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67. 01.8019 PSYKTER from Orvieto PLATE XXXI, above, and PLATE XXXII

From Riccardo Mancini's excavations; formerly in the Bourguignon collection at Naples. Height 0.2435. A.D. ii pl. 20 (Hauser), whence JHS. 27 p. 259 (Norman Gardiner), Norman Gardiner G.A.S. p. 345, Hoppin Euth. and F. pll. 32-3, Norman Gardiner Athl. figs. 51 and 143, (detail) VA. p. 28, (part) Alexander Greek Athletics pp. 16, 3, and 21, 3, (detail) Schröder Der Sport im Altertum p. 124; part, from a photograph, Hoppin Euth. and F. pl. 32, and Byvanck De Kunst der Oudheid ii pl. 79 fig. 308; the shape, Hambidge p. 99 fig 17 and Caskey G. p. 131. About 520-515 B.C., by Phintias (Hauser in Jb. 10 p. 113; VA. p. 29 no. 8; Att. V. p. 58 no. 10; ARV. p. 23 no. 8). Hauser's able commentary in Jb. 10 pp. 108-13 has been improved in many points by Norman Gardiner.

The scene is laid in the palaestra, where young athletes are receiving instruction. Athletes and instructors have their names written against them, but it is not always certain which name pertains to which figure. There are four groups: one of wrestlers, the others of acontists. The chief group is (9-12) a pair of wrestlers between two bearded trainers. One wrestler is about to throw the other, who is letting himself be thrown.1 The trainer on the left is giving the order; his companion on the right is less active but equally attentive.

Of the acontists, Norman Gardiner writes (JHS 27 p. 258; G.A.S. p. 347): 'Two of the youths (4 and 5) are testing the bindings; resting one end of the javelin on the ground, and holding it firm with their left hand, they pass the right hand along the shaft to see that the binding is secure. A third (1) in the same position is passing his fingers through the loop, the lines of which have disappeared. A fourth (8) has already inserted his fingers into the loop, and raising the javelin breast-high, presses it forward with his left hand so as to draw the thong tight.'

The right-hand acontist (5) of the first trio (3-5) is in the same attitude as one of the athletes on the archaic statue-base in Athens (JHS 42 pl. 6, 2; Norman Gardiner Athl. fig. 53; Blümel Sport der Hellenen p. 73), except that he leans farther over towards his right side, so that the right arm is lower, the left arm higher, and the left heel raised slightly from the ground. These are the only two examples of this attitude that I can recall: there are kindred figures on vases of the later archaic period, but they have the right leg frontal not the left: so, for example, on a neck-amphora by the Kleophrades Painter in Leningrad (Kl. pl. 25; ARV. p. 122 no. 16), on the calyx-krater by the Troilos Painter in Copenhagen (Annali 1846 pl. M, whence Gardiner G.A.S. p. 303; CV. pl. 128: ARV. p. 191 no. 10), and on a lekythos by the Cartellino Painter in Athens (Eph. 1907 p. 229 fig. 4, 1). In these the right foot is planted firmly on the ground; on the amphora by Phintias in the Louvre (Louvre G 42; FR. pl. 112, whence Gardiner Athl. fig. 123; CV pl. 28, 5: ARV p. 22, no. 1) the right foot, slightly three-quartered, rests on the ground with the forepart only, and this leads on to the figures in which the right foot is shown extended, with only the toes touching the ground: stamnos by Euphronios in Leipsic (Jb 11 p. 185: ARV. p. 16 no. 6); hydria by Euphronios in Dresden (Anz. 1892 p. 165, 31: ARV. p. 17 no. 11); amphora in London, London E 256 (JHS 27 pl. 19, whence Gardiner G.A.S. p. 348; CV. pl. 3, 2: ARV. p. 31, foot); calyx-krater by the Kleophrades Painter in Tarquinia (Hartwig p. 417; Kl. pl. 17: ARV. p. 123 no. 31); cup by the Eretria Painter in the Villa Giulia (CV. pl. 36, 3: ARV. p. 728 no. 57): here the athlete is about to throw, is beginning his run; whereas on our vase, on the relief, and on the vases in Leningrad and Athens, he is merely preparing the javelin.

The other athlete in this group is at an earlier stage of preparation, is probably sliding the thong into place.

The second trio (6-8) forms a well-planned pendant to the first, and is constructed on the same lines, with a bending figure between two upright ones. The bending athlete has just picked up two acontia, each furnished with its thong. (Hauser thinks that he is sticking one of them into the ground, but this does not seem certain.) The other athlete is not unlike a figure on the cup by Pheidippos in the British Museum (London E 6: C. Smith pl. 1, whence Hoppin ii p. 351, N. Gardiner G.A.S. p. 323 and Athl. fig. 21; AM. 55 pl. 10: ARV. p. 55 no. 10), but the legs are turned the other way, which puzzled Hauser, but see Norman Gardiner (JHS. 27 p. 258). There is no thong on the acontion: the painter probably forgot it.

In the third group, the pair (1-2), the left-hand youth is engaged with his acontion, but his companion holds his at rest, and from his attitude and gesture is evidently giving instruction.2 Neither acontion is thonged, and one might have guessed that this was a lecture on general principles, on the importance of getting the thong in exactly the right place, were it not that the thong was omitted in the last group, and that there the omission can hardly have been intentional. Hauser noticed that the instructor wears a wreath like the trainers, whereas the acontists have simple fillets and the wrestlers are bare-headed.

In dealing with the names, it is best to begin with what is certain. In the group 3-5, the acontists are ΦΙΛΟΝ (Philon) and ΕΤΕΑΡΧΟΣ (Etearchos), the trainer ΣΙΜΟΝ (Simon). There is also a nonsense inscription, ΕΟΠΠΟΚΙ between 3 and 4. In the group 1-2, the instructor is ΦΑΥΛΟ[Σ] (Phayllos), the pupil ΧΣΕΝΟΦ[ΟΝ] (Xenophon). In the group 6-8, the trainer is ΠΤΟΙΟΔΟΡΟΣ (Πτῳόδωρος), the athlete bending ΣΟΤΡΑΤΟΣ (So(s)tratos), the other athlete probably ΕΚΡΑΤΕΣ (E(u)krates). In the wrestling group, 9-12, I take the wrestlers to be ΕΥΔΕΜΟΣ (Eudemos) and ΣΟΣΡΑΤΟΣ (Sos(t)ratos), the trainers to be ΕΓΙΟΑΣ (Hegias, with the initial Η omitted, as often, and an intrusive omikron — the artist was about to end the word in -os, and realized his mistake too late), and ΕΠΙΛΥΚ[ΟΣ] (Epilykos).

The name of Phayllos occurs on four vases, all of the same period: (1) on the London amphora London E 256 (see above) [Φ]ΑΥΛΛΟΣ is about to throw the discus; (2) on our psykter, ΦΑΥΛΟ[Σ] holds an acontion and is giving instruction in the art of casting it; (3) on an amphora by Euthymides in Munich (Munich 2308; FR. pl. 81, whence Hoppin i p. 435 and Norman Gardiner Athl. fig. 124: ARV. p. 25 no. 4), ΦΑΥΛΛΟΣ is again about to throw the discus; (4) on the psykter by Euthymides in Turin (JHS. 35 pl. 6, whence Hoppin i p. 437: ARV. p. 25 no. 9), ΦΑΥΛΛΟΣ is using the strigil.3 Hauser suggested, though very tentatively (Jb. 10 pp. 110-11), and Furtwängler after him (FR. ii, 110-11), that the Phayllos represented on these four vases might be the famous pentathlete of Croton, thrice victorious in the Pythian Games — twice in the pentathlon and once in wrestling — who fought at Salamis in a ship manned by Crotoniates and provided and commanded by himself, the only ship from all Western Greece. It will be noticed that the Phayllos of the vases twice holds a discus, once an acontion; and acontion and discus are two of the 'five events'. The dates fit: supposing our vases to have been painted in 520, and Phayllos to have been 25 at the time, he would have been born in 545, and would have been sixty-five years of age at Salamis, old for a captain, but not too old for a lion-hearted man like Phayllos, especially as he had provided the ship. Moreover, 520 and 25 are outside figures; the vases are probably a little later, and Phayllos need not have been more than twenty when they were painted. Phayllos will have been staying in Athens at the time: perhaps he was in exile, or there may have been another reason.4 That Phayllos had some specially close connexion with Athens is shown by the statue of him erected on the Athenian Acropolis.56

Some of the other names on the psykter occur elsewhere. Sostratos, here shown both as wrestler and as acontist, is mentioned on five other vases of this period, one red-figure, four black-figure: four of the five are cited in ARV. p. 941 : on the fifth, Sostratos himself is represented: it is a fragment of a black-figured vase (pelike?), in the Louvre: a discus-thrower stands to right, bending: he is [ΣΟ]ΣΤΡΑΤΟΣ; then comes a flute-player, standing to left; and then an acontist with right leg frontal, [ΧΣΑΝ]ΘΙΠΠΟΣ, perhaps the father of Perikles and victor at Mycale. It is conjectured by Raubitschek that the [S]ost[ra]tos son of [P]etalos of an inscribed base from the Acropolis may be ours (Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis, pp. 196-8).

The name of the youth instructed by Phayllos is incomplete: the half-preserved letter seemed to me to be a phi, so the name is Xenophon. Xenophon appears, discus in hand, on a plate by the Cerberus Painter, somewhat earlier than our psykter, in Boston (Boston 03.785: Caskey B. pl. 1, 2: ARV. p. 55 no. 1).

Philon is a common name: our Philon may be the same who is praised on a black-figured kyathos in Cambridge (CV. pl. 21, 1: ARV. pp. 939 and 967). An Epilykos is praised on many vases of the period (ARV. p. 922): but if we are right in assigning the name to a bearded trainer (12), he will be another Epilykos, uncle, perhaps, of the καλός. The ΕΥΕΔΕΜΟΣ on an amphora by Euthymides in Munich (Munich 2307; FR. pl. 14, whence Hoppin 1 p. 433: ARV. p. 24 no. 1) is probably Eudemos misspelt; but again, if we are right in giving the name to a young athlete, the bearded reveller of Euthymides is not the same man.

An athlete Ptoiodoros was grandfather of the Corinthian Xenophon, stadiodromos and pentathlos, for whom Pindar wrote his thirteenth Olympian ode in 464 (see schol. Pind. O. 13.58): but it would be rash to suggest that the Corinthian Ptoiodoros is figured on this Attic vase. On the form of the name see Wilamowitz Pindaros p. 369. Πτοιόδωρος, it is true, is given in our texts, but Phintias may have pronounced it Πτῳόδωρος.

A psykter of slightly earlier style, by Oltos, in New York has a similar subject, and alludes to three of the five events in the pentathlon: discus, javelin, and jump (Richter and Hall pl. 4 and pl. 173, 3: ARV. p. 35 no. 6).

The figures are contoured with relief-lines; most of the lips, however, as usual in early archaic red-figure, are without relief. Minor inner markings in brown; wreaths, fillets, thongs, inscriptions in red. Two of the acontia are seen to have metal ferrules, also in red. On these ferrules see Jüthner Über antike Turngeräthe p. 38. A red line runs round the vase below the ground-line; three others round the neck. The underside of the foot is profiled, and rests on the outer edge only. The graffito, a sigma and an iota, is wrong in Hauser (Jb. 10 p. 108), right in Hoppin (Euth. and F. p. 129).

On the psykter, its shape and use, see Richter and Milne pp. xxiii and 12-13, and Vanderpool in Hesp. 15 pp. 322-3.

Psykters with figure-decoration range from about 525 to 460; none of the black ones are much later; nor are any of the representations on vases. The last quarter of the sixth century, and the first half of the fifth, that is the period of the psykter: and more attention is paid to it in the earlier part of the period, before the end of the sixth century, than in the later.

Psykters may be divided into two classes: those with 'ears' or string-holes (shaped as rings, loops, or pairs of small tubes — αὐλίσκοι); and those without. In the former class, of which the Turin psykter by Euthymides is an example, the ears divide the zone, and there are two pictures, one on each side; in the latter, as in our psykter, a single picture runs right round the vase. The black-figure psykters are usually without ears, and most of them are of one model, with a double-torus mouth and a single-torus foot. There are one or two black-figure psykters in which the single-torus foot is accompanied by a single-torus mouth: the Bardini vase, and London B 299. This is also the shape of the black psykter in Syracuse (no. A. 24). No red-figure example of this shape is preserved: Louvre G 59 has the single-torus mouth, but the foot is lost. The Boston psykter by Phintias is a slightly more elaborate version of this type: a small moulding is added below the torus mouth, and another above the torus foot. Other red-figured psykters have this mouth, but a different foot, or this foot, but a different mouth.

      Psykters without ears

        (black-figure) Nos. 1-8 form a standard class. Double-torus mouth, single-torus foot. In nos. 1-3 the style of the drawing is not far from the Antimenes Painter. In nos. 4-6 it is not very different, but freer and more open.

      • A. 1. Leipsic T 367. Chariots (warriors leaving home). Described by Hauser in Jb. 11 p. 181 no. 15; see also Hafner Viergespanne in Vorderansicht p. 6 no. 43, p. 27, h, and p. 28. The lower part, with the foot, is missing.
      • A. 2. Louvre F 320. CV. III He pl. 73, 8-10. Chariots. Restored, and the lower part missing.
      • A. 3. Louvre F 319. Pottier pl. 85; CV. III He pl. 73, 2-3 and 7 and pl. 74, 1 and 4; part, Enc. phot. ii p. 303. Chariots. The whites repainted.
      • A. 4. Villa Giulia 50674 (M. 445). Mingazzini Vasi Cast. pl. 50, 2 and 4-6. Dionysos seated, with satyrs and maenads. Restored.
      • A. 5. Port Sunlight. Part, Tillyard pl. 7, 67. Dionysos seated, with maenads and satyrs; Dionysos on donkey, with satyrs and maenad.
      • A. 6. Louvre F 321. CV. III He pl. 73, 4-6 and pl. 74, 2-3. Dionysos seated, with satyrs and maenads; Dionysos on donkey. The mouth missing.
      • A. 7. New York 06.1021.180. Return of Hephaistos. The mouth and lower part of the vase were modern and have now been removed. See ii p. 39.
      • A. 8. Tarquinia RC 6823, from Tarquinia. Part, phot. Moscioni 8254 (8615). Symposion.
      • A. 9. Florence market (Bardini). Chariot-race. Single-torus mouth and foot.
      • A. 10. London B 299, from Vulci. Komos. Single-torus mouth and foot. Near the Acheloos Painter.
      • A. 11. Munich (ex Loeb), from Taranto. Sieveking B.T.V. pl. 42. Symposion.


      • A. 12. New York 10.210.18, by Oltos (ARV. p. 35 no. 6).
      • A. 13. Louvre G 59. CV. pl. 58, 1, 4, and 7, and pl. 59, 1 and 6. Youths with horses. Much restored; the foot modern.
      • A. 14. Louvre G 58, by Smikros (ARV. p. 21 no. 6).
      • A. 15. Boston 10.221, by Euphronios (ARV. p. 19 no. 5 and p. 948: see ii pp. 1-3).
      • A. 16. Leningrad 644, by Euphronios (ARV. p. 17 no. 12).
      • A. 17. Boston 01.8019, by Phintias.
      • A. 18. Louvre G 57, by the Kleophrades Painter, in his earliest style (ARV. p. 125 no. 57). Much restored: the foot is modern.
      • A. 19. Compiègne 1068, by the Kleophra des Painter, in his earliest style (ARV. p. 125 no. 58).
      • A. 20. London E 768, by Douris (ARV. p. 209, no. 126).
      • A. 21. Villa Giulia 49797, from Cervetri, by the Tyszkiewicz Painter (ARV. p. 188 no. 52).
      • A. 22. Villa Giulia 3577, from Falerii. FR. pl. 15; CV. pll. 3-4; part, phot. Anderson 41189, whence Buschor GV. p. 185 and Pfuhl fig. 491.
      • A. 23. Munich 2417 (J. 745), by the Pan Painter (ARV. p. 365 no. 55).


      • A. 24. Syracuse, from Gela. ML. 17 p. 494. Found with two black-figured neck-amphorae of the late sixth century (ML. 17 pl. 38, recalling the Painter of Oxford 11.256, see CV. Oxford p. 99; ML. 17 p. 495). Compare the psykter by Oltos in New York (above, A. 12).
    As a rule the psykter without ears has no lid; the Pan Painter's psykter in Munich (above, A. 23; Munich 2417) has been provided with a slip-in lid,7 but none of the others has a lid preserved, and they probably never had one. The eared psykter, on the other hand, regularly had a lid, of slip-over type: it is often preserved, and where it is now missing it may be inferred from the form of the mouth, which was evidently designed to receive a lid.

      Psykters with ears


      • B. 1. Berlin, Univ., D 194. Miniature. Swan Group (Hesp. 13 p. 56).
      • B. 2. Athens, Vlasto, from Koropi. Miniature. Swan Group (Hesp. 13 p. 56): as the last.
      • B. 3. Lugano, Dr. Hans von Schoen. White ground. A, Athena and Giants. B, riders.
      • B. 4. Brussels A 1652, from Corinth? Bull. Mus. Roy. 1909 pp. 51-2 fig. 2; CV. III He pl. 25, 5. Framed pictures. A, komos; B, the like. Near the Acheloos Painter. See B. 8.
      • B. 5. Brussels A 1312, from Athens. CV. III He pl. 27, 4. Miniature. Satyrs stealing the arms of Herakles. Each handle consists of a single auliskos instead of the usual double.
      • B. 6. Vienna. Miniature. A, Herakles and the Bull; B, the like.


      • B. 7. Turin, by Euthymides (ARV. p. 25 no. 9). The form of the mouth shows that the vase was intended to have a lid: and a lid is shown both in the original publication (Annali 1870 pll. O-P) and in a recent photograph (Barocelli Il Regio Museo di Antichità di Torino p. 40, 3). It does not look a very good fit: but it can hardly be anything else than a psykter-lid: and if it did not originally belong, it may have been added in antiquity as a replacement.
      • B. 8. London E 767, from Vulci, by the Dikaios Painter (ARV. p. 29 no. 6). The Dikaios Painter is connected with Euthymides, and his psykter goes with Euthymides's in shape, system of decoration, and type of palmettes. There are differences: the foot has a small additional moulding at the bottom; and the mouth is of another form and was not designed to take a lid. The black-figured psykter in Brussels (B. 4) resembles the Turin Euthymides in the form of ears, mouth, and foot, but the stem is longer.
      • B. 9. Baltimore, Walters Art Gallery 48.77, from Tarquinia: by the Syriskos Painter (ARV. p. 200: by the painter himself, as I now see). Side A is reversed in Hartwig. Some fragments have been lost since his publication. Part of the stem is modern, and the exact length of it is uncertain.
      • B. 10. Rhodes, from Ialysos. Cl. Rh. 8 pp. 127-30. A, Dionysos and maenad; B, satyr and maenad.
      • B. 11. Berlin inv. 3407, by the Painter of the Yale Lekythos (ARV. p. 444 no. 15). Small (height 0.155).


      • B. 12. Athens, Agora, Athens, Agora P 1324, fr., from Athens. Hesp. 15 pl. 65, 264. Tongues above.
      • B. 13. Corinth, from Corinth. AJA. 1939 p. 597 fig. 8, 2. Tongues above.
      • B. 14. Louvre. Tongues above.
      • B. 15. Oxford 1927.4597. CV. pl. 48, 26. Tongues above, maeander below.
      • B. 16. Athens, from Athens. Rough. String-holes as in the psykters of the Swan Group (B. 1 and 2).
      • B. 17. Athens, Agora, Athens, Agora P 6639, from Athens. Hesp. 15 pl. 65, P 6639. 'From an early fifth century well' (Vanderpool).
      • B.18. Bowdoin 15.12.
      • B. 19. Athens, Agora, Athens, Agora P 12544, from Athens. Hesp. 8 p. 231 fig. 27, 1; Hesp. 15 pl. 65. 'From an early fifth century well.'
      • B. 20. Athens, Agora, Athens, Agora P 11047, from Athens. Hesp. 15 pl. 65, P 11047. 'From an early fifth century well.'
      • B. 21. Oxford 1922.213, from Greece. CV. pl. 48, 25.
      • B. 22. Athens, Agora, Athens, Agora P 1324 bis, frr., from Athens. Hesp. 15 pl. 64, 265. Auliskoi from a psykter.
      • B. 23. New York market (Joseph Brummer).
      • B. 24. Athens, Agora, Athens, Agora P 16771, frr., from Athens. Hesp. 15 pl. 65, 266. Auliskoi of a psykter, single hole.
      • B. 25. Athens, Agora, Athens, Agora P 11048, from Athens. Hesp. 15 pl. 65, P 11048. Special handles. 'From an early fifth century well.'
      • B. 26. Heidelberg iii. 19, from Boeotia. Auliskos ears. Unusual shape: pelicoid body, sessile foot.
      C. I place here some pieces of which, either because they are fragmentary, or because my notes are insufficient, I cannot say whether they belong to Class A or Class B.


      • C. 4. Jena 340. Framed pictures. A, two youths dancing. B, two warriors.


      • C. 5. Athens, Agora, Athens, Agora P 7241, fr., by the Kleophrades Painter, earliest style (Talcott: ARV. p. 125 no. 59).
      • C. 6. Athens, Agora, Athens, Agora P 7240, frr., by the Kleophrades Painter, earliest style (Talcott: ARV. p. 129 no. 5).
      • C. 7. Athens, Agora, Athens, Agora P 16820, fr. (Male legs, stick, dog.) Recalls somewhat the earliest style of Douris.
      • C. 8. Louvre CA 3121, fr. (Feet of a nude figure, and on the left a seat with a garment on it.) There must have been few figures, which points to the psykter being of type B. Here also I thought for a moment of early Douris.


      • C. 9. Athens, Ceramicus, from Athens. Mentioned by Vanderpool in Hesp. 15 p. 322.
      • C. 10. Athens, frr.
      • C. 11. Agrigento, Giudice.
Vanderpool mentions several fragments of black psykters from the Agora (Hesp. 15 p. 322).8

A unique vase in Rhodes, earlier than all these, about the middle of the sixth century, has been described as a psykter: it is a kind of small black-figure amphora (type C), very fat, with a cylindrical base which approximates to the stem of our psykters, and on the other hand recalls the lower part of the oinochoe by Taleides in Berlin (Berlin inv. 31131: Gerhard AV. pl. 316, 2-3, whence WV. 1889 pl. 4, 5, whence Hoppin Bf. p. 343). It is not clear that the vase served the same purpose as our psykters; and in any case the shape is so different that it must be kept apart from them:

  • Rhodes 12200, from Camiros. Cl. Rh. 4 p. 75; CV. pl. 19, 1-2. A, komos (see ii p. 60). B, two naked boys before a seated youth. Manner of Lydos.

Walston 1926, p. 57, note 2; Bruhn 1943, pp. 62-63, 83 (as 01.80.19), 98, 106; J. Beazley, AJA 64 (1960), pp. 224-225; Olympia in der Antike, Ausstellung, Essen, 18. Juni-28. August 1960, fig. 59; CVA, München, 5, p. 20 (R. Lullies); Karouzos 1961, p. 87, notes 32, 34; ARV2, pp. 24 (no. 11), 1578, 1606, 1609, 1620; Neumann 1965, pp. 27-28, 175, note 77; A. H. Ashmead, Hesperia 35 (1966), pp. 31 (note 51), 32; Follmann 1968, p. 28; Chapman Tribute, illus.; Buchholz et al. 1973, p. J 94, no. 8 (with ref. to Yadin, PEQ 1955, p. 66, fig. 12; Jüthner, 1975, Die athletischen Leibesübungen der Griechen, II, Vienna, Böhlau, pl. 98); Drougou 1975, pp. 16 (no. A 21, as 018.019), 41-42, 91-93, 121 (note 300), pl. 1; M. Robertson 1975, pp. 222, 654, note 115; Yalouris et al. 1976, p. 211, pl. 115 (color); Johnston 1979, pp. 17-18, 23, 26, 36-37, 45-46, 52, 62, 119, Type 7D, no. 9; Yalouris 1979, p. 211, illus. 115 (color); Schmaltz 1980, p. 155, note 365; R. Thomas 1981, p. 38, note 167; Beazley Addenda 1, p. 74; Kurtz 1983, pp. 49 (note 178), 100; H. A. Shapiro, Hesperia 52 (1983), pp. 308-309, pl. 64; A. Hermary, Délos 34 (1984), p. 9, note 3; GettyMusJ 13 (1985), p. 168, under no. 17; D. von Bothmer, GettyMusJ 14 (1986), p. 9; Poliakoff 1987, pp. 40, 42-43, fig. 34; C. Weiss, in E. Simon, ed., 1989, Die Sammlung Kiseleff im Martin-von-Wagner-Museum der Universität Würzburg, II: Minoische und griechische Antiken, Mainz am Rhein, P. von Zabern, p. 109; Beazley Addenda 2, p. 155; EpaA 1990, p. 148, under no. 24 (D. von Bothmer); EdM 1991, p. 162, under no. 24 (D. von Bothmer).

1 So Norman Gardiner, rightly: Hauser gives a different explanation (Jb. 27 p. 109).

In the Turin psykter by Euthymides (below, ii p. 7, no. B. 7), one wrestler may be allowing himself to be thrown. He is not Kerkyon as used to be thought, but as Philippart pointed out (Coll. cér. en Italie i p. 9), ΚΛ[ΥΤ]ΟΣ, a companion of Theseus. Theseus was the inventor of scientific wrestling (Paus. 1.39.3; schol. Pind. N. 5.89, b). The bout is a 'friendly', and the scene the palaestra.

On the cup Goluchow, Czartoryski, 167 (CV. pl. 39, 1) an athlete stands still, with his hands clasped at the back of his neck, and allows another to try and throw him (there is some restoration, but the motive is plain).

2 Not 'raising his hand in astonishment', as Hauser.

3 There is perhaps a fifth occurrence, on the fragmentary stamnos by Euphronios in Leipsic (Leipsic T 523: Jb. 11 p. 185, whence Hoppin Euth. and F. pl. 34 and Anz. 1918, Beil. at p. 68: ARV. p. 16 no. 6). A small floating sherd inscribed ...ΥΛ... is assigned by Hauser to the picture of Peleus and Thetis on the front, but it might belong to the athletic scene on the back and give the name of the discus-thrower, [Pha]yl[los], with part of his discus.

4 As a promising boy Phayllos may have been sent to athletic 'finishing school' at Athens. Not many years later, it will be remembered, the Aeginetan athlete Pytheas, from the famous athletic family of the Psalychiadai, was trained by the Athenian Menandros (Pind. N. 5.87-90; Bacchyl. 13.190-8), 'thousands' of whose pupils, according to Pindar, had won victories at the great Panhellenic festivals. Pindar was probably writing in 489, and Menandros must have been active for a good while before this, or his successful pupils could not have been reckoned, even with some exaggeration, by the thousand. Any explanation of Phayllos' presence at Athens must naturally be conjectural and does not affect the main contention.

5 IG. I 2 655; Tod Greek Historical Inscriptions p. 26 no. 21; Hesp. 8 pp. 156-7 (Raubitschek: but the victories were at the Pythia and Phayllos is not a καλός-name); Raubitschek Dedications from the Athenian Akropolis pp. 80-2 no. 76.

Dunbabin (The Western Greeks p. 85) mentions an unpublished dedication by Phayllos to Zeus Meilichios; found at Croton and now in the Museum of Reggio.

6 (From Addenda to Parts I and II) P. 5: for the Phayllos inscription in Reggio see Jeffery Local Scripts pp. 257-8.

7 The lid is figured in Lau, pl. 30, 2. One ought to make sure that it belongs. It has been on the vase since 1828 at least, as it is mentioned by Politi in his Espozione di un vaso fittile agrigentino, p. 6.

8 (From Addenda to Parts I and II) Pp. 6-9, psykters: see also Bothmer in AJA. 1957 pp. 309-10; Frel Řecké Vázy fig. 65; Erika Diehl Griechische Weinkühler; Bothmer in Bull. Metr. Jan. 1961 pp. 138-55; Greifenhagen in Jb. Berl. Mus. 3 pp. 117-33. Red-figure additions to our list: (i) Geneva market, assigned by Bothmer to Oltos (see Antike Kunst 4 p. 63, foot: ARV.2 p. 1622 no. 7 bis); (2) Swiss private collection, from the Pezzino Group (Jb. 76 p. 56: ARV2 p. 1621 no. 3 bis: athletes); (3) Naples, Astarita collection, 428, assigned by Bothmer to Myson (AJA. 1957 p. 310; Amazons in Greek Art p. 125 no. 10 and pp. 129-30; ARV.2 p. 242 no. 77). The Villa Giulia vase, Villa Giulia 49796, mentioned by Miss Diehl on her p. 27, line 8, is my A. 21, by the Tyszkiewicz Painter (M.L. 42 pp. 327-8: ARV.2 p. 294 no. 60).

hide References (3 total)
  • Cross-references from this page (1):
    • Pindar, Olympian, 13
  • Cross-references in notes from this page (2):
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.39.3
    • Pindar, Nemean, 5
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