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GLANON later GLANUM (Saint-Rémy-de-Provence) Bouches-du-Rhône, France.

About 12 km from the Rhône, 25 km NE of Arles, and 1 km from St-Rémy, a site occupied successively by a native village, a Hellenistic settlement, and a Gallo-Roman station which was granted the ius Latii (Plin. HN 3.4.5). Situated close to the two roads leading from the Rhône to Italy and linked to them, Glanum is mentioned by Ptolemy (Geog. 2.10) and in various itineraries (Antonine Itinerary, Vicarello cups, Peutinger Table). It owed its prosperity both to its position and to the religious character of the site.

Remains on the slopes nearby indicate continuous occupation from the Eneolithic to the Iron Age. At the S end of the site are some rectangular huts of dry stone, partly cut in the rock, on either side of a wide stairway leading to a natural cave. At the foot of the cave is a basin hollowed out of the rock which collected water from the spring: this is probably an early place of worship. The imported pottery (gray Phokaian ware with a wavy design, pseudo-Ionian ware, black-figure Attic ware), and Massaliote coins, besides local objects, prove that from the 6th c. B.C. on the natives traded with the Phokaians of Marseille.

In the 2d c. B.C. Glanon had many Greek features. A silver drachma was struck bearing the legend ΓΛΑΝΙΚΩΝ and structures of Hellenistic plan and technique were erected. Several houses of the Delian type were grouped around a peristyle: the Maison des Antes and the Maison d'Atys, on either side of a three-galleried portico which may have had shops opening on to it. These three buildings are grouped on a long island between two streets. Other houses are found farther E, below the Maison d'Epona and the Roman baths and forum (houses IV and XI). To the S is an important monument (LVII) consisting of porticos surrounding a paved trapezoidal courtyard; rooms with opus-signinum mosaic open onto the galleries; some column bases with a double torus have been found in situ as well as several capitals decorated with baskets containing plants and human or gods' heads, male and female. These date from the 2d or 1st c. B.C. In the same sector are three apparently contemporary monuments: a building with three rooms of indeterminate purpose, an exedra, and a rectangular room with tiers that recalls the plan of a Greek bouletenon. Finally, an E-W rampart with postern and tower and a double gateway barred access to the cult center in the gorge. In technique it resembles the Saint-Blaise rampart and some Sicilian constructions: masonry of large blocks and rounded merlons. This design is continued on the inside by two walls of the same construction which mark a street. The W wall joins an earlier structure and the original staircase; here a niche contains two female statues: a later inscription identifies them as the Matres Glanicae, with whom is associated the god Glanis. On the opposite side the E wall is interrupted by a lane, a continuation of the original staircase. The lane leads to the spring, transformed into a monumental nymphaeum: a staircase of three flights leads to a basin lined with large stones fed from a water-catchment gallery.

Certain native remains, however, modify the picture of a thoroughly Hellenized city. Piers with cavities hollowed out of them were designed to hold severed heads; a capping stone of Greek workmanship was even altered for this purpose. Human skulls with holes bored through them have been found on the floor of monument LVII, and in two places statues of crouching figures like those at Roquepertuse and Entremont have been discovered.

The city was perhaps damaged at the end of the 2d c. B.C. (either by one of the revolts of the Salyes, who provoked Roman intervention in 125, or by the Teutoni and Ambroni who passed through the region in 102?). In the following period (Glanum II) certain houses were rebuilt with changes, and new ones were erected (IV, V, XII, XVI). One of these (XII), very simply laid out and without a peristyle, is noteworthy for its mosaic floors and painted stucco. A geometric mosaic has an inscription CO. SVLLAE showing the name of the owner, and a graffito on a stucco gives an exact consular date (28 March, 32 B.C.) as well as the name of the writer, Teucer. The Maison du Capricorne (IV) contains mosaics with emblemata. The religious sector apparently underwent no changes of any significance. The characteristic masonry of this period is of irregular quarry-stones bonded with a mortar of lime or clayey soil.

From the beginning of Augustus' reign Glanum enjoyed its period of great prosperity and acquired many monuments. At the entrance to the city are a cenotaph known as the Mausoleum of the Julii, placed at the extreme edge of the pomerium, and a triumphal arch, both apparently of early date. The arch, the oldest in Gallia Narbonensis, has a single bay; each face is decorated with two groups of Gaulish prisoners and the archivolt with swags of foliage and local fruits. The mausoleum, which is in three sections, has a square podium rather like a sarcophagus, decorated with four bas-reliefs, a tetrapylon with corner columns, and on top a rotunda with a conical roof and two statues inside it. An inscription states that three Julii—Lucius, Sextus, and Marcus—dedicated the monument parentibus suis. It has often been supposed that this dedication was addressed to Gaius and Lucius, who died in 2 and 4, but neither the cenotaph nor the arch can be dated to a definite year in Augustus' reign.

Many changes were made in this period (Glanum III) inside the city, giving it an appearance it would retain up to the 3d c. Sanitation was improved by an aqueduct and great sewers. The sacred quarter acquired new monuments: a small prostyle temple dedicated by M. Agrippa to Valetudo was erected on the N wall of the restored nymphaeum, and votive altars were consecrated to the same goddess, to Apollo, and to Fortuna Redux. A little farther S is a small two-roomed fanum of Hercules, identified by a statue in the local style, and some altars dedicated to the hero.

In the old Hellenistic quarter to the NE some baths were built, of a core of mortared rubble faced with small blocks. The original plan, recalling that of the forum baths at Pompeii, was changed by the erection of a large palaestra, perhaps at the beginning of the 2d c. An enormous platform (ca. 80 x 40 m) was put up about 25-20 B.C. S of the baths, to level the slope. Houses IV, XI, XII, and XVI, and building LVII were buried beneath it, and replaced by a monumental complex that may be the forum. The larger part of the complex is a vast paved space, bordered to E and W by Corinthian porticos and to the S by a great facade with an exedra decorated with columns and statues of satyrs. On the N side a stairway, running from one portico to the other, leads to a rectangular monument (ca. 45 x 22 m) supported on 25 piles (the superstructure has disappeared). Adjoining was a second monument; it was apsed and built over two underground rooms. The purpose of these buildings is uncertain.

The forum gave onto a second, paved platform to the S; smaller than the first, it had a well with a basin and a fountain with triumphal decoration. To the W a great double-square peribolos surrounds two temples. A number of architectural fragments from them have been found, along with a statue of a youth and marble heads of Octavia and, possibly, Julia. Here the temples may be supposed to have been consecrated to Rome and Augustus. Between the temples and the nymphaeum the exedra (XXXI) was redesigned, and a long graffito on its wall is apparently a drawing of the forum monuments. Then came a Doric portico (for receiving pilgrims?) and, opposite it, a small Corinthian building containing votive altars.

The residential quarter was also modified. The Hellenistic market (VII) was given over to the cult of Kybele, to whom the dendrofori Glanici put up an altar; the remodeled House of Atys, adjacent to it, may have housed the priests of the goddess. Few houses from Glanum III have been uncovered—the quarter was probably moved, to keep the center for public buildings.

The end of Glanum dates from the Germanic invasion, ca. 270. A few buildings were erected on its ruins in the late Middle Ages, and then the city vanished beneath an alluvial mass that came down the hillside, burying everything save the arch and the mausoleum, which became known as Les Antiques.

There is an important collection of finds at the Hôtel de Sade in St-Rémy-de-Provence.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

H. Rolland, “Inscriptions antiques de Glanum,” Gallia 2 (1944) 167fI; id., Fouilles de Glanum, Gallia Suppl. 3 (1951)MPI; id., “Un temple de Valetudo à Glanum,” RA 46 (1955) 27f; id., Fouilles de Glanum 1947-1956, Gallia Suppl. 16 (1958)MPI; id., Glanum (1960); id., Le mausolée de Glanum, Gallia Suppl. 21 (1969)PI; R. Bianchi Bandinelli, Storicità dell'arte classica (1950) 90f, 218fI; F. Chamoux, “Les Antiques de Saint-Rémy-de-Provence,” Phoibos 6-7 (1951-55) 97fI; G. C. Picard, “Glanum et les origines de l'art roman-provençal. 1. Architecture,” Gallia 21, 1 (1963) ilif; id., “2. Sculpture,” Gallia 22, 1 (1964) 109fI; “Informations,” Gallia (1956-74) passimPI.

C. GOUDINEAU

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