later GLANUM (Saint-Rémy-de-Provence）
About 12 km
from the Rhône, 25 km NE of Arles, and 1 km from
St-Rémy, a site occupied successively by a native village, a Hellenistic settlement, and a Gallo-Roman station which was granted the ius Latii (Plin. HN
Situated close to the two roads leading from the Rhône
to Italy and linked to them, Glanum is mentioned by
. 2.10) and in various itineraries (Antonine Itinerary
, Vicarello cups, Peutinger Table
owed its prosperity both to its position and to the religious character of the site.
Remains on the slopes nearby indicate continuous
occupation from the Eneolithic to the Iron Age. At the
S end of the site are some rectangular huts of dry stone,
partly cut in the rock, on either side of a wide stairway
leading to a natural cave. At the foot of the cave is a
basin hollowed out of the rock which collected water
from the spring: this is probably an early place of worship. The imported pottery (gray Phokaian ware with
a wavy design, pseudo-Ionian ware, black-figure Attic
ware), and Massaliote coins, besides local objects, prove
that from the 6th c. B.C. on the natives traded with the
Phokaians of Marseille.
In the 2d c. B.C. Glanon had many Greek features. A
silver drachma was struck bearing the legend ΓΛΑΝΙΚΩΝ
and structures of Hellenistic plan and technique were
erected. Several houses of the Delian type were grouped
around a peristyle: the Maison des Antes and the Maison
d'Atys, on either side of a three-galleried portico which
may have had shops opening on to it. These three buildings are grouped on a long island between two streets.
Other houses are found farther E, below the Maison
d'Epona and the Roman baths and forum (houses IV
and XI). To the S is an important monument (LVII)
consisting of porticos surrounding a paved trapezoidal
courtyard; rooms with opus-signinum mosaic open onto
the galleries; some column bases with a double torus
have been found in situ as well as several capitals decorated with baskets containing plants and human or gods'
heads, male and female. These date from the 2d or 1st
c. B.C. In the same sector are three apparently contemporary monuments: a building with three rooms of
indeterminate purpose, an exedra, and a rectangular
room with tiers that recalls the plan of a Greek bouletenon. Finally, an E-W rampart with postern and tower
and a double gateway barred access to the cult center
in the gorge. In technique it resembles the Saint-Blaise
rampart and some Sicilian constructions: masonry of
large blocks and rounded merlons. This design is continued on the inside by two walls of the same construction which mark a street. The W wall joins an earlier
structure and the original staircase; here a niche contains
two female statues: a later inscription identifies them as
the Matres Glanicae, with whom is associated the god
Glanis. On the opposite side the E wall is interrupted
by a lane, a continuation of the original staircase. The
lane leads to the spring, transformed into a monumental
nymphaeum: a staircase of three flights leads to a
basin lined with large stones fed from a water-catchment gallery.
Certain native remains, however, modify the picture
of a thoroughly Hellenized city. Piers with cavities hollowed out of them were designed to hold severed heads;
a capping stone of Greek workmanship was even altered
for this purpose. Human skulls with holes bored through
them have been found on the floor of monument LVII,
and in two places statues of crouching figures like those
at Roquepertuse and Entremont have been discovered.
The city was perhaps damaged at the end of the 2d c.
B.C. (either by one of the revolts of the Salyes, who
provoked Roman intervention in 125, or by the Teutoni
and Ambroni who passed through the region in 102?).
In the following period (Glanum II) certain houses were
rebuilt with changes, and new ones were erected (IV, V,
XII, XVI). One of these (XII), very simply laid out and
without a peristyle, is noteworthy for its mosaic floors
and painted stucco. A geometric mosaic has an inscription CO. SVLLAE showing the name of the owner, and a
graffito on a stucco gives an exact consular date (28
March, 32 B.C.) as well as the name of the writer, Teucer.
The Maison du Capricorne (IV) contains mosaics with
emblemata. The religious sector apparently underwent
no changes of any significance. The characteristic masonry of this period is of irregular quarry-stones bonded
with a mortar of lime or clayey soil.
From the beginning of Augustus' reign Glanum enjoyed its period of great prosperity and acquired many
monuments. At the entrance to the city are a cenotaph
known as the Mausoleum of the Julii, placed at the
extreme edge of the pomerium, and a triumphal arch,
both apparently of early date. The arch, the oldest in
Narbonensis, has a single bay; each face is decorated with two groups of Gaulish prisoners and the
archivolt with swags of foliage and local fruits. The
mausoleum, which is in three sections, has a square
podium rather like a sarcophagus, decorated with four
bas-reliefs, a tetrapylon with corner columns, and on
top a rotunda with a conical roof and two statues inside
it. An inscription states that three Julii—Lucius, Sextus,
and Marcus—dedicated the monument parentibus suis.
It has often been supposed that this dedication was addressed to Gaius and Lucius, who died in 2 and 4, but
neither the cenotaph nor the arch can be dated to a definite year in Augustus' reign.
Many changes were made in this period (Glanum III)
inside the city, giving it an appearance it would retain
up to the 3d c. Sanitation was improved by an aqueduct
and great sewers. The sacred quarter acquired new
monuments: a small prostyle temple dedicated by M.
Agrippa to Valetudo was erected on the N wall of the
restored nymphaeum, and votive altars were consecrated to the same goddess, to Apollo, and to Fortuna
Redux. A little farther S is a small two-roomed fanum
of Hercules, identified by a statue in the local style, and
some altars dedicated to the hero.
In the old Hellenistic quarter to the NE some baths
were built, of a core of mortared rubble faced with
small blocks. The original plan, recalling that of the
forum baths at Pompeii, was changed by the erection
of a large palaestra, perhaps at the beginning of the
2d c. An enormous platform (ca. 80 x 40 m) was put up
about 25-20 B.C. S of the baths, to level the slope. Houses
IV, XI, XII, and XVI, and building LVII were buried beneath
it, and replaced by a monumental complex that may be
the forum. The larger part of the complex is a vast
paved space, bordered to E and W by Corinthian porticos and to the S by a great facade with an exedra decorated with columns and statues of satyrs. On the N side
a stairway, running from one portico to the other, leads
to a rectangular monument (ca. 45 x 22 m) supported
on 25 piles (the superstructure has disappeared). Adjoining was a second monument; it was apsed and built
over two underground rooms. The purpose of these
buildings is uncertain.
The forum gave onto a second, paved platform to the
S; smaller than the first, it had a well with a basin and
a fountain with triumphal decoration. To the W a great
double-square peribolos surrounds two temples. A number of architectural fragments from them have been
found, along with a statue of a youth and marble heads
of Octavia and, possibly, Julia. Here the temples may be
supposed to have been consecrated to Rome and Augustus. Between the temples and the nymphaeum the
exedra (XXXI) was redesigned, and a long graffito on its
wall is apparently a drawing of the forum monuments.
Then came a Doric portico (for receiving pilgrims?) and,
opposite it, a small Corinthian building containing
The residential quarter was also modified. The Hellenistic market (VII) was given over to the cult of Kybele,
to whom the dendrofori Glanici put up an altar; the
remodeled House of Atys, adjacent to it, may have
housed the priests of the goddess. Few houses from
Glanum III have been uncovered—the quarter was
probably moved, to keep the center for public buildings.
The end of Glanum dates from the Germanic invasion, ca. 270. A few buildings were erected on its ruins
in the late Middle Ages, and then the city vanished
beneath an alluvial mass that came down the hillside,
burying everything save the arch and the mausoleum,
which became known as Les Antiques.
There is an important collection of finds at the Hôtel
de Sade in St-Rémy-de-Provence.
H. Rolland, “Inscriptions antiques de
2 (1944) 167fI
; id., Fouilles de Glanum, Gallia
Suppl. 3 (1951)MPI
; id., “Un temple de
Valetudo à Glanum,” RA
46 (1955) 27f; id., Fouilles
de Glanum 1947-1956, Gallia
Suppl. 16 (1958)MPI
(1960); id., Le mausolée de Glanum, Gallia
Suppl. 21 (1969)PI
; R. Bianchi Bandinelli, Storicità
(1950) 90f, 218fI
; F. Chamoux, “Les Antiques de Saint-Rémy-de-Provence,” Phoibos
6-7 (1951-55) 97fI
; G. C. Picard, “Glanum et les origines
de l'art roman-provençal. 1. Architecture,” Gallia
(1963) ilif; id., “2. Sculpture,” Gallia
22, 1 (1964)
; “Informations,” Gallia