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IRGENHAUSEN Zurich, Switzerland.

Best preserved Late Roman fort in the NE, in a dominant position on a hill above the Pfäffikersee, 1 km SE of Pfäffikon. The ancient name may have been Cambodunum, which probably survives in that of nearby Kempten. The fortress was built under Diocletian or more probably later in the 4th c. under Valentinian I to guard the military road from Raetia via the Walensee and Zurichsee to Vitudurum, where it joined the W-E highway from Vindonissa to Brigantium. The castrum was abandoned probably in A.D. 401, when Stilicho called most Roman troops N of the Alps back to Italy.

The fort was square (average length of a side 61 m), with four square towers at the corners and one in the middle of each side. The walls included much reused material. The main gate was in the middle tower of the E wall, and inside are remains of barracks. Beneath the fort are some remains of a villa of the 1st c. A.D., sacked during the raids of the Alamanni in 259-60. Finds are in the Ortsmuseum in Pfaffikon.


O. Schuhthess, “Das römische Kastell Irgenhausen,” Mitt. Antiquarischen Gesellschaft Zurich 27, 2 (1911); F. Staehelin, Die Schweiz in römischer Zeit (3d ed. 1948) 274-75, 615; H. Lieb & R. Wüthrich, Lexikon Topographicum der römischen und frühmittelalterlichen Schweiz 1 (1967) 84-88; E. Meyer, “Das römische Kastell Irgenhausen,” Arch. Führer der Schweiz 2 (1969)MPI; R. M. Swoboda, Jb. Schweiz. Gesell. f. Urgeschichte 57 (1972-73) 187.


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