previous next

70. 97.368 CALYX-KRATER from Vulci PLATES XXXV-XXXVI and SUPPL. PLATE 13, 1

Found at Canino in 1889; formerly in the collection of Count Michael Tyszkiewicz. Estimated height 0.443 (the greatest height is 0.452: one side droops, which must be why Caskey never drew and analysed the shape). Diameter 0.513. Robert Scenen der Ilias und Aithiopis pll. 1-2 and p. 3; Fröhner La collection Tyszkiewicz pll. 17-18, whence Furtwängler Aigina p. 345 and VA. p. 54, below, (B) Bulas Les illustrations antiques de l'Iliade fig. 18; AJA. 1916 pp. 145-6; A, VA. p. 54, above; B and side-view, Jacobsthal O. pl. 62; A, Fairbanks Philostratus, Imagines p. 29 fig. 3; B, Richter and Milne fig. 56; B, Fairbanks and Chase p. 66 fig. 71. A, Achilles and Memnon. B, Diomed and Aeneas. About 490-480, by the Tyszkiewicz Painter (AJA. 1916 p. 147 no. 1; VA. p. 55; Att. V. p. 113 no. 1; ARV. p. 185 no. 1). Our drawings are by F. Anderson.

The story of Achilles and Memnon was told in the Aithiopis attributed to Arktinos of Miletus. After the burial of Hector, two great champions came to help the Trojans. First, Penthesilea the Amazon, daughter of Ares; and after her death at the hands of Achilles, Memnon, fairest of men, son of Tithonos (brother of Priam) and of the goddess Eos. Memnon slew Antilochos, who died to save his father Nestor. Then Achilles slew Memnon. Soon after, Achilles himself was slain by Paris.

The two warriors no longer have their spears. Achilles strides forward, sword in hand. Memnon has drawn his sword, but is wounded, and falls. Both warriors are youthful; and a third warrior lies dead at their feet. On the left Athena steps forward to stand by Achilles, her spear in her right hand, her left arm extended in the aegis. On the right, Eos (wingless as often) stretches out her left arm to support her falling son, while her right arm is extended in entreaty. The names are all inscribed: ΑΘΕΝΑΙΑ, ΑΧΙΛΕΥΣ, ΜΕΛΑΝΙΠΠΟΣ, ΜΕΙΜΝΟΝ, ΗΕΙΟΣ. Besides, ΛΑΧΕΑΣ: ΚΑΛΟΣ is written on the rim of the dead youth's shield. Lacheas does not appear elsewhere as a kalos-name in this form; but in the true Attic form Laches it recurs on six cups of the late archaic period, all by the Antiphon Painter or in his manner (ARV. p. 929). Whether this Laches is the same as our Lacheas is uncertain.

In most pictures of the subject, the figure of the goddess Eos, mother of Memnon, is answered on the other side by the figure of the goddess Thetis, mother of Achilles. Here Athena takes the place of Thetis; and so, as will be seen, in one or two other pictures.

Again, from what is known of the epic story, one would expect the dead youth to be Antilochos; and Antilochos is the name in two earlier pictures of the combat between Achilles and Memnon (ii p. 15): here, however, the name is Melanippos. Three Trojans of this name make a brief appearance in the Iliad, and one Greek. The Trojans are slain almost as soon as mentioned;1 the Greek remains: but the name is given too freely to supers for one to feel confident that this is the same man. A fifth Melanippos is mentioned by Apollodorus in a list of Priam's bastard sons (Apollod. 3.12.5): Robert conjectures that after the death of Antilochos, Memnon encountered this Melanippos, who fled, but was overtaken and slain; and that the combat between Achilles and Memnon took place over the body. He further conjectures that on a red-figured cup by the Brygos Painter in Tarquinia (Mon. 11 pl. 33; WV. D pl. 8, 2 = WV. 1890-1 pl. 8, 2; Corolla Curtius pll. 48-50: ARV. p. 246 no. 4), and on a black-figured cup in Würzburg (Würzburg 419: AZ. 1851 pl. 31; Langlotz pl. 117), the falling warrior is Melanippos not Memnon, who would be the man to right of him.

Robert's theory was opposed by Duhn (D.L.Z. 1892 p. 635) and Lung (Memnon pp. 46-8). Robert had assumed the fallen warrior to be a Trojan: Lung pointed out that from the position of the body it was more likely a Greek. True, Lung's rule (ibid. pp. 38-40) that the dead must always lie with his head towards his friends,23 is not without exceptions: one example is on the East-Greek Euphorbos plate, which Lung himself quotes, in the British Museum (Pfuhl fig. 117), another on the black-figured kantharos by 'the metic' in Athens (Athens, Acr. 2134: Graef pl. 94), a third on the black-figured amphora Louvre E 732 (Mon. 6-7 pl. 7-8), a fourth on the black-figured calyx-krater by Exekias in Athens (North Slope: Hesp. 6 pp. 468-86), a fifth on the red-figured cup by Oltos in Berlin (WV. D pl. 2, 1-2, whence Hoppin Rf. ii p. 249: ARV. p. 38 no. 48); in the last two it is Patroklos who lies with his head towards the enemy. If the dead on the Boston vase is a Greek, we may suppose either, with Lung, that the name Melanippos is a slip for Antilochos, or that the artist has selected a more obscure figure from Memnon's aristeia, which must have included several victims besides Antilochos. The second alternative cannot be rejected out of hand.

As to the fallen man on the Tarquinia cup, he is certainly an opponent of the warrior who advances from the left; and if this is Achilles, the fallen must be of the Trojan party, whether Memnon or another;4 the same is true of the falling warrior on the Würzburg cup.

The combat of Achilles and Memnon was represented on the Chest of Cypselus: Ἀχιλλεῖ δὲ καὶ Μέμνονι μαχομένοις παρεστήκασιν αἱ μητέρες (Paus. 5.19.1); and later on the Throne of Apollo at Amyklai (Paus. 3.18.12), whether in the presence of their mothers is not stated. There are many pictures of the combat on vases, and in some of them the names of the persons are inscribed. We give a list of the inscribed vases first.

      (Corinthian black-figure)

    • Berlin 1147, column-krater. Mon. 2 pl. 38, b; detail, Rodenwaldt Korkyra p. 118. Achileus and Memnon fighting; on each side of the group, a warrior riding a horse and leading another. The inscriptions are in the Sicyonian alphabet. Middle Corinthian (Payne NC. p. 317 no. 1170).

      (East Greek (Aeolian) black-figure)

    • Izmir, fragment, from Old Smyrna. I describe it by kind permission of Mr. J. M. Cook and his Turkish colleagues in the excavation. Memnon, spear in hand, attacking to right. Behind him, his chariot, facing to left — outwards: nothing remains of the chariot, but the upper part of the charioteer is preserved, facing to left, holding reins and kentron. On the left, Eos facing to right. Inscriptions ΑΨΟΣ (Avos) and ΑΙΘΙΟΨ (Aithiops, designating the charioteer). Second quarter of the sixth century, contemporary with early Chalcidian, or even with the Attic fragment described on ii p. 16.5

      (Chalcidian black-figure)

    • Florence 4210, fragment of a neck-amphora by the Chalcidian Inscription Painter (Rumpf). Milani Mon. scelti pl. 1, 1; Rumpf Chalk. V. pl. 1 (with p. 7 no. 1, p. 46, and p. 60). M[emn]on and Achilleus fighting over the body of [A]ntilochos; Memnon is on the left. On the left, Eos; on the right, Thetis. On the right, [Au]tomedon riding a horse; there was doubtless a similar figure on the left.

      (pseudo-Chalcidian black-figure)

    • Once Magnoncourt, neck-amphora. Gerhard AV. pl. 205, whence Rumpf Chalk. V. p. 182 fig. 12 (with p. 156 a, and pp. 157-9). Memnon and Achileu[s] fighting over the body of Antilochos; Memnon is again on the left. On the left, Heos; on the right, Thetis. Rumpf has shown that the inscriptions must have been retouched: they now read Heos, Memnon, Achileu[s], Antilochos, Thetis. Memnon Group (Rumpf).


    • Vatican 389, bf. neck-amphora. Mus. Greg. ii pl. 38, 1; Albizzati pl. 55. Achileus and Memnon, alone. Group of Würzburg 189.
    • Athens, Acr. 2611, fragment of a bf. onos. Graef pl. 111. The right-hand part of the picture remains. Memnon, Heos. About 480 B.C.


    • Limenas, fragment of a rf. calyx-krater by Phintias (ARV. p. 23: Suppl. plate 11, 2). I know this fragment from a photograph kindly given me by Miss Haspels. What remains is part of Memnon's corslet, from not far below the neck to the waist, seen from behind, with a piece of the baldric, and the left hand of Eos; to right of the corslet, ΜΕΜ[ΝΟΝ]. The design, so far as it goes, is just as in the Boston vase.
    • New York 06.1021.139; Amsterdam inv. 2782; Cab. Méd. (ex Fröhner: two frr.); and once Naples, Bourguignon (two frr.), fragments of a rf. cup: see ARV. p. 935: late sixth century. I, archer and fallen warrior: Dietrich von Bothmer points out to me that this is probably not an Amazonomachy as I had thought. B, Achilles and Ajax playing (Hartwig p. 277). A, Achilles and Memnon: Achilles strides to right with spear and Boeotian shield; Memnon falls; between them a dead warrior, head towards Achilles; on the left, Athena running forward, her spear in her right hand, her left arm extended in her aegis; on the left, Thetis running forward, her right arm extended. ΚΑΛΟΣΜΕΜΜΝΟΣ. This may refer to the Memnon known as a καλός from many cups by Oltos, but it more probably refers to the hero depicted: compare, for example, ΘΕΣΕΥΣ ΚΑΛΟΣ on the calyx-krater by Phintias in Leningrad (A, FR. iii p. 235: ARV. p. 22 no. 4),6 or ΚΑΛΟΣ ΕΚΤΩΡ on the neck-amphora by the Hector Painter in the Vatican (Mus. Greg. 2 pl. 60, 2; A, phots. Alinari 35722-3: ARV. p. 684 no. 1).
    • Palermo, fragment of a rf. cup, early work by Douris (ARV. p. 281 no. 21). ML. 32 pl. 95, 6; AJA. 1935 p. 481. What remains is the upper half of the left-hand figure on one half of the outside, ΘΕΤΙΣ (retr.).
    • London E 468, volute-krater by the Berlin Painter (ARV. p. 138 no. 102). Gerhard AV. pl. 204; JHS. 31 pl. 14 and p. 283; Berl. pll. 29-31. Achilleus and Memnon, with Thetis and Heos.
    • Louvre G 342, rf. calyx-krater by the Altamura Painter (ARV. p. 412 no. 8). Millingen AUM. pll. 49-50; CV. d pl. 4, 2-3 and pl. 5, 1-2; A, phot. Alinari 23673; A, phot. Giraudon 25513. Achilles, and Memnon, who wears a sleeved and trousered Oriental costume under his chitoniskos and corslet; between them, Athena; behind Achilles, a female holding a fillet (Thetis?); behind Memnon, two warriors, one of whom seems to come to his assistance. The vase is much restored. The inscription ΑΧΙΛΛΕΥΣ remains, and the name of Memnon may have been in the missing part. The treatment is unusual, and Lung denied that the subject could be Achilles and Memnon, but it can hardly be Achilles and an Amazon, as he suggested, because of the warriors on the right. The date is about 465 or 460. This is the earliest representation of Memnon in which he wears Oriental or semi-Oriental costume. It has been conjectured that in the Memnon trilogy of Aeschylus he was so dressed (see Robert Heldensage p. 1183): this is likely enough, although it is nowhere stated: all that is known is that Aeschylus (it is not said where) described the mother of Memnon as a Kissian (Strab. 15.3.2), that is to say, a native of Susa, so a Persian: an odd description, but serving to show that in Aeschylus Memnon was connected with Susa — came from there, we may say. Susa is the city of Memnon to Herodotus, and had doubtless been so to Aeschylus.
    The next vase on which Memnon is given semi-Oriental costume is a column-krater from about the middle of the fifth century in Copenhagen, by the Painter of London E 489 (Copenhagen 147: Millingen AUM. 1 pl. 40, whence Overbeck Gall. her. Bildw. pl. 21, 16, whence Roscher s.v. Memnon p. 2674; CV. pl. 148, 2: ARV. p. 345 no. 17), where the left-hand warrior is inscribed ΜΕΜ[Ν]ΟΝ. The subject is not the combat with Achilles, but Memnon setting out, with two companions, one mounted, one on foot. The picture has now been transformed by cleaning, and I publish it in AJA. 1950 pp. 318-19 with fig. 5.
    • A fragment of a black-figured vase in Athens, Athens, Acr. 586 (Hesp. 13 pl. 7, 2), if it represents the battle between Achilles and Memnon, is a very early Attic rendering of the subject, for the style is related to Sophilos (ibid. p. 52, above, no. 1). The right arm of a warrior holding a spear is preserved, and the upper part of a woman behind him with forearms extended. The woman's name begins with Η, which suggests H[eos]; the name of the warrior begins with Μ; the two letters following the Μ are damaged: the first of them might be Ε, but I was not sure that the second, and last preserved, could be Μ, and for this reason I have not placed the fragment at the head of the Attic list.
Lastly, the names are also inscribed on an Etruscan mirror in New York (New York 22.139.84: Bull. Metr. 1926 p. 83 fig. 6; Richter Handbook of the Etruscan Collection fig. 132): Memnun, attacked by Achle, falls, and is supported by his winged mother. I asked Miss Richter if there were traces of the name Thesan: she reports that there may possibly be traces of Ο[Ε]ΣΑΝ but that it is extremely doubtful.

We now turn to the uninscribed pictures. Many of the Attic black-figured pictures in which the two combatants are flanked by two female figures must represent Achilles and Memnon in the presence of Thetis and Eos: but that this need not always be the subject is shown by fragments of a black-figured column-krater in Athens (Athens, Acr. 646: see below, ii p. 19) in which the right-hand combatant is inscribed Aineas; his opponent is doubtless Diomed, and the females Athena and Aphrodite. There, however, Aphrodite holds a flower, which would be sufficient, if there were no inscriptions, to show that she was not Eos.7 If there is no distinguishing mark like the flower, there is a strong probability that the subject is Achilles and Memnon.8 The black-figure pictures are conventional, the goddesses standing bolt upright, encouraging their sons, only occasionally raising their arms in excitement. It is exceptional when on a later black-figured hydria, by the Rycroft Painter, in Munich, Eos rushes forward with a gesture of despair, as on red-figure vases (Munich 1720: J. 138: Gerhard A.V. pl. 211-12, 1-2: JHS. 54, p. 91). The Eos of the inscribed onos (ii p. 15), which is very late black-figure, is also like red-figure. We give no list of these black-figured pictures: many of them are in Lung's lists (Memnon pp. 34-6); see also Lippold in Münchener arch. Studien pp. 432-5, Rodenwaldt Korkyra pp. 113 ff., and Foti in Arti figurative 3 (1947) pp. 108-11.

The earliest picture of two warriors fighting, flanked by female figures, is on a Melian vase of the seventh century in Athens (Conze Melische Thongefässe pl. 3; Jb. 53 p. 105). The female figures cannot be separated in subject from the combatants: these may be Achilles and Memnon; but the suit of armour between them is a difficulty: see Nierhaus in Jb. 53 pp. 111-14.

The red-figure pictures of Achilles and Memnon have more character than the majority of the black-figure, and we give a list of those not mentioned above:

  • Freiburg, Goettingen, and Halle, fragments of a rf. cup, from Orvieto. Briefly described in C.F. p. 33 no. 9 bis. I have no doubt that the subject is the conflict between Achilles and Memnon. One of the two Freiburg fragments gives Memnon, to right, looking round, seen from behind, down on one knee, his right arm raised holding the spear, the shield on the left arm. On the right, the right arm of Eos, extended, and one flying end of her Ionic himation: she was running to right, looking round. All that remains of Achilles is the fingers of his left hand, apparently grasping Memnon's spear, and a piece of his left shin. A small fragment in Goettingen joins the Freiburg fragment one the left, adding the left foot of Achilles, with half the shank and the left foot of Memnon. A second fragment in Freiburg has the upper part of Thetis, running to left, looking round, her right hand raised, her left arm extended. A larger fragment in Halle comes from the other half of the exterior; it shows a young archer running to left, leading a horse, and, on the right, a woman running to right, looking round, her right arm extended: she wears boots, which are perhaps winged: Iris? A third fragment in Goettingen has a large leaf, under one handle. Inscriptions: on A, [Η]ΟΠ[ΑΙΣ], ΚΑΛ[ΟΣ], and on Memnon's shield ΚΑ[ΛΟΣ]; on B, ...ΣΚΑΛΟ[Σ]. Key-pattern round the missing tondo inside; net-pattern below the outside pictures. Same period as the last. The Halle fragment is mentioned by Nachod in P.W. s.v. Skythes p. 695 no. 20.
  • Villa Giulia, rf. cup by Epiktetos (ARV. p. 46 no. 21). Arti figurative 2 pll. 3-8. Achilles and Memnon still matched; between them Hermes with the balance (Psychostasia); on the right, the two mothers running to Zeus and Hera. Ciotti notices (loc. cit. p. 15) that the same combination of combat and psychostasia or kērostasia occurs on a small black-figured lekythos in the British Museum (Murray Hist. of Greek Sculpture ii p. 28 fig. 1, whence Roscher s.v. Keren p. 1142 fig. 1 and Jb. 26 p. 132 fig. 54: Haspels ABL. pl. 36, 1): this is by the Sappho Painter (Haspels ibid. p. 227 no. 28) and is later than the Epiktetos cup. A third instance is on a black-figured hydria of Clazomenian fabric in the Villa Giulia (Annuario 24-6 pll. 3-6 and p. 49, Ricci), rightly assigned by Villard (Mon. Piot 43 p. 49) to the same hand as a much-restored dinos in the Louvre (Louvre E 739: BCH. 1893 pl. 18 and p. 428; part, Mon. Piot loc. cit.). It also occurred, later, in the bronze group by Lykios at Delphi (Paus. 5.22.2-3).
  • Tarquinia RC 6846, rf. cup by the Brygos Painter (ARV. p. 246 no. 4). Mon. 11 pl. 33; WV. D pl. 8, 2 = WV. 1890-1 pl. 8, 2, whence Robert Sc. der Ilias p. 4; Corolla Curtius pll. 48-50 (Hampe). See ii p. 41.
  • London E 67, rf. cup, manner of the Brygos Painter, by the Castelgiorgio Painter (ARV. p. 258 no. 3). Gerhard TG. pl. D (with restorations, now removed). Both mothers are winged.
  • London E 77, rf. cup, by the Sabouroff Painter, in his earlier period (ARV. p. 556 no. 2). Memnon falls. The composition is still much as in the volute-krater by the Berlin Painter (above, ii p. 17).
  • Louvre G 399, rf. cup. Mon. 6-7 pl. 5; Pottier pl. 140; phots. Giraudon 17908 and another. The two heroes are still matched. Eos is absent. On the other half of the exterior, Psychostasia: Hermes with the balance, and the two mothers running off. Curious, amateurish style: not before 450, but old-fashioned.
  • Bologna 285, rf. calyx-krater by the Altamura Painter (ARV. p. 413 no. 9). Zannoni pl. 11, 3-4 and pl. 12, 1, whence (A) Robert Sc. der Ilias p. 9 fig. 14. Memnon falls. The mothers are both winged.
  • Bologna 290, rf. calyx-krater. Zannoni pl. 52, 1 and 11-12. Memnon falls. The mothers are both winged. Thetis holds out a fillet in anticipation of victory, as on the Louvre calyx-krater (ii p. 16): this motive occurs already in black-figured pictures of the second quarter of the sixth century, where the females watching the fight hold out wreaths (hydria in Vienna, Oesterreichisches Museum, Vienna 220, Masner, p. 23; ovoid neck-amphora in Boulogne, 104).
  • Leyden 26 f 41, Campanian rf. neck-amphora by the Ixion Painter (JHS. 63 p. 95 no. 11). Millin PVA. i pll. 19-22.
Was there an 'Achilles and Memnon' by the Kleophrades Painter? The grandest picture of the Psychostasia, the weighing of the psychai of Memnon and Achilles, is by him, on fragments of a volute-krater in the Cabinet des Médailles (Mon. 2 pl. 10, b; Kleophr. pl. 2 and pl. 30, 6: ARV. p. 124, no. 43, and p. 127 no. 80). Now Luynes, to whom the fragments belonged, mentions fragments of a picture on the reverse, representing a 'combat of gods', 'perhaps the combat between Achilles and Hector' (Annali 1834 p. 296). These fragments were never reproduced and have disappeared: may they not have represented, rather than Achilles and Hector, Achilles and Memnon?

Memnon and his negro henchmen appear on several vases;9 the henchmen appear alone on others, and two vases show them in conflict with Greeks. On a black-figured amphora by Exekias in Philadelphia (Philadelphia MS3442; Museum Journal 6 pp. 91-2; AJA. 1935 pl. 8; Technau Exekias pl. 23), Greeks chase them from the dead body of Antilochos. All that remains of the other vase, red-figured, by the Berlin Painter (ARV. p. 131 no. 4), is two fragments in Erlangen (Erlangen 526: Mü. Jb. 1919 = Buschor Krokodil des Sotades pl. 3, whence AJA 1935 pl. 9). On all this see Buschor Krok. pp. 36-9. The Erlangen fragments are described more accurately there than in ARV. Add that they are from a loutrophoros rather than a pointed amphora: below the main picture part of a horseman, in silhouette, is preserved: this is probably from the cavalcade at a funeral, and he makes the gesture of valediction. The fragment Tübingen E 101 (Watzinger pl. 29: warriors), which is probably from the neck of a loutrophoros, is either by the Berlin Painter or in his manner.

We return to the Boston krater.

B. The subject on the other side of the vase is taken from the fifth book of the Iliad. Diomed strikes at Aeneas with his spear. Aeneas has drawn his sword, but falls, helpless. Athena encourages Diomed, and Aphrodite comes to the rescue of her son. The figures are all named, ΑΘΕΝΑΙΑ, Λ̣ΙΟΜΕΛ̣ΕΣ, ΑΙΝΕΑΣ, and, retrograde, ΑΦΡΟΛ̣ΙΤΕ. The artist has not kept close to Homer: in the Iliad, Diomed wounds Aeneas with a boulder; here he uses his spear. Similarly, in the Kleophrades Painter's version of this scene, on his cup in London (see below), Aeneas is wounded by a spear which still sticks, broken, in the wound, and Diomed is following his attack up with the sword.

Johansen observes (Iliaden p. 112) that the composition of the picture is especially like that of the 'Ajax and Hector' on a cup by Douris in the Louvre (Louvre G 115: Hoppin i p. 245; Johansen fig. 39: ARV. p. 285 no. 70).

The combat of Diomed and Aeneas is represented on five other vases and a plaque:

      (Corinthian black-figure)

    • Berlin 764, fragment of a plaque. AD. i pl. 7, 15, whence Johansen Il. fig. 4.


    • Athens, Acr. 646, fragment of a bf. column-krater: what remains is part of the picture on the upper surface of the mouth. Graef pl. 42, whence Johansen Il. fig. 34. The interpretation is due to Robert (Hermes 1901 p. 387): see also Bulas pp. 35-6, Johansen pp. 103-4. Johansen's date, about 540, cannot be far out. The woman on the left is no doubt Athena, but the scale-pattern on the peplos is so common that it cannot be meant to suggest the aegis.
    • Copenhagen, Thorvaldsen Museum, Copenhagen, Thorvaldsen Museum 100, rf. cup by Oltos (ARV. p. 39 no. 53). Johansen Il. fig. 35; Art. Bull. 19 p. 548 fig. 8; Bruhn Oltos figs. 37 and 42-3. See Johansen Il. pp. 105-6.
    • London E 73, rf. cup by the Kleophrades Painter (ARV. p. 128 no. 94). Journ. Phil. 7 pll. A-B, whence (B) Robert Sc. der Ilias p. 10 fig. 15, Bulas fig. 19, and Johansen Il. fig. 36.
    • Louvre, fr. of a rf. pot (possibly a stamnos) by the Syleus Painter. What remains is the lower part of a shield, in three-quarter view, and the middle of a female figure to left, holding a dove (in silhouette) in the left hand: this must be Aphrodite (compare the Syleus Painter's stamnos in Berlin, Jb. 31 p. 203), and the shield must belong to Aeneas. I am not certain that another fragment by the Syleus Painter in the Louvre is from the same vase: if it is, it may give part of Diomed, of Aeneas, and of Aphrodite.


    • Würzburg 799, bf. amphora. Mon. 3 pl. 50; Gerhard AV. pl. 194; Jh. 13 pll. 5-8; Langlotz pll. 232-4. See Klein in Jh. 13 pp. 154-6; Bulas pp. 34-5; and EVP. pp. 17-18 and 49.
Miss Price suggested that a fragment of a Chiot chalice in London (JHS. 44 pl. 6, 6) might represent Aphrodite saving Aeneas from Diomed, and Johansen agrees (Il. p. 165, C 1): but the man does not look like a warrior.10

Let us now look at the two pictures in detail. Achilles wears chitoniskos, leather corslet, greaves, Attic helmet with nasal, and with movable cheek-pieces, which are raised. The corslet has pteryges, and the middle part of it is strengthened with metal scales; on one shoulder-flap a lion, on the other a lioness, in black. What is seen below the lioness's belly is the end of a lock of Achilles' hair. The baldric is in red. The shield is of 'Boeotian' type; the inside is browned. The drawing omits inner markings on the legs, and the heart of the black palmette on the helmet. Memnon's mouth is open, and the upper part of the cornea is concealed by the eyelid. He is dressed like Achilles, but has no greaves. The middle of the corslet is imbricated instead of scaled; the shoulder-piece is covered with scales alternately black and reserved, and is unusually ornate, for the nape-piece and the lower corners are in the form of panther's heads. Part of the left corner-panther is seen to right of the shield. The scabbard also ends in the head of a panther. The cheek-piece of the helmet is ornamented with the figure of a lizard, and the part over the forehead is decorated with an imitation of human forehead-hair, as often in actual helmets and in representations of them (see Hauser in Jh. 9 pp. 96-9). The top of the crest is cut off by the upper border, whereas the crests of Achilles and Athena overlap on to it. The device on the shield is a gorgoneion in outline, with black hair and red tongue. The head of the gorgon is surrounded by a black ring and then by a brown one, which is set with snakes. The brown ring is edged with incised lines. The shield-device of Athena on a fragment by the same painter in Athens is very like this (Athens, Acr. 812: Langlotz pl. 73: ARV. p. 188 no. 60).

It is perhaps more than a coincidence that in an earlier picture of this combat, on a cup by Epiktetos in the Villa Giulia (see ii p. 18), not only does Memnon bear a gorgoneion on his shield as here, but his nape-piece is decorated with a panther-head; the lower corners of the shoulder-piece are plain, but there are panther-heads on the shoulder-flaps of Achilles.11

Antilochos, with wounds in side, nape, and left thigh, lies with the right leg contracted and extended frontal. He has no corslet, only a chitoniskos, with kolpos; his Corinthian helmet has fallen off, and the crest droops, but the skirt of the chiton, instead of hanging down, sticks straight out as if it were made of metal foil. The hair is rolled round a cord at the nape.

I do not recall another vase in which the helmet is seen, fallen off, beside the head of the fallen warrior. But a helmet is shown falling, on a column-krater in Bologna (Bologna 192: CV. pl. 28, 4-5), and apparently on a Boeotian red-figured kantharos in Athens (Athens 12486: AM. 65 pl. 20, 1); fallen, on the volute-krater by the Geneva Painter in Geneva (Geneva MF 238; FR. ii p. 314 fig. 105: ARV. p. 430 no. 1), on a hydria by the Leningrad Painter in London (London E 167: CV. pl. 73, 1 and pl. 79, 1: ARV. p. 376 no. 63), on a fragment of a volute-krater in Oxford (Oxford 1922.209: CV. pl. 50, 27; the fragment New York 23.160.64 might be from the same vase); on Etruscan black-figured vases — the amphora Würzburg 799 (Jh. 13 pll. 5-8: Langlotz pll. 232-4: EVP. pp. 17-18), the hydria Naples 2781 (Jh. 13 p. 157: EVP. p. 18). In the right half of the east pediment of the Temple of Aphaia, Aegina, the squire is thought to be holding his master's helmet — catching it when it has slipped off the head, or having retrieved it from the ground (Furtwängler Aigina pp. 248-9). On a cup by the Panaitios Painter in Boston (ii p. 27 and Pl. XXXIX) the helmet seems to be slipping from the warrior's head as he falls; and it is about to fall off on an Etruscan black-figured neck-amphora in the Paris market (Kalebdjian), the style of which recalls the neck-amphora Chiusi 577 (phots. Alinari 37482-3, whence, A, ML. 30 p. 495, A, Giglioli L'arte etrusca pl. 130, 2: EVP. pp. 18 and 296). The motive occurs in Homer (Hom. Il. 16.793).

Athena wears a thick chiton, a himation of 'Ionic' fashion, the aegis, and an Attic helmet with a frontlet but neither nasal nor cheek-pieces. The gorgoneion is a reduced version of that on Memnon's shield; red tongues, no fangs. The chiton, with its bands of pattern, may be compared with the less elaborate one worn by Athena on the painter's hydria in London (London E 165: El. 1 pl. 3; CV. pl. 71, 3 and pl. 72, 4: ARV. p. 188 no. 54) and the more elaborate worn by her on his fragment in Athens already quoted (Athens, Acr. 812: Langlotz pl. 73). The eyelids are bordered with brown.

Thetis wears a chiton with two kolpoi, and a himation shawl-wise. Her front-hair is tucked behind the stephane and rolled round it behind.

The three shields, close together, bulk large in the composition, and make one think of battle-scenes on black-figure vases of the second quarter and middle of the sixth century, in which the three shields are even more prominent: for example the Louvre hydria, Louvre F 6 (Pottier pl. 63; CV. III He pl. 59, 1-2), the Munich hydria, Munich 1680 by the same hand (Rumpf Sakonides pl. 13, b), an ovoid neck-amphora in the Villa Giulia which is close to them (Mingazzini Vasi Cast. pl. 57, 3 and pl. 58, 1), or the Louvre hydria, Louvre E 735 (Pottier pl. 54).

Diomed wears chitoniskos, leather corslet with scales, Corinthian helmet, but no greaves; there is a star on his left shoulder-flap, but the painter forgot to add the other. Aeneas wears chitoniskos, corslet with imbrications, Attic helmet with nasal and movable cheek-pieces, baldric with scabbard. His corslet has only one row of pteryges. On each shoulder-flap a star. The sword, of a different type from Memnon's, is of the sabre (kopis) form with uneven blade and handle in the form of a swan's head and neck (see British Museum: Guide ... Greek and Roman Life 3 p. 94, and Wrede in AM. 41 p. 245). Athena wears the same costume as on the obverse, but plainer; the chiton is of thinner material and is unornamented, the himation has no border, only an edging of brown, and the aegis lacks the gorgoneion; the helmet is of the same type, but the crest is low ('sessile'), instead of high. Aphrodite wears chiton, himation shawl-wise, stephane with the hair in a krobylos. At each handle, plant-palmettes.

The painter's ΑΙΝΕΑΣ may be either Αἰνείας or Αἰνέας, but Αἰνέας is the Attic (and the original) form (Wackernagel, Sprachliche Untersuchungen zu Homer p. 2).

Relief-lines are used for the contours. Brown inner markings on the bodies in A though not in B; and brown is used for other details. Red for blood, baldrics, inscriptions, and for the tongues of the gorgons.

'This is the masterpiece', as I have said before (VA. p. 55), 'of a mediocre painter: yet size, shape, and composition make it an imposing thing; and in the sturdy, bull-like fighters there is Homeric vigour, the Homeric of the eleventh book of the Iliad.'

The only additions to the list of the painter's works in ARV. pp. 185-9 and 954 are a neck-amphora with triple handles in Baltimore, Walters Art Gallery (Baltimore, Walters Art Gallery 48.58) (A, man; B, woman), a pelike-fragment in the Louvre (lower part of a male in a himation leaning on his stick to right, and the foot, I think, of a person facing him), and another Louvre fragment, which may be from the same vase as the last (upper part of a man leaning on his stick to left). No. 53 is now published in Mnemosyne, 3rd series, 10 pl. 1; A of no. 50 republished in CV. Syracuse pl. 7, 3; no. 25 is in a Dutch private collection.

Ausonia 10 (1921), col. 45; S. B. Luce, AJA 34 (1930), pp. 337-338; P. Jacobsthal, MetMusStud 5 (1934), p. 134; Roton 1950, p. 77, illus.; Roton 1951, p. 57, illus.; Levi & Stenico 1956, p. 12, fig. 9; EAA, I, p. 30 (P. Bocci); Brommer 1960, pp. 259 (no. B 1), 287 (no. B 3); B. B. Shefton, AJA 64 (1960), p. 174, note 10; EAA, III, pp. 109-110 (L. Rocchetti); EAA, IV, p. 1000; J. D. Beazley, AntK 4 (1961), p. 60; J. D. Beazley, Apollo: Bollettino dei Musei Provinciali del Salernitano, July-Dec. 1961, p. 22; Palmer 1962, p. 87, fig. 75; ARV2, p. 290, no. 1; E. Vermeule 1965, figs. 16, 32; E. Vermeule, AJA 70 (1966), p. 22; C. G. Boulter, Hesperia 35 (1966), p. 312; A. H. Ashmead, Hesperia 35 (1966), p. 27, note 30; J. Richer, 1967, Géographie sacrée du Monde grec, Paris, Librairie Hachette, p. 164; Friis Johansen 1967, pp. 58 (note 100a), 206-207 (fig. 86), 250 (no. B 3d); Mayer-Prokop 1967, p. 127; A.-B. Follmann, Die Griechische Vase (Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Universität Rostock 16, 1967), pp. 447, 643, pl. 24, 5; Follmann 1968, pp. 18, 80; K. Schauenburg, Gymnasium 76 (1969), p. 48, note 37; Para., p. 355, no. 1; E. R. Knauer, 125 BWPr, pp. 20 (note 2), 25 (note 79); Brommer 1973, pp. 350 (no. B 5), 396 (no. B 3); Boardman 1975, pp. 113, 123 (fig. 186), 218, 231, 245; J. Boardman, AntK 19 (1976), p. 5, note 12; A. A. Barrett and M. Vickers, JHS 98 (1978), p. 20; G. Foerst, 1978, Die Gravierungen der Pränestinischen Cisten, Rome, G. Bretschneider, pp. 36-37; Schefold 1978, pp. 301-302, note 552; Vermeule 1979, p. 160, fig. 13; Fischer-Graf 1980, pp. 30, 36, note 370; LIMC, I, 1, pp. 178-181 (no. 833), 200, I, 2, pl. 139, illus. (A. Kossatz-Deissmann); LIMC, I, 1, p. 333 (O. Touchefou); LIMC, I, 1, p. 384, no. 38, I, 2, pl. 299, illus. (F. Canciani); Small 1981, p. 109; Beazley Addenda 1, p. 104; H. P. Isler, AntK 26 (1983), p. 20, note 38; M. Robertson, in Greek Vases in the J. Paul Getty Museum 1 (1983), p. 60; LIMC, II, 1, p. 140, no. 1466 (A. Delivorrias, et al.); LIMC, II, 1, p. 1008, no. 562 (P. Demargne); V. Brinkmann, BCH 109 (1985), p. 118, note 141 (as 79.97.368); Prag 1985, pp. 87, 126, note 6; A. Pekridou, 1986, Das Alketas-Grab in Termessos (IstMitt, Beiheft 32), Tübingen: E. Wasmuth, p. 55, note 132; LIMC, III, 1, pp. 782-783 (no. 312), 785-786 (C. Weiss); Walter-Karydi 1987, pp. 79 (fig. 109), 91, 113, 136, 144, 157 (note 246), 160 (note 362); K. Hoffelner, AM 103 (1988), p. 91; CVA, Kiel, 1, p. 76, under no. B 721 (B. Freyer-Schauenburg); Schefold & Jung 1989, pp. 188, 252, 392, note 386; Padgett 1989, pp. 262-263, 268 (no. T.1), 269, 280, 298, 315, fig. 144; Beazley Addenda 2, p. 210; Arafat 1990, p. 19; Frank 1990, pp. 142 (no. 55), 146, 151-152, 159; CVA, Villa Giulia, 4, p. 9, under no. 8346 (G. Barbieri); M. Robertson, Greek Vases in the J. Paul Getty Museum 5 (1991), p. 89.

1 One of them is slain by Antilochos (Hom. Il. 15.546-84).

2 The same rule is stated by Picard and La Coste-Messelière (Fouilles de Delphes iv p. 110), who describe it as 'a matter of elementary, hardly conventional logic'. On the other hand, Lucretius says that 'omnes plerumque cadunt in vulnus' (4, 1049) and other ancient writers speak in similar terms (see Munro's note).

The fallen warrior on the east side of the Siphnian frieze has his head turned towards the Trojans: therefore, according to Picard and La Coste-Messelière, he must be a Trojan, and thus cannot be Patroklos: but on the Oltos cup in Berlin (quoted above) the fallen warrior has his head turned toward the Trojans, and yet is inscribed Patroklos. If the identification of the Siphnian warrior is doubtful, it is because he is armed instead of being naked.

3 (From Addenda to Parts I and II) P. 14, note 2: Mastrokostas has shown (AM. 71 pp. 74-76) that the fallen warrior on the Siphnian frieze is Sarpedon.

4 Hampe takes the fallen man to be Memnon, and the warrior defending him to be perhaps Paris (Corolla Curtius p. 146).

5 (From Addenda to Parts I and II) P. 15, middle: the fragment in Izmir is not East Greek but Corinthian.

6 The subject of B is not 'fight at Troy', but as Löwy saw, the Wounding of Telephos.

7 Aphrodite holds a flower in a later battle-picture, the fight between Menelaos and Paris on the cup by Douris in the Louvre (Louvre G 115: WV. 6 pl. 7; Pottier pl. 108, middle: Johansen Il. fig. 40: ARV. p. 285 no. 70).

8 In the bf. dinos Vienna, Oest. Mus., 235, described by Masner in his catalogue, pp. 29-30, the proximity of the Psychostasia is a special reason for supposing the combatants to be Achilles and Memnon.

Besides pictures on vases, there is the relief on a clay arula, from Locri, in Reggio (Anz. 1941 p. 658 fig. 135), East Greek style from the later part of the sixth century.

In stone sculpture, a fragment of a frieze from the great Temple in Corfu is thought to be from a representation of Memnon and Achilles (Rodenwaldt Korkyra pll. 3-4 and pp. 114 and 116-17).

9 In early literature and art, Memnon is not represented as a negro, but Virgil has 'nigri Memnonis arma' (Aen. 1, 489) and Manilius 'Auroraeque nigrum partum' (Astr. 1, 767). Of course one might be 'niger' (as 'black' in Shakespeare's time, or even in ours) without being a negro: 'quamuis ille niger, quamuis tu candidus esses.'

In the elder Philostratus (Imagines 1, 7, 2) Memnon is not quite black, but very nearly.

10 One of the groups on the lid of a Praenestine cista in the Villa Giulia (Ausonia 5 p. 83; Matthies Die praenestinischen Spiegel p. 37, whence Bulas Les illustrations antiques de l'Iliade p. 106) may be meant for Diomed and Aeneas (Savignoni in Ausonia 5 p. 82; Matthies p. 139) rather than Menelaos and Paris (Matthies pp. 37-8; Bulas p. 105); but the falling man is unarmed, which suits neither episode.

A third-century Etruscan mirror in Tarquinia (Gerhard E.S., suppl., pl. 112, 1) is supposed to represent Diomed, Aeneas, and Aphrodite, but the interpretation is uncertain.

11 In the Vivenzio hydria by the Kleophrades Painter (Naples 2422; FR. pl. 34, whence Pfuhl fig. 378 and Kl. pl. 27: ARV. p. 126 no. 66), Neoptolemos has panther heads on the shoulder-piece of his corslet, but higher up: see Furtwängler in FR. i p. 183.

On panther-heads in the proximity of gorgoneia, and the affinity between the two motives, see Besig Gorgo und Gorgoneion pp. 67-9; on the gorgoneion surrounded by snakes, ibid. pp. 90 and 94.

hide References (7 total)
  • Cross-references from this page (6):
    • Pseudo-Apollodorus, Library, 3.12.5
    • Homer, Iliad, 16.793
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 3.18.12
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.19.1
    • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 5.22
    • Strabo, Geography, 15.3.2
  • Cross-references in notes from this page (1):
hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: