(Eining) Bavaria, Germany.
Roman auxiliary fort on the Danube ca. 30 km SW of
Regensburg (Castra Regina). The name was derived
from the Abens, a tributary of the Danube. Originally
a timbered earth fort erected by the Cohors IV Gallorum
in A.D. 79-81, it was located at the place where the
Danube crossing branches off from the Roman road S
and runs parallel to the Raetian limes. The stone fort,
oriented approximately N-S, is asymmetrical. The area
(1.8 ha) is rather small for the requirements of a fort
and probably accommodated only one vexillation. The
fort was rebuilt under Antoninus Pius (139-161) and
was occupied by the Cohors III Britannorum equitata,
or part of it. It was ravaged by an Alemannic assault
in 233. The Romans disbanded the fort, including its
headquarters, about 254 and it was temporarily occupied
by Germanic forces. About 280 a quadrangular praesidium was built in the SW corner, and in the 4th c.
additional buildings were placed S of it. A towerlike
annex reinforced the entrance gate. The fort was abandoned by the Romans about 410.
Excavations have revealed the fort, the “commander's
villa” with two extensions, and a bath building with
annexes, all on the N side. Two sanctuaries were discovered N of the vicus. The E part of the vicus has not
yet been excavated. The location of the Roman cemetery
is unknown. At Unterfeld, ca. 1 km E of the Danube, a
four-cornered entrenchment was examined in 1968. Open
towards the river, it was probably a supply base with a
quay, used briefly in the second half of the 2d c. To the
NE of it, in the so-called Weinberg, a watchtower and
a Temple of Mars and Victoria were traced.
W. M. Schmid, Das römische Kastell
(2d ed. 1910); P. Reinecke, Festschrift z. 75j.
Bestehen des RGZ-Ms. in Mainz
(1927) 157ff; H.
48 (1970) 66ff; H. J. Kellner,
Die Römer in Bayern