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Attic of the later fifth century. The Makron skyphos was not found in the tomb but beside it, as if leaning against it. Such vases were not infrequent in the cemetery: the vases found outside the tomb had been used, it was thought in the funeral rites, but after the tomb had been closed. One of them is identifiable: it is a small pelike, with two youths and a woman on the front, and two youths on the back, which has now passed from the Spinelli collection, where it bore the number 2297, to the Naples Museum: it is by the Eretria Painter, and the date is about 430 B.C.1 The Makron vase contained ashes, probably of an animal, three small mugs of local fabric, and a small black skyphos. Owing to the fatty nature of the ashes the lower part of the vase was well preserved while the upper part had been affected by the lime in the soil. The colour of the two parts is also different, the upper pale, the lower a warm red. The Makron skyphos is evidently earlier than the vases found in the tomb itself, and was doubtless an old family possession.

Makron has left three skyphoi, all bearing the signature of the potter Hieron, and all found in Campania; besides a fragment of a fourth, found at Locri.2 The skyphos in the Louvre3 has diagonal handles like ours, which is very rare in red-figure; the side of the foot, too, is reserved as there. The London skyphos4 has the usual horizontal handles and black foot, is in fact normal. Its shape has been analysed by Hambidge5: the bowl ratio (bowl, without handles, to height) is 1.236, which is very common in skyphoi. Measurements are not available for the Louvre skyphos: those given by Pottier and Hoppin can hardly be exact, since they make the breadth of the bowl less than the height. The Boston skyphos is unusually broad for its height, and the wall is strongly curved. It has been analysed by Caskey in Hambidge's Dynamic Symmetry p. 109, above, and in G. p. 158: he finds it 'abnormal in its breadth, in the excessive diminution, and in its contours. The shape seems to have been chosen with a view to affording a more advantageous field for the pictorial composition — a frieze of numerous large, closely spaced figures.'

The massive handles are reserved within. The resting-surface of the foot is curved; the slanting surface between the resting-surface and the underside of the bowl, is convex, and black; the underside of the bowl is reserved except for a dot within two tiny circles and two large ones, much as in the Vienna skyphos by the Brygos Painter.6

The theme of the vase is Helen. At two crises in her life. On one side, she follows Paris; on the other, after Troy taken, she flees from Menelaos. Between these two moments there has been the Trojan War. In both crises there is divine intervention. In the first crisis, Aphrodite encourages Helen; in the second, she rescues her.

If one compares this skyphos, in its general aspect, with others, one sees that it is a very light-coloured vase. The five large thick-set figures in each picture, with their ample drapery, are massed together, so that little of the black background shows through. Besides, the pictures reach very far down on the vase, so that there is only a thin band of black between the lower border and the foot. The side of the foot itself, which is nearly always black in skyphoi, is here reserved, left in the colour of the clay. Laterally, the outer figures

1 ARV.2 p. 1250 no. 31.

2 Reggio 4062: see ARV.2 p. 459 no. 3 bis.

3 Louvre G 146: Mon. 6-7 pl. 19, whence Hoppin ii p. 81; Pottier pl. 118; A, phot. Alinari 23692, whence Johansen Iliaden fig. 26: ARV.1 p. 301 no. 2; ARV.2 pp. 458-9 no. 2.

4 London E 140: FR. pl. 161 and iii p. 259; CV. pl. 28, 2: ARV.1 p. 301 no. 1; ARV.2 p. 459 no. 3.

5 The Diagonal 1 pp. 114-15.

6 CV. pl. 35, 2.

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