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CHAMPALLEMENT or St. Révérien, Nièvre, France.

Spread over the two communes of Champallement and St. Révérien, in the area known as Compierre, the site is thickly wooded and has been partially explored; only the sanctuary area has been excavated. Some residential sections, the probable remains of a theater, and the substructures of streets have been located, but the boundaries of the site have not been determined.

The sanctuary has a surrounding wall of slightly trapezoidal shape, with a porticoed gallery on all four sides. The sides are 58.53 and 45 m long. The N, W, and S porticos are 4 m deep, but the E portico is 7 m deep and has a monumental entrance with staircase ramps and apsidal sections. The entrance was probably framed by two projecting wings.

The shrine stands far back in the W half of the courtyard and is centered on the E-W axis of the complex with its entrance to the E. Of the indigenous type, it consists of an octagonal cella with a circular interior (diam. 8.84 m). A second octagonal wall surrounds the cella, forming a gallery 2 m wide. The walls are 1.15 m thick at the reinforced corners but only 0.75 m in the sections between, which would seem to rule out a cupola roof and justify the restoration of a wooden frame supporting a tile or stone roof. Fragments of a white marble cornice have been found, probably from the cella, the molding of which would seem to indicate a date in the 2d c. A.D. The fairly large number of coins found on the site, ranging from Marcus Aurelius to Gordian III, are evidence that it was occupied over a considerable period. On the other hand, the presence of Gallic coins and the type of plan suggest that there was an earlier sanctuary, probably of wood, and roughly built, such as that found in the fanum of St. Germain-le-Rocheux near Chatillon. A number of limestone sculpture fragments and two small bronzes of Mercury have been found on the site. To judge from the offerings (baskets of fruit, cornucopias), it appears that the sanctuary may have been dedicated to a god or goddess presiding over agrarian life and fertility.


E. Espérandieu, Receuil général des bas-reliefs . . . (1907-66) 2228ff; A. Koethe, “De Keltischen Bund- und Vielecktempel der Kaiserzeit,” Ber. RGKomm 23 (1933) 66-68; L. Mirot, Bibliographie des articles de géographie pubiés dans les Revues savantes du Nivernais (1936) nos. 256, 260; Grenier, Manuel IV, 2 (1960) 668-71; R. Martin, “Informations,” Gallia 20, 2 (1962) 459; 22, 2 (1964) 325-26; 24, 2 (1966) 398; 26, 2 (1968) 490.


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