21, illus.; G. Schneider, BABesch 10, no. 1 (1935), p. 24; C. Hofkes-Brukker, BABesch 15 (1940), p. 25; P. Ducati, 1944, L'Arte Classica, p. 211; G. E. Mylonas, AJA 49 (1945), p. 565; Kunst der Oudheid, 2, pp. 350-351, pl. 80, fig. 313; Roton 1950, p. 57, illus.; Metzger 1951, p. 285, note 4; Stella 1956, p. 702, illus.; Levi & Stenico 1956, pp. 91-92, fig. 86; P. Amandry, AJA 62 (1958), p. 336; EAA, II, pp. 145-146 (E. Lissi); Brommer 1960, p. 293, no. B 9; EAA, IV, pp. 30, 790-791 (E. Paribeni); Palmer 1962, pp. 86 (fig. 74), 97 (fig. 84); H. Sichtermann, RM 69 (1962), p. 45, note 9; Chase & Vermeule 1963, pp. 91, 96, 104, fig. 86; Scherer 1963, pp. 31 (pl. 23), 121 (pl. 98); ARV2, pp. 458 (no. 1), 481, 1654; EAA, V, pp. 951-952 (E. 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