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HABITANCUM (Risingham) Northumberland, England.

Roman fort of 1.8 ha, 23 km N of Corstopitum, where Dere Street crosses the river Rede (NY 891862). The name is known only from one inscription (RIB 1225). The platform and a little stonework are visible. There is no evidence for occupation before the mid 2d c., and little for the fort built then. The rebuilt fort of the reign of Severus probably faced S, with a striking single-portal S gate with projecting towers (RIB 1234, A.D. 205-207). From the reign of Caracalla on, the fort served as an outpost to Hadrian's Wall, garrisoned by a milliary cohors equitata, Cohors I Vangionum, with a unit of scouts and one of spearmen, all attested by RIB 1235 of A.D. 213.

The garrisons of Habitancum and Bremenium together could field a formidable striking force for minor military operations, including 500 cavalry, without calling on the Wall garrison. The headquarters building was rebuilt, probably in the early 4th c., facing W towards a new gate inserted in the W wall. Of other internal buildings, only a bath house in the SE corner is known. The fort was destroyed in the mid 4th c. (probably either A.D. 343 or 360) and was abandoned after further destruction in 367.


I. A. Richmond, Arch. Ael. 13 (1936) 184-98; id., “The Romans in Redesdale,” Northumberland County History XV (1940) passim; E. Birley, Research on Hadrian's Wall (1961) 235-40; J. K. St. Joseph, JRS 59 (1969) pl.


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