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AEQUUM (Čitluk) Croatia, Yugoslavia.

The Roman Colonia Claudia Aequum was situated 6 km N of Sinj. It was founded by the emperor Claudius sometime after A.D. 45 and settled with the veterans of Legio VII when they left the neighboring camp at Tilurium for Moesia. Even before its foundation, a commun ityof Roman citizens, traders, and settlers, probably from Salona, was already established there as conventus. Aequum was the only Roman colony in the interior of the province of Dalmatia, the others (Salona, Iader, Narona, Epidaurum) being on the Adriatic coast. It was enrolled in the tribus Tromentina.

Situated in a rich, fertile plain, formerly territory of the Delmatae, it was a planned city of 32 ha enclosed by walls (400 x 330 m). The site has been only partly explored. The walls followed as regular a plan as the site permitted: the W part of the town was on the plain and the E on a low hill. The forum, in the center of the city plan, was built a little off the main city street. It measured 90 by 60 m and had a paved courtyard with colonnades and shops on three sides. The remains of the curia were found also, with other rooms on either side of it. In one room were found fragments of imperial statues. Outside the city walls to the NW was a necropolis with sarcophagi and other tombs. In the W wall the traces of a gate were found with a relief in the keystone arch representing Victoria with a captured Delmata kneeling before her. Citizens of Aequum appear at Salona, both in the legions and as traders and functionaries in Dacia. One of the greatest families in the province of Dalmatia were the Iulii from Aequum. Sextus Iulius Severus was Hadrian's best general and consul with a splendid military career. He suppressed the Jewish rebellion in Judaea A.D. 135 and served as a governor of Dacia, Britannia, and Syria. His son (or nephew) Cn. Iulius Verus was also consul 151 and controller of the state treasury in Rome, the governor of Germania Inferior and Britain.

Abbe Fortis, the 17th c. traveler, noted the remains of the amphitheater W of the town, but nothing of it can be seen today. The town was destroyed by Goths or Slavs and Avars. Its ruins served as a quarry for neighboring villages and for the town of Sinj, which replaced it as the center of the area.

A head of Hercules, a statue of Hecate, and many other finds and inscriptions are preserved in the archaeological collection of the Franciscan Monastery at Sinj.


E. Reisch, “Colonia Claudia Aequum,” JOAI 16 (1911) 137-40; A. P. Mišura, Colonia Romana Aequum Claudium (Čitluk) (1921); M. Abramič, Zbornik Kazarov (1951) 238-40.


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