A castrum on
the limes Pannoniae, strategically linked to Carnuntum
and Brigetio, and to Sipianne and Sabaria. It is 105 km
N-NW of Budapest. It was of major importance for the
surveillance of the barbaricum beyond the Danube. Situated at the mouth of the Arabon river, it was thus part
of Pannonia Superior (Ptol. 6.11.3). During the invasions the locality was known under the name of Aqua
Nigra. The castrum was built on the Kaptalan hill and
its slopes, while the canabae grew up in the area of the
modern town near Calvario street. The circuit wall of
the castrum was constructed of large blocks of sandstone.
The center is mentioned in the ancient literature (Ant.
. 246, 263, 269, Tab. Peut
., and Not. Dig
. 33, pp. 28ff).
Facing the barbaricum dominated by the Quadi and the
Suebi, the fortress was the seat of the numerous formations of cavalry that made up Legio I adiutrix: ala I
Ulpia contrariorum, ala I Augusta Itureorum, ala I
Arevacorum, and ala Pannoniorum. Other troops included equites promoti, cuneus equitum stablesianorum,
and milites liburnarii Legio X et XV geminae (Not. Dig.
In the vicinity of the castrum and of the canabae
(near modern Koronko) a pagus developed. A villa was
built nearby in the vicinity of Féhervar. From an inscription it is known that in 137 the military forces honored
the emperor Hadrian with a statue (CIL
the medieval period the center took the name of Jaurinum.
See also Limes Pannoniae.
III, p. 546, 1045; E. Lovas, “I risultati degli studi archeologici su Arrabona e dintorni,” Boll.
Assoc. Intern. Studi Mediterranei
2, 3 (1931) 1-12; D.
1 (1958) 672.