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CUŸK N Brabant, Netherlands.

Vicus on the Meuse mentioned in the Peutinger Table as Ceuclum, on the road from Noviomagus (Nijmegen) to Atua(tu)ca (Tongeren in Belgium). Traces of the Roman bridge have been discovered. Occupation began, probably on uninhabited soil, during the reign of Claudius (41-54): an auxiliary fort of wood and earth was built, surrounded by two ditches, to guard the river crossing. It lasted until ca. A.D. 100, and a vicus developed nearby. Several buildings have come to light on both sides of the Roman road, among them two (possibly three) temples of the Romano-Celtic type. In the 2d and 3d c. there was probably a statio of a beneficiarius consularis in or near the vicus.

In the 4th c. another fort was built, again surrounded by two ditches. There are reasons to suppose that in the last century of Roman occupation the limes in Holland was moved from the Rhine to the Waal and the crossing at Cuÿk again became strategically important. Work on the fort was probably begun under Constantine. The walls, 4-5 m thick, were constructed of wood, earth, and sod. Later, probably during the reign of Valentinianus I (364-75), a stone wall 1.5-1.9 m thick was built against the outer face of the earthen wall; semicircular towers and several buildings were constructed against the stone wall after the old one had been removed. This fort was probably a square of ca. 110 m; the E side was later destroyed by the Meuse. The end of the fort came ca. A.D. 400, in the reign of Honorius; the latest coins found are of Arcadius and Honorius, 383-402.


A. W. Byvanck, Excerpta Romana III (1947) 70-72; J. E. Bogaers, “Opgravingen te Cuyk, 1964-1966,” Niewsbull. Kon. Ned. Oud. Bond (1966) 67-72; (1967) 9-10; id., “Enige opmerkingen over het Nederlandse gedeelte van de limes van Germania Inferior (Germania Secunda),” Ber. Rijksdienst Oud. Bod. 17 (1967) 99-114.


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