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Known formerly as Mazaca, it was capital of the kingdom of Cappadocia, situated in the strategia of Cilicia immediately N of the holy mountain Argaeus (Erciyes Dağ), which appeared on many of its coins. Renamed Eusebeia by Argaeus in honor of the Hellenizing king Ariarathes V Eusebes Philopater, 163-130 B.C., it became Caesarea under Archelaus 12-9 B.C. The city was reputed to be marshy and unsuitable as a capital. It was sacked by Tigranes in 77 B.C. and the inhabitants were deported to Tigranocerta until freed by Lucullus in 69 B.C. (Strab. 12.2.7-9). It was eventually rebuilt by Pompey. Under Tiberius it became capital of the newly formed province of Cappadocia in A.D. 17. By the reforms of Diocletian the E parts of the province became part of Armenia Minor. Valens in A.D. 371-72 cut off the W cities and Caesarea remained capital of Cappadocia Prima, being the only city amid the vast imperial estates administered by the comes domorum per Cappadociam. With the decline in its importance there was apparently a decline in population, for Justinian found it necessary to replace the walls with a shorter circuit (Procop., Buildings 5.4. 7-14). Little of the ancient city remained visible, but it is now being excavated. The citadel is Turkish and other surviving walls perhaps originally Justinianic. On the N side, towards Argaeus, is a ruin field with lumps of perhaps a gymnasium or baths. Chance finds are displayed in the

Kayseri Museum. R. P. HARPER

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