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FAVIANIS (Mautern) Austria.

Established as a cohors milliaria on the Danube opposite Krems. It is one of the castella between the legionary camps at Vindobona and Lauriacum in the chain of Noricum's border fortifications. Possibly a smaller construction preceded it in the second half of the 1st c. A.D. Repair work from the time of Valentinian indicates that the structure remained unchanged in size into late antiquity. Excavations as well as the plan of the modern town give some idea of the location and extent of the castellum. The W wall is partly preserved in its N section; the E front is indicated by a rise in the ground. Proximity to the river may have made necessary two fortification ditches of masonry on the N front. Details of the inner plan cannot be ascertained because the area is built over. Maximum dimensions of the castellum were ca. 270 by 180 m. The cohors I Aelia Brittonum is known to have been the garrison in the 2d c. A.D. In the 4th c. part of Legio I Noricorum, which Diocletian had reorganized, was stationed here. In the Notitia Dignitatum (34.41) a “praefectus legionis Liburnariorum primorum Noricorum, Fafianae,” is mentioned, the first reference to the place in ancient literature.

Around the castellum an extensive camp village developed over the years, of which several villas, domestic buildings, etc., are known. There are several well-preserved cellars with slot-shaped windows and wall niches. At the edge of the settlement are extensive necropoleis, especially from the late period, some with rich offerings. Some of the graves are clearly Christian. The inscription on a curse tablet found in one necropolis suggests that a small sanctuary there may have been dedicated to Dispater and Aerecura.

Two large buildings at the edge of the ancient town were discovered in 1958-59: the first, a rectangular building (14.5 x 21 m) contained the characteristic semicircular clerics' bench with the altar in front of it and was probably a hall church; the second, a rectangular building (21 x 36 m), equipped for heating, is assumed to be the “monasterium . . . iuxta muros” mentioned by Eugippius (c. 22.4). These buildings are very likely connected with the activities of Severinus, in the record of whose life as recorded by Eugippius, Favianis is the place name that occurs most frequently. Here Severinus built the largest of his monasteries and to this place he brought refugees from the upper Danube. Favianis became an evacuation center when Noricum Ripense was evacuated by military orders from Rome in 488.


H. Stiglitz, “Römische Lager und frühmittelalterliche Siedlungen am norischen Limes,” JOAIBeibl 46 (1961-63) 158ffPI; id., Führer durch das römische Mautern an der Donau (1963)PI; R. Noll, Eugippius: Das Leben des heiligen Severin (1963) passim.


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