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78. 01.8020 CUP from Orvieto PLATE XL

Formerly in the Bourguignon collection at Naples. Diameter 0.2528. The restorations have now been removed. AZ. 1884 pl. 16, 2, whence Klein Euphr. pp. 285-6, Norman Gardiner G.A.S. p. 326 fig. 80 and p. 305, (A and one figure from B) Jüthner Über antike Turngeräthe p. 15 fig. 14 and p. 26, (I, A, and one figure from B) JHS. 24 p. 183 fig. 3, and 27 p. 20 (Norman Gardiner); A-B, VA. p. 83; A, Langlotz GV. pl. 7; A, International Studio Feb. 1927 p. 24, 2 (J. S. Green, jr.); A, Schröder Sport pl. 54, below; I and A, Alexander Greek Athletics pp. 15 and 11; I and A, Norman Gardiner Athl. figs. 114 and 105; A, Hilker Die olympischen Spiele im Altertum und Gegenwart fig. 6, whence Neutsch Der Sport im Bilde griechischer Kunst fig. 17; I, Buschor Griechische Vasen p. 153 fig. 171; A, Byvanck De Kunst der Oudheid ii p. 345; the shape, Caskey G. p. 189 no. 143. I, discus-thrower; A-B, athletes. By the Panaitios Painter (VA. p. 86 no. 8; Att. V. p. 168 no. 32; ARV. p. 213, below, no. 5).

I: the youth bends, his right leg set forward, his right arm extended downwards with the discus resting against the forearm, the left arm raised. This is a moment in the backward swing which precedes the forward swing and the throw (Norman Gardiner G.A.S. pp. 330-6 and Athl. pp. 163-7). The back is shown in three-quarter view. An unusual and not very successful figure: for other representations of the backward swing see below, on the exterior.

On the left, aryballos, strigil, and sponge hang from a thong by cords; behind, a pair of acontia. A repainted fracture runs down through the back to the middle of the iliac furrow and then through thigh and calf. The black of the background encroaches on the right arm above the elbow, marring the outline. The contours are in relief-lines; brown inner markings; red for wreath, thong, cords, and the inscription ΠΑΝΑΙΤΙΟΣΚΑΛΟΣ.

The three-quarter-view discus occurs as early as the middle of the sixth century on black-figured cups by the Heidelberg Painter in Munich (Munich inv. 7739: Anz. 1938 p. 449) and the Cabinet des Médailles (Paris, Cab. Méd. 314: CV. pl. 45, 1-5).

A-B: on A the chief figure is a jumper, on B a discus-thrower: both scenes represent practice in the palaestra. A: the jumper is in mid air, both arms extended. It is the top of the jump, and corresponds, barring the haltēres, to the photograph of a modern jumper published by Norman Gardiner (Athl. fig. 108); see also Norman Gardiner G.A.S. p. 304. On the right is a trainer in an energetic attitude, 'ready to correct any mistake with his rod'. On the left an athlete runs to left, looking back, a haltēr in each hand: according to Norman Gardiner he is using the haltēres as dumb-bells (G.A.S. p. 312; Athl. p. 150): but this does not seem certain: perhaps he is only hastening to the take-off and looking round at his companion's jump; nor is it clear that a dumb-bell exercise is depicted on an oinochoe by the Disney Painter in London (London E 561: JHS. 24 p. 192 = Norman Gardiner G.A.S. p. 311: ARV. p. 733 no. 12), or on a contemporary oinochoe, by another painter, in Munich (Munich 2451: CV. pl. 89, 3). On the extreme left of our picture, a pair of haltēres hangs by a cord.1

B: as in the inside picture, the backward swing of the discus is represented, but the athlete leans back instead of forward, and his left arm is extended almost horizontally. The discus is shown in full profile. The young trainer facing him is a free repetition of the corresponding figure on A. On the left is a jumper, bending somewhat, his arms extended with the haltēres. On the ground, a pick.

All the athletes on the exterior are wreathed. The wreaths, and the hanger of the haltēres on A, are in red. Relief-lines for the contour; brown inner markings.

The discus-thrower on a large and fine cup by the Panaitios Painter in the Louvre (Louvre G 287: VA. p. 84: ARV. p. 213 no. 6) resembles both ours: he leans back like the athlete on our A; but like the athlete on our interior, he raises his left arm above his head, and torso and buttocks are seen in three-quarter view from behind. This is the attitude of two out of the many bronze discus-throwers that served as knobs on the lids of Capuan dinoi: one formerly in the Wyndham Cook collection (Burl. Cat. 1903 pl. 50; JHS. 27 p. 18 = Norman Gardiner G.A.S. p. 326 fig. 80; Norman Gardiner Athl. fig. 128), the other in the Petit Palais, Paris (Froehner Coll. Dutuit ii pl. 149, 169, whence Reinach Rép. iii p. 153, 5): Riis in From the Coll. ii p. 158 nos. 3 and 1. Discus-throwers in this attitude, but not seen from behind, are frequent on Attic vases of the second half of the fifth century:

  • Column-krater by the Naples Painter in Florence (Florence 4022: CV. pl. 45, 4: ARV. p. 706 no. 19); volute-krater by Polion in New York (Richter and Hall pl. 153: ARV. p. 797 no. 2); bell-krater by the Kadmos Painter in Bologna (Bologna PU. 426: CV. IV Er pl. 4, 5: ARV. p. 805 no. 14); oinochoe, shape II, in the Vatican; vase (bell-krater?) formerly in the Hamilton collection (Tischbein i pl. 54).
This is no longer a very early work of the Panaitios Painter: it belongs to his early prime, the period of the two great pieces with the signature of Euphronios the potter, the Theseus cup in the Louvre, the Eurystheus cup in the British Museum (ARV. p. 214 nos. 10 and 11). The Boston cup also, according to Bloesch, was fashioned by the potter Euphronios (F.A.S. p. 76 no. 29).

The following cups should be added to the list of the Panaitios Painter's works in ARV. pp. 219-22 and 955:

  • 10 bis. Louvre, two worn fragments. I (a warrior or the like: part of a shield remains, the device a bull; and what must be part of a cloak). A-B, Deeds of Theseus: on one fragment, the feet of a giant figure to right, lying on its back (Minotaur?), and the legs of a female figure hastening to left; then the head of an animal, fallen (bull? sow?); on the other fragment, the legs, stockinged, of a youth or man (Theseus?), standing to right, with a stick, and part of an animal (bull? sow?) lying on its back. On I, ...ΕΣΕΝ (i.e. [Εὐφρονιοσεποι]εσεν?). It should be considered whether a third Louvre fragment, also worn, may not belong: outside, what seems to be the edge of a draped figure to left, at the shoulder, with the letters ...ΝΙ... ([Εὐφρο]νι[ος...]?).
  • 14 bis. Louvre, a good many fragments, giving the greater part of the picture inside, and the legs of the other figures. I, satyr. ΛΥΚΟΣ ΚΑΛΟ[Σ]. The cup is one of those with only a single figure on each half of the exterior: A, satyr moving to right; B, satyr moving to left.
  • 15 bis. Louvre. Symposion: I, youth reclining, binding a sash round his head (see ii p. 58); A, a male and a naked woman reclining; B, two males reclining.
  • 15 ter. Louvre, fr. A (head, right shoulder, and left hand of a naked woman, facing left; on the left, high, a cup, perhaps held in her right hand): part of a symposion: might belong to no. 15 bis.
  • 15 quater. Louvre, fr. I (part of the maeander border). A, symposion (part of the right-hand figure remains, head and breast of a naked woman to left).
  • 25 bis. Louvre. The cup is not far from complete. I, komast (youth dancing to right, in three-quarter back-view, stick in left hand); A-B, komos. The upper part of one figure on A is given by the fragment Louvre G 161 bis (Pottier pl. 125), attributed to Onesimos in ARV. p. 220 no. 18: here as often (see ii p. 32) it is hard to keep the two painters apart. The fragment Louvre G 28, placed in the Proto-Panaitian group (ibid. p. 211 no. 8), is part of B.
  • 25 ter. Louvre, fr. (two joining). I, komast (youth to right, his left leg raised over a skyphos). 'Panaitios Painter' rather than 'Onesimos'.
On nos. 14 and 30 in the list see ii pp. 96 and 32. No. 15 is published in Hesp. suppl. viii (Commemorative Studies in honor of Theodore Leslie Shear) pl. 2, 1; the new fragment of no. 10, ibid. pl. 1, 2; one of the new fragments of no. 27, ibid. pl. 1, 4; no. 6 in the Proto-Panaitian Group, ibid. pl. 1, 1.

Walston 1926, p. 35; Stow 1939, pl. 10; Roton 1950, p. 249, illus.; C. Blümel, 1957, Phidiasische Reliefs und Parthenonfries, Berlin, Akademie-Verlag, pp. 6-7, fig. 2; Olympia in der Antike, Ausstellung, Essen, 18. Juni-28. August 1960, figs. 46-48; ARV2, p. 321, no. 22 (Onesimos); EAA, V, p. 926, fig. 1136 (E. Paribeni); Harris 1964, p. 229, pl. 8; Hale 1965, p. 161 (top), illus.; A. H. Ashmead, Hesperia 35 (1966), pp. 31-32, notes 54-55; E. Vermeule, AJA 71 (1967), p. 311; Follmann 1968, p. 13; Cambitoglou 1968, p. 35; M. Dumm, MüJB 22 (1971), pp. 19, 22 (note 45); Para., p. 359, no. 22; M. Moore, GettyMusJ 2 (1975), p. 49, note 69; Beck 1975, p. 33, no. IV/73, pl. 33, fig. 182; Yalouris et al. 1976, p. 185, pl. 88 (color); S. Glubok, A. Tamarin, 1976, Olympic Games in Ancient Greece, New York: Harper & Row, cover illus., p. 47, illus.; Dover 1978, pp. 131, 216, no. R450; H. Marwitz, AntK 22 (1979), pp. 75-77, fig. 14; Yalouris 1979, p. 185, color illus. 88; CVA, Würzburg, 2, p. 51, under no. H 5344a-c (F. Hölscher); T. Seki, AA 1981, pp. 62-63, notes 56, 58; J.-R. Jannot, RA 1981, p. 44, note 49; R. Thomas 1981, p. 30, note 143; Beazley Addenda 1, p. 107; CVA, Basel, 2, p. 41, under pl. 19, 2-4 (V. Slehoferova); Brijder 1984, p. 157 (T. Seki); CVA, Tübingen, 5, pp. 19 (under no. 1556b and no. S./10 1560), 21 (under no. S./10 1523) (J. Burow); Sweet 1987, pp. 46, 48, pl. 13; J. Boardman, 1988, The Cambridge Ancient History: Plates to Volume IV (new ed.), pp. 163-164, pl. 212 a-c; Beazley Addenda 2, p. 215; W. Laporte and P. Bultiauw, in D. Vanhove, ed., 1992, Le Sport dans la Grèce antique, Brussels: Palais des Beaux-Arts, p. 108, ill. 9.

1 (From Addenda to Parts I and II) P. 30, line 8: the haltēres are on B not A.

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