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CASTRA REGINA (Regensburg) Bavaria, Germany.

A legionary camp on the Danube. A pre-Roman Celtic settlement is not known although an oppidum has been suspected because of the name Radasbona, which occurs in early mediaeval sources. Under the emperor Vespasian an auxiliary castellum was located on a rise above the Danube valley, a typical location for military camps in the 1st c. A.D. Only the outline of the castellum is known (ca. 160 x 137 m). Originally constructed as an earth and timber camp, it was later rebuilt in stone and provided protection for an important Danube crossing. After Trajan the Cohors II Aquitanorum equitata was stationed there. An auxiliary vicus was located to the E on the main road between Augsburg and Regensburg. There were large baths with caldarium, tepidarium, and frigidarium. To the E of the castellum part of a residential building has been found.

Following the wars against the Marcomanni, the castellum was replaced under Marcus Aurelius by a legionary camp farther N near the Danube. There is a building inscription from A.D. 179. The Legio III Italica was stationed there. The legionary legate of Regensburg was then governor of the province of Raetia; his official residence, however, remained in Augusta Vindelicum (Augsburg). During the invasions by Germanic tribes (3d c. A.D.), the camp was repeatedly destroyed in part. After Diocletian's army reforms in the 4th c., the legion was divided into six parts of which only one remained in Regensburg. The camp became a fortress in Late Classical times. In 357 it was probably attacked by the Juthungi. At the beginning of the 5th c. the regular Roman troops withdrew.


F. Vollmer, Inscriptiones Baiurariae Romanae (1915) nos. 358ff; P. Reinecke, Bayer. Vorgeschichtsfr. 4 (1924) 40; id., “Das Auxiliarkastell Ratisbona-Kumpfmühl,” Germania 9 (1925) 85ff; G. Steinmetz, “Regensburg id. vorgeschichtlichen u. röomischen Zeit,” Verhandlg. Hist. Ver. Oberpfalz u. Regensbg. 76 (1926) 3ff; F. Wagner, Die Römer in Bayern 4 (1928) 61ff; id., “Neue Inschriften aus Raetien,” Ber. RGK 37-38 (1956-57) nos. 101ff; A. Stroh, “Untersuchungen an der Süidostecke des Lagers der legio III Italica in Regensburg,” Germania 36 (1958) 78ff; F. Ulbert, “Das römische Regensburg,” Germania Romana I: Römerstadte in Deutschland 1 (1960) 64ff; id., “Das römische Regensburg als Forschungsproblem,” Verhandlg. Hist. Ver. Oberpfalz u. Regensbg. 105 (1965) 7ff; K. Schwarz, “Ausgrabungen im Niedermünster z. Regensburg,” Jahresber. Bayer. Bodendenkmalpflege 8 (1970).


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