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PISAE (Pisa) Tuscany, Italy.

A settlement of debated origin (Greek, Ligurian, Etruscan) situated between an E-W bend in the Serchio (ancient Auser) and the Arno. A flourishing Etruscan town with port by the 5th c. B.C., its prosperity continued down to its occupation by Rome as an outpost against the Ligurians in 225 B.C. (Polyb. 2.16f; Livy 21.39). By this time Pisan territory reached Castiglioncello to the S and Luna to the N (Livy 34.56). After the Ligurians were subdued (ca. 177 B.C.), Luna was made a citizen colony while Pisae's importance diminished, and though later an Augustan colony, it is seldom mentioned in the sources.

The ancient city was roughly rectangular. The Piazza dei Cavalieri is probably the site of its forum, with an Augusteum. There are remains of a theater (on Via S. Zeno), the so-called Baths of Nero, an octagonal apsidal room of the 2d c. B.C., near the Lucca gate, an amphitheater N of the Serchio, and a Temple of Vesta. Of the Portus Pisanus, connected to the town by a road, some Augustan and Imperial traces remain. Archaic necropoleis existed near Porta a Mare (to the W) and the Lucca Gate.

Both the Camposanto and the adjacent Museo dell'Opera della Cattedrale contain fine Classical collections.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

N. Toscanelli, Pisa nell'Antichità, 3 vols. (1933-34); EAA 6 (1965) with bibliography.

D. C. SCAVONE

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