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BARGYLIA or Andanos (Varvil) Turkey.

Town in Caria 7 km S of Küllük, never apparently colonized from Greece. Stephanos Byzantios says that the Carians, who called the city Andanos, attributed its foundation to Achilles; the alternative tradition, that it was founded by Bellerophon in honor of his friend Bargylos, is equally mythical. in the Athenian tribute lists Bargylia normally paid 1000 dr., and in the 5th c. B.C. was evldently of much less account than her neighbor Kindya. By the 3d c. the positions were reversed: Bargylia became completely Hellenized, taking over the principal deity of the Kindyans, Artemis, and sharing with lasos the control of the gulf (Polyb. 16.12). in 201 B.C. Philip V used the city as his base, though not without discomfort (Polyb. 16.24); in 196 he was required to withdraw, and Bargylia was declared free. When Aristonikos occupied Myndos after 133 B.C. Bargylia was also in danger, but she was freed by an epiphany of Artemis Kindyas. Coinage exists from the 1st c. B.C. to the time of Septimius Severus; the principal types are Artemis and Pegasos.

The scanty ruins occupy a low hill with two summits at the angle of an inlet in the form of a reversed L; the inner part of this is now silted up. it is crossed at one point by a stone causeway. On the N summit, which formed the acropolis, were the chief buildings of the Hellenistic and Roman city, but they are in wretched condition. At the top was a Corinthian temple some 30 m long, oriented NW-SE; only the foundations survive, but some of its architectural members are strewn over the slope below. On the S slope of the hill stood a small odeion; the vaulted passage under the seats remains. The theater, somewhat better preserved, is on the E slope. An angle of the retaining wall is in excellent isodomic ashlar, slightly bossed, but the rows of seats are gone. Something of the stage building is still visible, and no doubt more is preserved underground. Farther down the slope are the foundations of a stoa. Nearby is a short stretch of a Roman aqueduct with low arches neatly formed; where the water came from is not clear. On the S summit is a mediaeval castle and a fragment of the city wall dating perhaps to the 4th c. B.C. The main necropolis is near the shore N and E of the city; the tombs are mostly sarcophagi.


C. T. Newton, Halicarnassus, Cnidus and Branchidae II (1863) 604ff; id., Travels and Discoveries II (1865) 57-58; G. Guidi, Annuario 4-5 (1921-22) 359-62; G. E. Bean & J. M. Cook, BSA 52 (1957) 96-97; id., Turkey beyond the Maeander (1971) 82-87M; Epiphany of Artemis Kindyas: L. Robert, Etudes Anatoliennes (1937) 459ff; cf. D. Magie, Roman Rule in Asia Minor (1950) 1039.


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