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HERMONTHIS (Armant) Egypt.

A city, noted by Strabo (17.1.47), ca. 25 km S of Thebes on the W bank of the Nile. Both the Greek and Arabic names refer to a vanished temple dedicated to the Egyptian god Mont, the falcon god of war. Its chief object of worship was, however, the bull Buchis. During the Graeco-Roman period, when the city was the capital of the Hermonithite nome, a great new temple was constructed from material taken from older temples. Here was the abode of the bull Buchis. Towards the end of the Ptolemaic period, Cleopatra built the Mammisi shrine in order to celebrate the birth of Caesarion. Building activity continued during the Roman period and the discovery of the Bucheum, the necropolis of the bulls, proves the continuity of the cult of Buchis down to the time of Diocletian. The necropolis of the mother cows, Baqaria, has also been discovered. During the Coptic period, the town was the center of a large administrative area and a seat of a bishopric.


R. Mond, O. H. Myers, et al., The Bucheum (1934) 3 vols.; Mond, Temples of Armant (1940); K. Michalowski, L'Art de l'Ancienne Égypte (1968) 538-39.


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