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AD CONFLUENTES (Koblenz) Germany.

At the confluence of Rhine and Moselle. The name is first mentioned by Suetonius (Calig. 8; later literature: It. Ant. 371; Tab. Peut.; Geogr. Rav. 4.26, p. 234 = 4.24, p. 227 P.; CIL XIII, 9158, i, Z.4). The earliest Roman finds from the area of Koblenz date from Tiberian times. Necropoleis are located at Löhrstrasse, Kaiserin Augusta-Ring (today Moseiring), Neuendorf on the left bank of the Moselle. During construction work on the Münz-platz in 1952 the W surrounding trench of an auxiliary castellum from the first half of the 1st c. A.D. was found. The castellum extended from the corner of Marktstrasse and Münzplatz ca. 150 m E, ran N to the Moselle and S to the Late Roman wall. Finds from the bottom of the trench show that this camp already existed in late Tiberian or early Claudian times. The main function of the auxiliary castellum must have been to guard the Moselle crossing. The existence of a bridge across the Nahe has been established for the year A.D. 70. It is therefore likely that the Roman Rhine road crossed the Rhine tributaries via bridges. During work on the river in 1865 and 1894 thousands of wooden piles with iron tips were removed from the river bed, remains of a Moselle bridge of Middle or Late Imperial times. Numerous spolia from Roman monuments were found in and next to pile gratings 10.6 m wide, also several thousand coins on the E side of the first pillar in the river. The Roman bridge was 15 m wide and 16.3 m high, had 9 pillars and 10 arches. On the Roman road coming from Mogontiacum (Mainz) through the Rhine valley 6 milestones were found side by side in Koblenz, with the dates 44-45, 97 and 98-99 (CIL XIII, 9145-9149). They give the distance “A Mogontiaco” as 59 Roman miles (87.32 km). The Roman road followed as the Löhrstrasse to the Müinzplatz, bypassed the castellum, probably on the W side, crossed the Moselle bridge and led through the Neuwied basin down the Rhine to Andernach (Antunnacum). The auxiliary vicus extended E of the Löhrstrasse to the bank of the Rhine and N of the Schlossstrasse to the bank of the Moselle.

During the rebellion of the Batavi, the auxiliary castellum was destroyed (name of the garrison still unknown). After the spring of A.D. 70 no regular Roman military units were stationed in any castellum N of the Nahe. Possibly the Castellum Koblenz was rebuilt after the Batavi rebellion (stone castellum?) and continued as a road castellum in the rear of the limes. The civilian settlement continued to exist in the 2d and 3d c. There was possibly a customs station in Koblenz (CIL XIII, 7623). After the first invasion by the Franks in 258, the limes area on the right side of the Rhine was lost. As in Augustan times, the Rhine was once more the NE border of the Roman imperium. During the Frankonian raids Koblenz was destroyed, as documented by the layer of rubble from the 3d century A.D. The reconstruction of the town, including strong fortifications, took place during the rule of the first tetrarchy when Maximianus restored the safety of the Gallic provinces. The late Roman castellum—a rectangular structure with 2 arched sides, 19 round towers, 16 to 25 m high interturria and a gate in the S (area 5.8 ha)—extended from the Münzplatz in the W to the Florin church in the E, and from the Liebfrauenkirche in the S to the bank of the Moselle in the N. The fortification was still extant in 354. A section of milites defensores was stationed in Koblenz in the 4th c. under the command of a praefectus who was under the dux Mogontiacensis, commander of the frontier garrisons of Germania Prima from Selz (Saletio) to Andernach (Antunnacum) (Not. dig. occ. 41). This late Roman Koblenz probably fell without trouble to the Franks after the withdrawal of the Roman troops in 402.


J. Hagen, Römerstrassen der Rheinprovinz (1931) 17ff; A. Günther, “Das römische Koblenz,” BonnJbb 142 (1937) 35ff; id., “Die Kunstdenkmäler des Landkreises Koblenz,” Die Kunstdenkmäler der Rheinprovinz 16 (1944) 7ff; id., Die Kunstdenkmäler von Rheinland-Pfalz. 1: Die Kunstdenkmäler der Stadt Koblenz (1954) 2ff; id., “Verf., Kastell Koblenz,” BonnJbb 160 (1960) 168ff.


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